Robert Hues

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Robert Hues
200px
The title page of a 1634 version of Hues' Tractatus de globis in the collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal
Born 1553
Little Hereford, Herefordshire, England
Died 24 May 1632 (aged 78–79)
Oxford, Oxfordshire, England
Nationality English
Fields Mathematics, geography
Alma mater St Mary Hall, Oxford (BA, 1578)
Known for publishing Tractatus de globis et eorum usu (Treatise on Globes and their Use, 1594)

Robert Hues (1553 – 24 May 1632) was an English mathematician and geographer. He attended St. Mary Hall at Oxford, and graduated in 1578. Hues became interested in geography and mathematics, and studied navigation at a school set up by Walter Raleigh. During a trip to Newfoundland, he made observations which caused him to doubt the accepted published values for variations of the compass. Between 1586 and 1588, Hues travelled with Thomas Cavendish on a circumnavigation of the globe, performing astronomical observations and taking the latitudes of places they visited. Beginning in August 1591, Hues and Cavendish again set out on another circumnavigation of the globe. During the voyage, Hues made astronomical observations in the South Atlantic, and continued his observations of the variation of the compass at various latitudes and at the Equator. Cavendish died on the journey in 1592, and Hues returned to England the following year.

In 1594, Hues published his discoveries in the Latin work Tractatus de globis et eorum usu (Treatise on Globes and Their Use) which was written to explain the use of the terrestrial and celestial globes that had been made and published by Emery Molyneux in late 1592 or early 1593, and to encourage English sailors to use practical astronomical navigation. Hues' work subsequently went into at least 12 other printings in Dutch, English, French and Latin.

Hues continued to have dealings with Raleigh in the 1590s, and later became a servant of Thomas Grey, 15th Baron Grey de Wilton. While Grey was imprisoned in the Tower of London for participating in the Bye Plot, Hues stayed with him. Following Grey's death in 1614, Hues attended upon Henry Percy, the 9th Earl of Northumberland, when he was confined in the Tower; one source states that Hues, Thomas Harriot and Walter Warner were Northumberland's constant companions and known as his "Three Magi", although this is disputed. Hues tutored Northumberland's son Algernon Percy (who was to become the 10th Earl of Northumberland) at Oxford, and subsequently (in 1622–1623) Algernon's younger brother Henry. In later years, Hues lived in Oxford where he was a fellow of the University, and discussed mathematics and related subjects with like-minded friends. He died on 24 May 1632 in the city and was buried in Christ Church Cathedral.

Early years and education

Robert Hues was born in 1553 at Little Hereford in Herefordshire, England. In 1571, at the age of 18 years, he entered Brasenose College, University of Oxford.[1][2] English antiquarian Anthony à Wood (1632–1695) wrote that when Hues arrived at Oxford he was "only a poor scholar or servitor ... he continued for some time a very sober and serious servant ... but being sensible of the loss of time which he sustained there by constant attendance, he transferred himself to St Mary's Hall".[3] Hues graduated with a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree on 12 July 1578,[4] having shown marked skill in Greek. He later gave advice to the dramatist and poet George Chapman for his 1616 English translation of Homer,[5] and Chapman referred to him as his "learned and valuable friend".[6] According to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, there is unsubstantiated evidence that after completing his degree Hues was held in the Tower of London, though no reason is given for this, then went abroad after his release.[1] It is possible he travelled to Continental Europe.[7]

Hues was a friend of the geographer Richard Hakluyt, who was then regent master of Christ Church. In the 1580s, Hakluyt introduced him to Walter Raleigh and explorers and navigators whom Raleigh knew. In addition, it is likely that Hues came to know astronomer and mathematician Thomas Harriot and Walter Warner at Thomas Allen's lectures in mathematics. The four men were later associated with Henry Percy, the 9th Earl of Northumberland,[1][8] who was known as the "Wizard Earl" for his interest in scientific and alchemical experiments and his library.[9]

Career

An engraving of Thomas Cavendish by Willem and Magdalena van de Passe from Holland's Herōologia Anglica (List of English Heroes, 1620),[10] titled "Thomas Candish, Armiger. Animum fortuna sequatur [The soul follows chance]". Hues circumnavigated the globe with Cavendish between 1586 and 1588.

