School corporal punishment
|Part of a series on|
School corporal punishment refers to causing deliberate pain or discomfort in response to undesired behaviour by students in schools. It often involves striking the student either across the buttocks or on the hands, with an implement such as a rattan cane, wooden paddle, slipper, leather strap or wooden yardstick. Less commonly, it could also include spanking or smacking the student with the open hand, especially at the elementary school level.
In the English-speaking world, the use by schools of corporal punishment has historically been justified by the common-law doctrine in loco parentis, whereby teachers are considered authority figures granted the same rights as parents to punish children in their care.
Advocates of school corporal punishment argue that it provides an immediate response to indiscipline and that the student is quickly back in the classroom learning, as opposed to suspension from school. Opponents, including a number of medical and psychological societies, along with human-rights groups, argue that physical punishment is ineffective in the long term, interferes with learning, leads to antisocial behaviour as well as various forms of mental distress, and is a form of violence that breaches the rights of children.
Poland in 1783 was the first nation to outlaw corporal punishment in schools. As of 2015, most developed countries have abolished the practice, with the exception of some parts of the United States, some Australian states, and Singapore. It is still in common use in a number of countries in Africa and Asia. It was banned in public schools throughout Britain in 1986.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Prevalence
- 3 Effects on students
- 4 Alternatives
- 5 Student rights
- 6 By country
- 6.1 Argentina
- 6.2 Australia
- 6.3 Austria
- 6.4 Bolivia
- 6.5 Brazil
- 6.6 Burma (Myanmar)
- 6.7 Canada
- 6.8 (People's Republic of) China
- 6.9 Costa Rica
- 6.10 Czech Republic
- 6.11 Egypt
- 6.12 France
- 6.13 Germany
- 6.14 Greece
- 6.15 India
- 6.16 Ireland
- 6.17 Italy
- 6.18 Japan
- 6.19 Luxembourg
- 6.20 Malaysia
- 6.21 Netherlands
- 6.22 New Zealand
- 6.23 Norway
- 6.24 Pakistan
- 6.25 Philippines
- 6.26 Poland
- 6.27 Russia
- 6.28 Singapore
- 6.29 South Africa
- 6.30 South Korea
- 6.31 Spain
- 6.32 Sweden
- 6.33 Taiwan
- 6.34 Thailand
- 6.35 Ukraine
- 6.36 United Arab Emirates
- 6.37 United Kingdom
- 6.38 United States
- 6.39 Venezuela
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Corporal punishment in the context of schools in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has been variously defined as: causing deliberate pain to a child in response to the child's undesired behaviour and/or language, "purposeful infliction of bodily pain or discomfort by an official in the educational system upon a student as a penalty for unacceptable behavior", and "intentional application of physical pain as a means of changing behavior" (not the occasional use of physical restraint to protect student or others from immediate harm).
Corporal punishment used to be prevalent in schools in many parts of the world, but in recent decades it has been outlawed in most of Europe, most of South America, as well as in Canada, Korea, South Africa, New Zealand and several other countries. It remains commonplace in a number of countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East (see list of countries, below).
While most U.S. states have outlawed corporal punishment in state schools, it continues to be allowed mainly in the Southern and Western United States. According to the United States Department of Education, more than 216,000 students were subjected to corporal punishment during the 2008–09 school year.
Much of the traditional culture that surrounds corporal punishment in school, at any rate in the English-speaking world, derives largely from British practice in the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly as regards the caning of teenage boys. There is a vast amount of literature on this, in both popular and serious culture. Britain itself outlawed the practice in 1987 for state schools and more recently for all schools.
Many schools in Singapore and Malaysia use caning (for boys) as a routine official punishment for misconduct, as also some African countries. In some Middle Eastern countries whipping is used. (See list of countries, below.)
In most of continental Europe, school corporal punishment has been banned for several decades or longer, depending on the country (See list of countries, below).
From the 1917 Russian revolution onwards, corporal punishment was outlawed in the Soviet Union, because it was deemed contrary to Soviet ideology. Communists in other countries such as Britain took the lead in campaigning against school corporal punishment, which they viewed as a symptom of the decadence of capitalist education systems. In the 1960s, Soviet visitors to western schools expressed shock at the caning of boys there. Other communist regimes followed suit: for instance, corporal punishment was "unknown" by students in North Korea in 2007. In mainland China, corporal punishment in schools was outlawed in 1986, although the practice remains common, especially in rural areas.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, there are three broad rationales for the use of corporal punishment in schools: beliefs, based in traditional religion, that adults have a right, if not a duty, to physically punish misbehaving children; a disciplinary philosophy that corporal punishment builds character, being necessary for the development of a child's conscience and their respect for adult authority figures; and beliefs concerning the needs and rights of teachers, specifically that corporal punishment is essential for maintaining order and control in the classroom.
