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Geographical range Pakistan
Period Lower Paleolithic
Dates 1,900,000 years before present — 45,000 years before present
Type site Rawat, Murree
Preceded by Oldowan
Followed by Acheulean, Soanian
Map of Pakistan showing Rawat, Murree (clickable map).

Riwat (Rawat, Murree) is a Lower Paleolithic site in Punjab, northern Pakistan, providing evidence of Homo occupation that is the earliest outside Africa, dating to 1.9 million years ago. The site was discovered in 1983. The artifacts consist of flakes and cores made of quartzite. Another site, called Riwat Site 55, shows a later occupation dated to around 45,000 years ago.


  • B. Bower, Early Tool Making: An Asian Connection, Science News (1988).
  • Rendell, H. and Dennell, R.W. 1987 Thermoluminescence Dating of an Upper Pleistocene Site, Northern Pakistan. Geoarchaeology 2, 63-67.
  • Roy Larick and Russell L. Ciochon, The African Emergence and Early Asian Dispersals of the Genus Homo, American Scientist (1996)
  • R. W. Dennell, H. M. Rendell and E. Hailwood, Late Pliocene Artefacts from Northern Pakistan , Current Anthropology, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jun., 1988), pp. 495–498
  • R. W. Dennell, H. M. Rendell, M. Halim, E. Moth, "A 45,000-Years-Old open-air Paleolithic Site at Riwat, Northern Pakistan", Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 19, No. 1. (Spring, 1992), pp. 17–33.

See also

The Paleolithic

Pliocene (before Homo)

Lower Paleolithic (c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka)

Oldowan (2.6–1.7 Ma)
Riwat (1.9–0.045 Ma)
Soanian (0.5–0.13 Ma)
Acheulean (1.8–0.1 Ma)
Clactonian (0.3–0.2 Ma)

Middle Paleolithic (300–45 ka)

Mousterian (600–40 ka)
Micoquien (130–70 ka)
Aterian (82 ka)

Upper Paleolithic (40–10 ka)

Baradostian (36 ka)
Châtelperronian (41–39 ka)
Aurignacian (38–29 ka)
Gravettian (29–22 ka)
Solutrean (22–17 ka)
Magdalenian (17–12 ka)
Hamburg (14–11 ka)
Federmesser (14–13 ka)
Ahrensburg (12–11 ka)
Swiderian (11–8 ka)
Stone Age