Hues became interested in geography and mathematics – an undated source indicates that he disputed accepted values of variations of the compass after making observations off the Newfoundland coast. He either went there on a fishing trip, or may have joined a 1585 voyage to Virginia arranged by Raleigh and led by Richard Grenville, which passed Newfoundland on the return journey to England. Hues perhaps become acquainted with the sailor Thomas Cavendish at this time, as both of them were taught by Harriot at Raleigh's school of navigation. An anonymous 17th-century manuscript states that Hues circumnavigated the world with Cavendish between 1586 and 1588 "purposely for taking the true Latitude of places";[11] he may have been the "NH" who wrote a brief account of the voyage that was published by Hakluyt in his 1589 work The Principall Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation.[12] In the year that book appeared, Hues was with Edward Wright on the Earl of Cumberland's raiding expedition to the Azores to capture Spanish galleons.[1]

Beginning in August 1591, Hues joined Cavendish on another attempt to circumnavigate the globe. Sailing on the Leicester, they were accompanied by the explorer John Davis on the Desire. Cavendish and Davis agreed that they would part company once they had cleared the Strait of Magellan between Chile and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, as Davis intended to sail to America to search for the Northwest Passage. The expedition was ultimately unsuccessful, although Davis did discover the Falkland Islands.[13] In the meantime, delayed in small harbours in the Strait with crew members dying from the cold, illness and starvation, Cavendish turned back eastwards to return to England. He was plagued by mutinous crewmen, and also by natives and Portuguese who attacked his sailors seeking food and water on shore. Increasingly depressed, Cavendish died in 1592 somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean, possibly a suicide.[7][14]

During the voyage, Hues made astronomical observations of the Southern Cross and other stars of the Southern Hemisphere while in the South Atlantic, and also observed the variation of the compass there and at the Equator. He returned to England with Davis in 1593,[15] and published his discoveries in the work Tractatus de globis et eorum usu (Treatise on Globes and Their Use, 1594),[16] which he dedicated to Raleigh.[1] The book was written to explain the use of the terrestrial and celestial globes that had been made and published by Emery Molyneux in late 1592 or early 1593.[17] Apparently, the book was also intended to encourage English sailors to use practical astronomical navigation,[1] although Lesley Cormack has observed that the fact it was written in Latin suggests that it was aimed at scholarly readers on the Continent.[18] In 1595, William Sanderson, a London merchant who had largely financed the globes' construction, presented a small globe together with Hues' "Latin booke that teacheth the use of my great globes"[19] to Robert Cecil, a statesman who was spymaster and minister to Elizabeth I and James I. Hues' work subsequently went into at least 12 other printings in Dutch (1597, 1613 and 1622), English (1638 and 1659), French (1618) and Latin (1611, 1613, 1617, 1627, 1659 and 1663).[20] In his book An Accidence or The Path-way to Experience: Necessary for all Young Sea-men (1626),[21] John Smith, who founded the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia, listed Hues' book among the works that a young seaman should study.[22]

File:RobertHues-TractaetGlobe-AertscheGlobe-1623.jpg
A drawing of Molyneux's terrestrial globe from Tractaet ofte Handelinge van het gebruyck der Hemelscher ende Aertscher Globe, the 1623 Dutch version of Hues' Tractatus de globis