Effects on students
School officials and policymakers often rely on personal anecdotes to argue that school corporal punishment improves students' behavior and achievement. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence showing that corporal punishment leads to better control in the classroom. In particular, evidence does not suggest that it enhances moral character development, increases students' respect for teachers or other authority figures, or offers greater security for teachers.
A number of medical, pediatric or psychological societies have issued statements opposing all corporal punishment in schools, citing such outcomes as poorer academic achievement, increases in antisocial behaviour, injuries to students, and an unwelcoming learning environment. They include the American Medical Association, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Society for Adolescent Medicine, the American Psychological Association, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, the Royal College of Psychiatrists, the Canadian Paediatric Society and the Australian Psychological Society, as well as the United States' National Association of Secondary School Principals.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), research shows that corporal punishment is less effective than other methods of behaviour management in schools, and "praise, discussions regarding values, and positive role models do more to develop character, respect, and values than does corporal punishment". They say that evidence links corporal punishment of students to a number of adverse outcomes, including: "increased aggressive and destructive behaviour, increased disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, poor school achievement, poor attention span, increased drop-out rate, school avoidance and school phobia, low self-esteem, anxiety, somatic complaints, depression, suicide and retaliation against teachers". The AAP recommends a number of alternatives to corporal punishment including various nonviolent behaviour-management strategies, modifications to the school environment, and increased support for teachers.
Injuries to students
An estimated 1 to 2 percent of physically punished students in the United States are seriously injured, to the point of needing medical attention. According to the AAP and the Society for Adolescent Medicine, these injuries have included bruises, abrasions, broken bones, whiplash injury, muscle damage, brain injury, and even death. Other reported injuries to students include "sciatic nerve damage" "extensive hematomas", and "life-threatening fat hemorrhage".
Promotion of violence
The AAP cautions that there is a risk of corporal punishment in schools fostering the impression among students that violence is an appropriate means for managing others' behaviour. According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, "Corporal punishment signals to the child that a way to settle interpersonal conflicts is to use physical force and inflict pain". And according to the Society for Adolescent Medicine, "The use of corporal punishment in schools promotes a very precarious message: that violence is an acceptable phenomenon in our society. It sanctions the notion that it is meritorious to be violent toward our children, thereby devaluing them in society's eyes. It encourages children to resort to violence because they see their authority figures or substitute parents doing it [...] Violence is not acceptable and we must not support it by sanctioning its use by such authority figures as school officials".
The Society for Adolescent Medicine recommends developing "a milieu of effective communication, in which the teacher displays an attitude of respect for the students", as well as instruction that is stimulating and appropriate to student's abilities, various nonviolent behaviour modification techniques, and involving students and parents in making decisions about school matters such as rules and educational goals. They suggest that student self-governance can be an effective alternative for managing disruptive classroom behaviour, while stressing the importance of adequate training and support for teachers.
The AAP remarks that there has been "no reported increase in disciplinary problems in schools following the elimination of corporal punishment" according to evidence.
A number of international human-rights organizations including the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights have stated that physical punishment of any kind is a violation of children's human rights.
According to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, "Children do not lose their human rights by virtue of passing through the school gates [...] the use of corporal punishment does not respect the inherent dignity of the child nor the strict limits on school discipline". The Committee interprets Article 19 of the Convention on the rights of the child, which obliges member states to "take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse […] while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child", to imply a prohibition on all forms of corporal punishment.
Other international human-rights bodies supporting prohibition of corporal punishment of children in all settings, including schools, include the European Committee of Social Rights and the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. In addition, the obligation of member states to prohibit corporal punishment in schools and elsewhere was affirmed in the 2009 Cairo Declaration on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and Islamic Jurisprudence.
According to the Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children, all forms of corporal punishment in schools are outlawed in 125 countries as of May 2015 (46 of these countries also prohibit corporal punishment of children in the home).
Banned in 1813, corporal punishment was re-legalised in 1817 and punishments by physical pain lasted until the 1980s. The instruments were rebenques, slappings in the face and others. All corporal punishment has now been prohibited; the ban is set to come into effect in 2016.