Tractatus de globis begins with a letter by Hues dedicated to Raleigh that recalled geographical discoveries made by Englishmen during Elizabeth I's reign. However, he felt that his countrymen would have surpassed the Spaniards and Portuguese if they had a complete knowledge of astronomy and geometry, which were essential to successful navigation.[23] In the preface of the book, Hues rehearsed arguments that proved the earth is a sphere, and refuted opposing theories.[24] The treatise was divided into five parts. The first part described elements common to Molyneux's terrestrial and celestial globes, including the circles and lines inscribed on them, zones and climates, and the use of each globe's wooden horizon circle and brass meridian.[25] The second part described planets, fixed stars and constellations; while the third part described the lands and seas shown on the terrestrial globe, and discussed the length of the circumference of the earth and of a degree of a great circle.[26] Part 4, which Hues considered the most important part of the work, explained how the globes enabled seamen to determine the sun's position, latitude, course and distance, amplitudes and azimuths, and time and declination.[27] The final part of the work contained a treatise inspired by Harriot on rhumb lines.[26][28] In the work, Hues also published for the first time the six fundamental navigational propositions involved in solving what was later termed the "nautical triangle" used for plane sailing. Difference of latitude and departure (or longitude) are two sides of the triangle forming a right angle, the distance travelled is the hypotenuse, and the angle between difference of latitude and distance is the course. If any two elements are known, the other two can be determined by plotting or calculation using tables of sines, tangents and secants.[29]

In the 1590s, Hues continued to have dealings with Raleigh – he was one of the executors of Raleigh's will[15] – and he may have been the "Hewes" who dined with Northumberland regularly in 1591. He later became a servant of Thomas Grey, the 15th and last Baron Grey de Wilton (1575–1614). For participating in the Bye Plot, a conspiracy by Roman Catholic priest William Watson to kidnap James I and force him to repeal anti-Catholic legislation, Grey was attainted and forfeited his title in 1603. The following year, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Grey was given consent for Hues to stay in the Tower with him.[1] Between 1605 and 1621, Northumberland was also confined in the Tower; he was suspected of involvement in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 because his relative Thomas Percy was among the conspirators.

In 1616, following Grey's death, Hues began to be "attendant upon th'aforesaid Earle of Northumberland for matters of learning",[30] and was paid a yearly sum of £40 to support his research until Northumberland's death in 1632.[1][15] Wood stated that Harriot, Hues and Warner were Northumberland's "constant companions, and were usually called the Earl of Northumberland's Three Magi. They had a table at the Earl's charge, and the Earl himself did constantly converse with them, and with Sir Walter Raleigh, then in the Tower".[31] Together with the scientist Nathanael Toporley and the mathematician Thomas Allen, the men kept abreast of developments in astronomy, mathematics, physiology and the physical sciences, and made important contributions in these areas.[32] According to the letter writer John Chamberlain, Northumberland refused a pardon offered to him in 1617, preferring to remain with Harriot, Hues and Warner.[33] However, the fact that these companions of Northumberland were his "Three Magi" studying with him in the Tower of London has been regarded as a romanticisation by the antiquarian John Aubrey and disputed for lack of evidence.[1][34] Hues was tutor to Northumberland's sons: first Algernon Percy, who subsequently became the 10th Earl of Northumberland, at Oxford where he matriculated at Christ Church in 1617; and later Algernon's younger brother Henry in 1622–1623. Hues lived at Christ Church at this time, but may have occasionally attended upon Northumberland at Petworth House in Petworth, West Sussex, and at Syon House in London after the latter's release from the Tower in 1622.[32] Hues sometimes met Walter Warner in London, and they are known to have discussed the reflection of bodies.[1]

Later life

Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, the burial place of Robert Hues

In later years, Hues lived in Oxford where he discussed mathematics and allied subjects with like-minded friends.[1][35] Cormack states he was a fellow at the University.[18] Under the terms of the will of Thomas Harriot, who died on 2 July 1621, Hues and Warner were given the responsibility of helping Harriot's executor Nathaniel Torporley to prepare Harriot's mathematical papers for publication. Hues was also required to help price Harriot's books and other possessions for sale to the Bodleian Library.[1]

Hues, who did not marry, died on 24 May 1632 in Stone House, St. Aldate's (opposite the Blue Boar in central Oxford).[36] This was the house of John Smith, M.A., the son of a cook at Christ Church named J. Smith.[15] In his will, Hues made many small bequests to his friends, including a sum of £20 to his "kinswoman" Mary Holly (of whom nothing is known), and 20 nobles to each of her three sisters. He was buried in Christ Church Cathedral, and a monumental brass to him was placed in Christ Church with the following inscription:[1]

Depositum viri literatissimi, morum ac religionis integerrimi, Roberti Husia, ob eruditionem omnigenem [sic: omnigenam?], Theologicam tum Historicam, tum Scholasticam, Philologicam, Philosophiam, præsertim vero Mathematicam (cujus insigne monumentum in typis reliquit) Primum Thomæ Candishio conjunctissimi, cujus in consortio, explorabundis [sic: explorabundus?] velis ambivit orbem: deinde Domino Baroni Gray; cui solator accessit in arca Londinensi. Quo defuncto, ad studia henrici Comitis Northumbriensis ibidem vocatus est, cujus filio instruendo cum aliquot annorum operam in hac Ecclesia dedisset et Academiae confinium locum valetudinariae senectuti commodum censuisset; in ædibus Johannis Smith, corpore exhaustus, sed animo vividus, expiravit die Maii 24, anno reparatae salutis 1632, aetatis suæ 79.[37]

[Here lies a highly lettered man, of the highest moral and religious integrity, Robert Hues, on account of his erudition in all subjects, both Theology and History, and Rhetoric, Philology, and Philosophy, but especially Mathematics (of which a notable volume [i.e., his book] remains in print). He was most closely associated with Thomas Cavendish, in whose company he explored the world by sail; then with Lord Baron Gray, for whom he came as consoler in the Tower of London. When Gray died, he was summoned to study in the same place with Henry Earl of Northumberland, to teach his son, and when he had worked for some years in this Church [i.e., Christ Church Cathedral], and had decided that the place next to the School [i.e., Christ Church, Oxford] was suitable for his health in his old age, he breathed his last at the house of John Smith, his body exhausted, but with a lively spirit, on 24 May, in the year of our salvation 1632, at the age of 79.]

Works

  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in Latin), octavo. The following reprints are referred to by Clements Markham in his introduction to the Hakluyt Society's 1889 reprint of the English version of Tractatus de globis at pp. xxxviii–xl:
    • 2nd printing: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in Dutch), quarto.[38]
    • 3rd printing: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in Latin), octavo. A reprint of the first edition of 1594.
    • 4th printing: Hues, Robert (1613), Tractaut of te handebingen van het gebruych der hemelsike ende aertscher globe [Treatise or Essays on the Use of the Celestial and Terrestrial Globes], Amsterdam: [s.n.]<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (in Dutch), quarto.
    • 5th printing: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in Latin). Contains the Index Geographicus. DeGolyer Collection in the History of Science and Technology (now History of Science Collections), University of Oklahoma.
    • 6th printing: Hues, Robert (1617), Tractatvs de globis, coelesti et terrestri eorvmqve vsv. Primum conscriptus & editus a Roberto Hues. Anglo semelque atque iterum a Iudoco Hondio excusus, & nunc elegantibus iconibus & figuris locupletatus: ac de novo recognitus multisque observationibus oportunè illustratus as passim auctus opera ac studio Iohannis Isacii Pontani ... [Treatise on Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial, and their Use. First Written and Published by Robert Hues, Englishman, and in the First and Second Editions Drawn by Jodocus Hondius, and now Enlarged by Elegant Pictures and Drawings, and again Revised and Fittingly Illustrated by Many Observations, and throughout Enlarged by the Work and Effort of John Isaac Pontanus ...], Amsterdam: Excudebat [printed by] H[enricus] Hondius<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (in Latin), quarto.
    • 7th printing: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in French), octavo.[39]
    • File:RobertHues-LearnedTreatiseofGlobes-1889.jpg
      The title page of the first English edition of Robert Hues' A Learned Treatise of Globes, both Cœlestiall and Terrestriall: With their Severall Uses (1638), reproduced in the Hakluyt Society's 1889 reprint
      8th printing: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in Dutch), quarto.[40]
    • 9th printing: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in Latin), duodecimo.
    • 10th printing: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..[41]
    • 11th printing: A Latin version by Jodocus Hondius and John Isaac Pontanus appeared in London in 1659. Octavo.[42]
    • 12th printing: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)., octavo. Collection of Yale University Library.
    • 13th printing: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in Latin).
The Hakluyt Society's reprint of the English version was itself published as:
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
The title page of a 1623 Dutch version of Hues' Tractatus de globis