In Australia, laws on corporal punishment in schools are determined at individual state or territory level. While still legal in private schools in some states, in practice, very few schools impose corporal punishment.
|State||Government schools||Non-government schools|
|Victoria||Banned in 1983.||Banned in 2006.|
|Queensland||Banned in 1994.||Not banned.|
|New South Wales||First banned in 1987. Ban repealed in 1989.
Banned again in 1995.
|Banned in 1997.|
|Tasmania||Banned in 1999.||Banned in 1999.|
|Australian Capital Territory||Banned in 1988.||Banned in 1997.|
|Northern Territory||Not banned, but contrary to Education Department policy.||Banned in 2009.|
|South Australia||Banned in 1991.||Not banned.|
|Western Australia||Banned in 1999.
Effectively abolished by Education Department policy in 1987.
|Banned in 2015.|
Banned in 1974.
Corporal punishment in all settings, including schools, was prohibited in Bolivia in 2014. According to the Children and Adolescents Code, "The child and adolescent has the right to good treatment, comprising a non-violent upbringing and education... Any physical, violent and humiliating punishment is prohibited".
Corporal punishment in all settings, including schools, was prohibited in Brazil in 2014. According to an amendment to the Code on Children and Adolescents 1990, "Children and Adolescents are entitled to be educated and cared for without the use of physical punishment or cruel or degrading treatment as forms of correction, discipline, education or any other pretext".
Caning is commonly used by teachers as a punishment in schools. The cane is applied on the students' buttocks, calves or palms of the hands in front of the class. Tramline cane marks could be left. Sit-ups with ears pulled and arms crossed, kneeling, and standing on the bench in the classroom are other forms of corporal punishments used in schools. Common reasons for punishment include talking in class, not finishing homework, mistakes made with classwork, fighting and truancy.
In Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth and the Law v. Canada (2004) the Supreme Court outlawed school corporal punishment. In public schools, the usual implement was a rubber/canvas strap applied to the hands, while private schools often used a paddle or cane administered to the student's posterior. In many parts of Canada, 'the strap' had not been used in public schools since the 1970s or even earlier: thus, it has been claimed that it had not been used in Quebec since the 1960s, and in Toronto it was banned in 1971. However, some schools in Alberta had been using the strap up until the ban in 2004.
School Corporal Punishment Bans in Canadian Provinces
Some Canadian provinces banned corporal punishment in public schools prior to the national ban in 2004. They are, in chronological order by year of provincial ban:
- British Columbia - 1973
- Nova Scotia - 1989
- New Brunswick - 1990
- Yukon - 1990
- Prince Edward Island - 1993
- Northwest Territories - 1995
- Nunavut - 1995
- Newfoundland and Labrador - 1997
- Quebec - 1998
(People's Republic of) China
Corporal punishment in China was officially banned after the communist revolution in 1949. The Compulsory Education Law of 1986 states: "It shall be forbidden to inflict physical punishment on students". In practice, beatings by schoolteachers are common, especially in rural areas.
All corporal punishment, both in school and in the home, has been banned since 2008.
Corporal punishment is outlawed under Article 31 of the Education Act.
A 1998 study found that random physical punishment (not proper formal corporal punishment) was being used extensively by teachers in Egypt to punish behavior they regarded as unacceptable. Around 80% of the boys and 60% of the girls were punished by teachers, using their hands, sticks, straps, shoes, punches and kicks as most common methods of administration. The most common reported injuries were bumps and contusions.
The systematic use of corporal punishment has been absent from French schools since the 19th century. There is no explicit legal ban on it, but in 2008 a teacher was fined €500 for what some people describe as slapping a student.
School corporal punishment, historically widespread, was outlawed in different states via their administrative law at different times. It was not completely abolished everywhere until 1983. Since 1993, use of corporal punishment by a teacher has been a criminal offence. In that year a sentence by the Federal Court of Justice of Germany (Bundesgerichtshof, case number NStZ 1993,591) was published which overruled the previous powers enshrined in unofficial customary law (Gewohnheitsrecht) and upheld by some regional appeal courts (Oberlandesgericht, Superior State Court) even in the 1970s. They assumed a right of chastisement was a defense of justification against the accusation of "causing bodily harm" per Paragraph (=Section) 223 Strafgesetzbuch (Federal Penal Code).
Corporal punishment in Greek primary schools was banned in 1998, and in secondary schools in 2005.
Corporal punishment is still used in most of India. The Delhi High Court banned its use in Delhi schools in 2000. 17 out of 29 states claim to apply the ban, though enforcement is lax. A number of social and cultural groups, including Shankaracharya, are campaigning against corporal punishment in India. In many states, corporal punishment is still practised within most schools. Society for Prevention of Injuries & Corporal Punishment (SPIC) is actively running awareness campaigns to educate the teachers and students through conferences and scientific publications.
Banned in 1928.
Although banned in 1947, corporal punishment is still commonly found in schools in the 2010s and particularly widespread in school sports clubs. In late 1987, about 60% of junior high school teachers felt it was necessary, with 7% believing it was necessary in all conditions, 59% believing it should be applied sometimes and 32% disapproving of it in all circumstances; while at elementary (primary) schools, 2% supported it unconditionally, 47% felt it was necessary and 49% disapproved. As recent as December 2012, a high school student committed suicide after having been constantly beaten by his basketball coach. An education ministry survey found that more than 10,000 students received corporal punishment from more than 5,000 teachers across Japan in 2012 fiscal year alone.
Caning is a common form of discipline in many Malaysian schools. Legally it should be applied only to male students, but the idea of making the caning of girls lawful has recently been debated. This would be applied to the palm of the hand, whereas boys are typically caned across the seat of the trousers.
Banned in 1920.
Corporal punishment in New Zealand schools was abolished in 1987, but wasn't abolished legislatively until 23 July 1990, when Section 139A of the Education Act 1989 was inserted by the Education Amendment Act 1990. Section 139A prohibits anyone employed by a school or ECE provider, or anyone supervising or controlling students on the school's behalf, from using force by way of correction or punishment towards any student at or in relation to the school or the student under their supervision or control. Teachers who administer corporal punishment can be found guilty of physical assault, resulting in termination and cancellation of teacher registration, and possibly criminal charges, with a maximum penalty of five years' imprisonment.
As enacted, the law had a loophole: parents, provided they were not school staff, could still discipline their children on school grounds. In early 2007, a southern Auckland Christian school was found to be using this loophole to discipline students by corporal punishment, by making the student's parents administer the punishment. This loophole was closed in May 2007 by the Crimes (Substituted Section 59) Amendment Act 2007, which enacted a blanket ban on parents administering corporal punishment to their children.
Strongly restricted in 1889. Completely banned in 1936.
School corporal punishment in Pakistan is not very common in modern educational institutions although it is still used in schools across the rural parts of the country as a means of enforcing student discipline. The method has been criticised by some children's rights activists who claim that many cases of corporal punishment in schools have resulted in physical and mental abuse of schoolchildren. According to one report, corporal punishment is a key reason for school dropouts and subsequently, street children, in Pakistan; as many as 35,000 high school pupils in Pakistan are said to drop out of the education system each year because they have been punished or abused in school.
Corporal punishment is prohibited in private and public schools.
In 1783, Poland became the first country in the world to prohibit corporal punishment. Peter Newell assumes that perhaps the most influential writer on the subject was the English philosopher John Locke, whose Some Thoughts Concerning Education explicitly criticised the central role of corporal punishment in education. Locke's work was highly influential, and may have helped influence Polish legislators to ban corporal punishment from Poland's schools in 1783. Today, the ban of corporal punishment in all forms is vested in Constitution of Poland
Corporal punishment is legal in Singapore schools (for male students only), and fully encouraged by the government in order to maintain strict discipline. Only a light rattan cane may be used. This must be administered in a formal ceremony by the school management after due deliberation, not by classroom teachers. Most secondary schools (whether independent, autonomous or government-controlled), and also some primary schools, use caning to deal with misconduct by boys. At the secondary level, the rattan strokes are nearly always delivered to the student's clothed buttocks. The Ministry of Education has stipulated a maximum of six strokes per occasion. In some cases the punishment is carried out in front of the rest of the school instead of in private.
The use of corporal punishment in schools was prohibited by the South African Schools Act, 1996. According to section 10 of the act:
(1) No person may administer corporal punishment at a school to a learner.
In the case of Christian Education South Africa v Minister of Education the Constitutional Court rejected a claim that the constitutional right to religious freedom entitles private Christian schools to impose corporal punishment.
Since 2011, all forms of caning are completely banned in the liberal regions of Seoul Metropolitan City, Gyeonggi Province, Gangwon Province, Gwangju Metropolitan City, North Jeolla Province and South Jeolla Province. Other conservative regions are governed by a national law enacted in 2011 which states that while caning is generally forbidden, it can be used indirectly to maintain school discipline.