The following works also are, or appear to be, versions of Tractatus de globis et eorum usu, though they are not mentioned by Markham:

  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..[43]
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in Latin).
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  • Hues, Robert (1634), Tractatvs de Globis Coelesti et Terrestri eorvmqve vsv: Primum conscriptus & editus à Roberto Hues Anglo semelque atque iteram à Iudoco Hondio excusus, & nunc elegantibus iconibus & figuris locupletatus: ac de novo recognitus multisque observationibus oportunè illustratus ac passim auctus opera ac studio. Iohannis Isacii Pontani Medici & Philosophiæ Professoris in Gymnasio Gelrico Hardervici [Treatise on Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial, and their Use. First Written and Published by Robert Hues, Englishman, and in the First and Second Editions Drawn by Jodocus Hondius, and now Enlarged by Elegant Pictures and Drawings, and again Revised and Fittingly Illustrated by Many Observations, and throughout Enlarged by the Work and Effort of John Isaac Pontanus, Physician and Professor of Philosophy of the School in Harderwijk], Amsterdam: Excudebat Henricus Hondius, sub signo Canis Vigilantis in Platea Vitulina prope Senatorium [Printed by Henricus Hondius, under the sign of the Watchful Dog in Calf Street [Kalverstraat] near the council hall]<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.[44] Collection of the Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal.
  • Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)., two pts. Collection of the Bodleian Library.