Back in 2008, a man arrested and identified as Kim by the police confessed that 21 years earlier as a 10th grader, a teacher identified as Song accused him of cheating in a test and beat him about 100 times, then after years of grudge, Kim killed Song after demanding an apology unsuccessfully.
Banned in 1985.
Corporal punishment at school has been prohibited in folkskolestadgan (the elementary school ordinance) since 1 January 1958. Its use by ordinary teachers in grammar schools had been outlawed in 1928.
Corporal punishment in schools is illegal under the Ministry of Education Regulation on Student Punishment (2005) and the National Committee on Child Protection Regulation on Working Procedures of Child Protection Officers Involved in Promoting Behaviour of Students (2005), pursuant to article 65 of the Child Protection Act.
In Ukraine, "physical or mental violence" against children is forbidden by the Constitution (Art.52.2) and the Law on Education (Art.51.1, since 1991) which states that students and other learners have the right “to the protection from any form of exploitation, physical and psychological violence, actions of pedagogical and other employees who violate the rights or humiliate their honour and dignity”. Standard instructions for teachers provided by the Ministry of Science and Education state that a teacher who has used corporal punishment to a pupil (even once), shall be dismissed.
United Arab Emirates
A federal law was implemented in 1998 which banned school corporal punishment. The law applied to all schools, both public and private. Any teacher who engages in the practice would not only lose their job and teaching license, but will also face criminal prosecution for engaging in violence against minors and will also face child abuse charges.
In state-run schools, and also in private schools where at least part of the funding came from government, corporal punishment was outlawed by the British Parliament in 1986. In other private schools, it was banned in 1998 (England and Wales), 2000 (Scotland) and 2003 (Northern Ireland).
The implement used in many state and private schools in England and Wales was often a rattan cane, struck either across the student's hands or (especially in the case of teenage boys) the clothed buttocks. "Slippering"—striking the buttocks with a rubber-soled gym shoe, or plimsoll shoe—was widely used in many schools, for example King's School, Macclesfield, a boys grammar school in Cheshire. In a few English cities, a strap was used instead of the cane. In Scotland a leather strap, the tawse, administered to the palms of the hands, was universal in state schools, but some private schools used the cane.
Prior to the ban in private schools in England, the "slippering" of a student at an independent boarding school was challenged in 1993 before the European Court of Human Rights. The Court ruled 5–4 in that case that the punishment was not severe enough to infringe the student's "freedom from degrading punishment" under article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The dissenting judges argued that the ritualised nature of the punishment, given after several days and without parental consent, should qualify it as "degrading punishment".
R (Williamson) v Secretary of State for Education and Employment (2005) was an unsuccessful challenge to the prohibition of corporal punishment contained in the Education Act 1996, by several headmasters of private Christian schools who argued that it was a breach of their religious freedom.
In response to a 2008 poll of 6,162 UK teachers by the Times Educational Supplement, 22% of secondary school teachers and 16% of primary school teachers supported "the right to use corporal punishment in extreme cases". The National Union of Teachers said that it "could not support the views expressed by those in favour of hitting children".
There is no federal law addressing corporal punishment in public or private schools. In 1977, the Supreme Court ruling in Ingraham v. Wright held that the Eighth Amendment clause prohibiting "cruel and unusual punishments" did not apply to school students, and that teachers could punish children without parental permission.
As of 2015, 31 states and the District of Columbia have banned corporal punishment in public schools, though in some of these there is no explicit prohibition. Corporal punishment is also unlawful in private schools in Iowa and New Jersey. In 19 U.S. states, corporal punishment is lawful in both public and private schools.
Corporal punishment in all settings, including schools, was prohibited in Venezuela in 2007. According to the Law for the Protection of Children and Adolescents, "All children and young people have a right to be treated well. This right includes a non-violent education and upbringing... Consequently, all forms of physical and humiliating punishment are prohibited".
- Corporal punishment in the home
- Campaigns against corporal punishment
- Blab school
- School bullying
- School discipline
- See e.g. Student/Parent Information Guide and Code of Conduct 2008-2009, Alexander City Schools, Alabama, USA, p.44.
- "Toronto abolishes the strap". Globe and Mail (Toronto). 23 July 1971.
- "Corporal Punishment in Schools". American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Poole, Steven R.; et al. (July 1991). "The role of the pediatrician in abolishing corporal punishment in schools". Pediatrics. 88 (1): 162–7. PMID 2057255.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- "Spanking Lives On In Rural Florida Schools" (15 March 2012). NPR.