Notes

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  2. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  3. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).. At Oxford, a servitor was an undergraduate student who worked as a servant for fellows of the University in exchange for free accommodation and some meals, and exemption from paying fees for lectures.
  4. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)., vols. 1–2. Hues is listed under the name "Hughes".
  5. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  6. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).: see Markham, "Introduction", Tratatus de globis, p. xxxv. According to another source, Chapman called Hues "another right learned, honest, and entirely loved friend of mine": see Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).. See also Jessica Wolfe (2004), "Homer in a nutshell: George Chapman and the mechanics of perspicuity [ch. 5]", Humanism, Machinery, and Renaissance Literature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 161–202, ISBN 978-0-521-83187-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, p. xxxv.
  8. According to Kargon, "[i]t was probably through Percy (although the reverse is possible)" that Harriot came to know Hues: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  9. David Singmaster (28 February 2003), BSHM Gazetteer: Petworth, West Sussex, British Society for the History of Mathematics, archived from the original on 25 May 2009, retrieved 7 February 2008<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>. See also David Singmaster (28 February 2003), BSHM Gazetteer: Thomas Harriot, British Society for the History of Mathematics, archived from the original on 25 May 2009, retrieved 7 February 2008<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  11. MS Rawl. B 158, Bodleian Library, Oxford.
  12. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  13. Margaret Montgomery Larnder (2000), "Davis (Davys), John", Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, archived from the original on 8 June 2009, retrieved 9 June 2009<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  14. David Judkins (2003), "Cavendish, Thomas (1560–1592)", in Jennifer Speake, ed., Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia [vol. 1], New York, N.Y.: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 202–204 at 203, ISBN 978-1-57958-425-2 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, p. xxxvi.
  16. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value). (in Latin).
  17. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  18. 18.0 18.1 Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  19. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).; Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  20. Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, pp. xxxviii–xl.
  21. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).. Original in the Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery (now The Huntington Library) in San Marino, California. Accidence is the branch of grammar that deals with the accidents or inflections of words. The term came to mean a book about the rudiments of grammar, and was extended to the rudiments or first principles of any subject: see "accidence2", OED Online (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, retrieved 24 May 2009<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  22. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  23. Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, p. xli.
  24. Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, pp. xli–xlii.
  25. Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, pp. xlii–xliii.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, p. xlii.
  27. Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, pp. xlii and xlvi.
  28. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  29. Derek Howse (2003), "Astronomical Navigation [pt. 8.18]", in I[vor] Grattan-Guinness, Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences, Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 1128, 1129, 1132, ISBN 978-0-8018-7397-3<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  30. John W[illiam] Shirley (1983), Thomas Harriot: A Biography, Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 577, ISBN 978-0-19-822901-8<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  31. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).: see Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).. See also Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  32. 32.0 32.1 Kargon, "The Wizard Earl and the New Science" in Atomism in England, pp. 5–17 at 16.
  33. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).: see Kargon, "The Wizard Earl and the New Science" in Atomism in England, pp. 5–17 at 16.
  34. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)., critiqued by Shirley, Thomas Harriot, pp. 364–365. See Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)..
  35. Feingold says that Hues became "a type of private tutor to Oxford men": Mordechai Feingold (1984), The Mathematicians' Apprenticeship: Science, Universities and Society in England, 1560–1640, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 84, ISBN 978-0-521-25133-4<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  36. In Historia et antiquitates universitatis Oxoniensis (History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford, 1674), vol. 2, p. 361, notice of Hues' death was given under St. Mary Hall as follows: "Oxonii in parochiâ Sancti Aldati, inque Domicilio speciatim lapides [sic: lapideo?], e regione insignis Afri [sic: Apri?] cærulei, fatis concessit, et in ecclesiâ Ædis Christi Cathedrali humatus fuit an: dom: CIƆDXXXII [sic: CIƆDCXXXII]" (He yielded to the Fates at Oxford, in the parish of St. Aldate, specifically in the Stone House, in the neighbourhood of the Blue Boar sign, and was buried in the church of Christ Church Cathedral in the year of our Lord 1532 [sic: 1632]). Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)., was a Latin translation by Richard Peers and Richard Reeve under the direction of Dr. John Fell of an English manuscript by Anthony à Wood which the University purchased in 1670. The manuscript itself was later published as Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).. See Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, p. xxxvii, n. 1.
  37. Historia et antiquitates universitatis Oxoniensis, vol. 2, p. 534. The brass is also referred to at p. 288: "In laminâ œneâ, eidem pariati [sic: parieti?] impactâ talem cernis inscriptionem" (On the copper plate, driven to the same wall, one sees such an inscription). See Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, p. xxxvii, n. 1.
  38. The title is from Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value)., and the imprint information from WorldCat (OCLC 42811612). According to Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, pp. xxxvii–xxxviii, the title of this version is Tractaut of te handebingen van het gebruych der hemel siker ende aertscher globe, and it was printed in Antwerp.
  39. J.J. O'Connor; E.F. Robertson (August 2006), Pierre Hérigone, The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, archived from the original on 25 May 2009, retrieved 7 November 2008<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  40. According to Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, at p. xxxviii, this version was published by Jodocus Hondius in 1624. However, WorldCat (OCLC 8909075) suggests that the 1624 version was in Latin, not Dutch.
  41. WorldCat (OCLC 61335670) suggests that printings of this work were also made in 1639; see also A learned treatise of globes both coelestiall and terrestriall, with their severall uses, by Robert Hues, Open Library, Internet Archive, retrieved 10 November 2008<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>. According to Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, p. xxxix, although the title page of the work states that the translator was "John Chilmead", this is generally believed to be an error as no such person was known to have lived at the time. Instead, the translator is believed to be Edmund Chilmead (1610–1653), a translator, man of letters and music teacher who graduated in 1628 and was a chaplain of Christ Church, Oxford.
  42. Markham, "Introduction", Tractatus de globis, pp. xxxix–xl.
  43. See Figure 22: Title-page of the Dutch edition of Hues's account of the globes, illustrating a celestial globe by Hondius, The Measurers: A Flemish Image of Mathematics in the Sixteenth Century, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, 7 August 1995, archived from the original on 25 May 2009, retrieved 11 November 2008<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  44. HUES, Robert, 1553–1632. Tractatvs de globis coelesti et terrestri eorvmqve vsv, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, 2002, archived from the original on 13 April 2009, retrieved 11 November 2008<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.

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