- "Spare the rod" (15 November 2014). The Economist.
- United Kingdom: Corporal punishment in schools at World Corporal Punishment Research.
- Quigly, Isabel (1984). The Heirs of Tom Brown: The English School Story. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-281404-4
- Chandos, John (1984). Boys Together: English Public Schools 1800-1864. London: Hutchinson, esp. chapter 11. ISBN 0-09-139240-3
- UK Parliament. Education (No. 2) Act 1986 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk. Section 47 for England and Wales and section 48 for Scotland, brought into force in 1987.
- Privy Council of the United Kingdom. Education (Corporal Punishment) (Northern Ireland) Order 1987.
- Gould, Mark (9 January 2007). "Sparing the rod". The Guardian (London).
- UK Parliament. School Standards and Framework Act 1998 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk. Section 131, for England and Wales, brought into force in 1999.
- Brown, Colin (25 March 1998). "Last vestiges of caning swept away". The Independent (London).
- Teitelbaum, Salomon M. "Parental Authority in the Soviet Union", in American Slavic and East European Review, Vol. 4, No. 3/4 (December 1945), pp. 54-69.
- Linehan, Thomas P. (2007). Communism in Britain, 1920-39: From the cradle to the grave, Manchester University Press. pp. 32 ff. ISBN 0-7190-7140-2
- "Caning? It's not cricket, say the Russians at Rugby". Daily Mail (London). 22 November 1960.
- "North Korean Defectors Face Huge Challenges". Radio Free Asia. 21 March 2007.
- "Country report for China". Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children.
- Paul Wiseman, "Chinese schools try to unlearn brutality", USA Today, Washington D.C., 9 May 2000.
- Gershoff, Elizabeth T. (Spring 2010). "More Harm Than Good: A Summary of Scientific Research on the Intended and Unintended Effects of Corporal Punishment on Children". Law & Contemporary Problems. Duke University School of Law. 73 (2): 31–56.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Corporal Punishment in Schools and its Effect on Academic Success: Testimony by Donald E. Greydanus MD" (PDF). Healthy Families and Communities Subcommittee, United States House of Representatives. 15 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "H-515.995 Corporal Punishment in Schools". American Medical Association.
- American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on School Health (February 1984). "Corporal punishment in schools". Pediatrics. 73 (2): 258. PMID 6599942.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Stein, M.T.; Perrin, E.L. (April 1998). "Guidance for effective discipline. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health". Pediatrics. 101 (4 Pt 1): 723–8. PMID 9521967. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Corporal punishment in schools. A position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine". J Adolesc Health. 13 (3): 240–6. May 1992. PMID 1498122.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Corporal Punishment". Council Policy Manual. American Psychological Association. 1975.
- "Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Position Statement on corporal punishment" (PDF). November 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- "Legislative assembly questions #0293 - Australian Psychological Society: Punishment and Behaviour Change". Parliament of New South Wales. 20 October 1996. Archived from the original on 2008-05-03. Retrieved 2008-08-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Corporal punishment". National Association of Secondary School Principals. February 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "General comment No. 8 (2006): The right of the child to protection from corporal punishment and or cruel or degrading forms of punishment (articles 1, 28(2), and 37, inter alia)". United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, 42nd Sess., U.N. Doc. CRC/C/GC/8. 2 March 2007. Retrieved January 2015. Check date values in:
- "Europe-Wide Ban on Corporal Punishment of Children, Recommendation 1666". Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe (21st Sitting). 23 June 2004. Retrieved January 2015. Check date values in:
- "Report on Corporal Punishment and Human Rights of Children and Adolescents". Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Rapporteurship on the Rights of the Child, Organization of American States. 5 August 2009. Retrieved January 2015. Check date values in:
- Committee on the Rights of the Child (2001). General Comment No. 1, The Aims of Education. U.N. Doc. CRC/GC/2001/1.
- Towards Non-violent Schools: Prohibiting All Corporal Punishment: Global Report 2015 (PDF), London: Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children; Save the Children, May 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Diálogo, premios y penitencias: cómo poner límites sin violencia". El Clarín (Buenos Aires). 17 December 2005. (Spanish)
- "En Argentina, del golpe a la convivencia". El Clarín (Buenos Aires). 10 February 1999. (Spanish)
- "Country report for Argentina". Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children.
- Child Family Community Australia (March 2014), Corporal punishment: Key issues - Resource Sheet, Australian Government, archived from the original on 11 September 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Federal Government rules out return of corporal punishment, after curriculum adviser says it can be 'very effective '". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Barrett, Rosanne (25 June 2012). "States refuse to buckle amid calls to ban cane". The Australian. Sydney: News Corp Australia. Retrieved 15 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ruff, Marcia (19 December 1985). "Senator keeps up fight against cane in schools". The Canberra Times. p. 2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Criminal Code Act (Qld), s280.
- "Qld schools consign cane to history". The Canberra Times. 27 May 1992. p. 20.
Corporal punishment will be phased out by the end of the 1994 school year<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Teachers given the cane go-ahead in some Queensland schools". 29 March 2009. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Education Act 1990 (NSW), s47(h), s3 and s 35 (2A)
- "Caning gets the cut from 1987". The Canberra Times. 13 December 1985. p. 18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "WA to decide on caning of girls". The Canberra Times. 24 May 1987. p. 3.
Following the decision, the NSW State Government banned the use of canes in all schools in that state.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "NSW schools say no to use of the cane". The Canberra Times. 20 June 1989. p. 11.
The Fair Discipline Code... reversed the NSW Labor Government's two-year-old ban on the cane for the state's 2300 schools<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "NSW vetoes school cane". The Canberra Times. 6 December 1995. p. 8.
NSW Education Minister John Aquilina said corporal punishment would be outlawed in public schools from today, and in non-government schools from 1997<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Cane ban no bar to discipline: Carr". The Canberra Times. 17 December 1995. p. 2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Education Act 1994 (Tas), s82A.
- Haley, Martine (8 April 2001). "Spank curb Bid for child punishment laws". Sunday Tasmanian. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Habel, Bernadette (2 June 2014). "Leaders against return to corporal punishment". The Examiner. Launceston, Tasmania. p. 6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Education Act 2004 (ACT), s7(4).
- Zakharov, Jeannie (20 November 1987). "ACT Schools Authority decides to abolish cane". The Canberra Times. p. 14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hobson, Karen (13 July 1991). "Libs push for discipline codes, including corporal punishment, in ACT schools". The Canberra Times. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Criminal Code Act (NT), s11.
- "Northern Territory loophole lets teachers smack kids". news.com.au. News Limited. 14 April 2010. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- School Education Regulations, s40, cf Criminal Code Act, s257.
- "School Education Bill - Committee". Hansard. Parliament of Western Australia. Retrieved 15 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Last WA school using corporal punishment forced to end practice from next term". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 7 January 2015. Archived from the original on 30 January 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Burrell, Andrew (8 January 2015). "Corporal punishment ban widened". The Australian. p. 3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Austria State Report, GITEACPOC.
- "Prohibition of all corporal punishment in Bolivia (2014)". Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children.
- "Brazil Prohibits All Corporal Punishment". Save the Children. 2 July 2014.
- Shwe Gaung, Juliet (26 January 2009). "Corporal punishment 'common practice': author". The Mayanmar Times. Yangon. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mudditt, Jessica (13 May 2013). "Against the cane: corporal punishment in Myanmar". The Mayanmar Times. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Ohmar, Ma (23 April 2002). "Slate & Slate Pencil - Computer & Keyboard". The New Light of Myanmar. Archived from the original on 25 April 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Supreme Court takes strap out of teachers' hands". Edmonton Journal (Alberta). 1 February 2004.
- Moyers school supplies catalogue, 1971.
- FitzGerald, James (1994).Old Boys: The Powerful Legacy of Upper Canada College. Toronto: Macfarlane Walter & Ross. ISBN 0-921912-74-9
- Byfield, Ted (21 October 1996). "Do our new-found ideas on children maybe explain the fact we can't control them?". Alberta Report (Edmonton).
- "Spanking still legal in Canada". Montreal Gazette (Quebec). 23 February 2005.
- "Peace Wapiti scraps strap". Daily Herald-Tribune (Grande Prairie, Alberta). 19 November 2004.
- "New measures taken in schools to improve teacher-student relations", People's Daily, Beijing, 31 July 2005.
- Czech Republic State Report, GITEACPOC, June 2011.
- "The punishments in French schools are impositions and confinements."-- Matthew Arnold (1861) cited in Robert McCole Wilson, A Study of Attitudes Towards Corporal Punishment as an Educational Procedure From the Earliest Times to the Present, Nijmegen University, 1999, 4.3.
- France State Report, GITEACPOC.
- "Teacher Fined, Praised for Slap", Time (New York), 14 August 2008.
- Desnos, Marie (13 August 2008). "Une gifle à 500 euros". Le Journal du Dimanche (Paris).
- Rosenczveig, Jean-Pierre (1 February 2008)."Violences non retenues au collège". Le Monde (Paris).
- "It's 40 years since corporal punishment got a general boot", translated from Saarbrücker Zeitung, 19 June 1987.
- Greece State Report, GITEACPOC, November 2006.
- Nilanjana Bhowmick (2 May 2009). "Why India's Teachers Do Not Spare the Rod". Time (New York).
- "Department code on discipline urged", Irish Times, Dublin, 9 April 1999.
- Italy State Report, GITEACPOC.
- "Many Japanese Teachers Favor Corporal Punishment", Nichi Bei Times, San Francisco, 21 November 1987.
- "Student commits suicide after being beaten by school basketball coach ‹ Japan Today: Japan News and Discussion". Retrieved 25 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Corporal punishment rife in schools in 2012: survey". The Japan Times. Retrieved 25 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children, Report of corporal punishment of children in Luxembourg 2013
- Legilux, Législation sur les mesures de discipline dans les écoles 2015
- School corporal punishment in Malaysia at World Corporal Punishment Research.
- Netherlands State Report, GITEACPOC.
- "Education Act 1989 - New Zealand Legislation". New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 2011-01-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "§202C: Assault with weapon - Crimes Act 1961 No 43 as of 18 April 2012 - New Zealand Legislation". Parliamentary Counsel Office (New Zealand). 18 April 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "School in corporal punishment spotlight". Television New Zealand. 18 February 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "PAKISTAN: Corporal punishment key reason for school dropouts". IRIN Asia. 18 May 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Philippines State Report, GITEACPOC.
- Abolishing corporal punishment of children: Questions and answers (PDF). Strasbourg: Council of Europe. December 2007. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-92-871-6310-3. Retrieved January 2015. Check date values in:
- Newell, Peter (ed.). A Last Resort? Corporal Punishment in Schools, Penguin, London, 1972, p. 9. ISBN 0-14-080698-9
- Article 40th of the Constitution of Poland, 1997, http://www.sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/angielski/kon1.htm
- Speech by Mr Tharman Shanmugaratnam, Acting Minister for Education.
- "WORLD CORPORAL PUNISHMENT: SCHOOL CANING IN SINGAPORE". Retrieved 25 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Singapore school handbooks on line at World Corporal Punishment Research.
- Farrell, C. (June 2014). "Singapore: Corporal punishment in schools". World Corporal Punishment Research. Retrieved 12 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- South African Schools Act, 1996, Chapter 2: Learners, Section 10: Prohibition of corporal punishment
- 진보교육감들 “학생 간접체벌 불허”, 《한겨레》, 2011.3.23
- Paik, Kathy (November 10, 2008). "Man admits killing teacher over 21-year grudge". CNN. Retrieved 2016-02-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Spain State Report, GITEACPOC.
- "Changing concepts of Grammar School teacher authority in Sweden 1927-1965". Australian Association for Research in Education. 1997.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Taiwan corporal punishment banned", BBC News On Line, London, 29 December 2006.
- "Legality of corporal punishment in Thailand", End Corporal Punishment, February 2009.
- Ukraine. DETAILED COUNTRY REPORT. Last updated: February 2011.
- "Corporal punishment ban makes discipline 'almost impossible' say UAE teachers". Retrieved 25 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "UAE teacher banned after forcing child to remove shirt in class". Retrieved 25 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Country report for UK". Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children. June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Behave or bend over for the slipper: UK Grammar School life in the 1960s". Retrieved 12 May 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Guide to LEAs' Corporal Punishment Regulations in England and Wales, Society of Teachers Opposed to Physical Punishment, Croydon, 1979.
- "Rise and fall of the belt", Sunday Standard, Glasgow, 28 February 1982.
- Ahmed, Kamal (27 April 2003). "He could talk his way out of things". The Observer (London).
- Tan, Ying Hui (22 October 2011). "Law Report: 'Slippering' pupil is not degrading punishment: Costello-Roberts v The United Kingdom. European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg, 25 March 1993". The Independent. London.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "A 'fifth of teachers back caning'". BBC News Online. 3 October 2008.
- Bloom, Adi (10 October 2008). "Survey whips up debate on caning", Times Educational Supplement (London).
- "Country report for USA" (November 2015). 'Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children.
- "Prohibition of all corporal punishment in Venezuela (2007)" Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children.