South India

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
South India
Thumbnail map of India with South India highlighted
South India shown in red
Population 253,051,953
Area 635,780 km2 (245,480 sq mi)
Population density 397/km2 (1,029/sq mi)
States Andhra Pradesh
Karnataka
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
Telangana
Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar
Lakshadweep
Puducherry
Most populous cities Bangalore
Hyderabad
Chennai
Vishakhapatnam
Coimbatore

South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area (635,780 km2 or 245,480 sq mi). South India includes the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges the Western and Eastern Ghats bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tungabhadra and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Coimbatore, Kochi and Visakhapatnam are the largest urban areas in the region.

Majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions. Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Vijayanagara. European countries entered India through Kerala and the region was colonized by Britain and other nations.

After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics,[1][2] poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states.[3] Literacy rates in southern states is higher than the national average with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing.[4] The fertility rate in South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.[5]

Etymology

South India also known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names. The term Deccan referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas is an anglicized form of the word Prakrit dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit word dakshina meaning south.[6] Carnatic derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country has also been associated with South India.[7]

History

Ancient era

The Chola Empire during Rajendra Chola I, c. 1030

Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with neolithic cultures in Southern India date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; however, there does not appear to be a fully developed Bronze Age preceding the Iron Age in South India.[8] The region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia.[9] Starting from the Sangam period, trade happened with Phoenicians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Syrians, Jews and Chinese.[10] The region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West.[11]

Several dynasties ruled over the region such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Cholas of Thanjavur, the Pandyas of Madurai, the Pallavas of Kanchi, the Satavahanas of Amaravati, the Kadambas of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas of Belur, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Kakatiyas of Orugallu and the Vijayanagara Empire. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates, polygars and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence.[12][13]

Colonial era

The Europeans arrived in 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control of South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799 and the end of Vellore Mutiny in 1806, the British consolidated power over much of present-day South India with the exception of French Pondichéry. The British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857.[14] During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad state, Mysore, Travancore, Kochi, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states. The region played a major role in the Indian independence movement and of the 72 delegates who participated in the first session of the Indian National Congress at Bombay in December 1885, 22 hailed from South India.[15][16]

Map of Southern India (1953–1956) before the States Reorganisation Act of 1956

Post Independence

After Indian Independence in 1947, the region was organized into four states Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin.[17] The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganized the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg. Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé.[18] The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organized into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Telangana was created on June 2, 2014 by bifurcating Andhra Pradesh and comprises ten districts in northwestern Andhra Pradesh.[19][20]

Geography

Satellite image of South India

South India is a peninsula in the shape of an inverted triangle bound by the Arabian Sea on the west, by the Bay of Bengal on the east and by the Vindhya and Satpura ranges on the north.[21] The Narmada flows westwards in the depression between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges which define the northern spur of the Deccan plateau.[22] The Western Ghats runs parallel along the western coast and the narrow strip of land between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea forms the Konkan region. The Western Ghats continue south until Kanyakumari.[23][24] The Eastern Ghats runs parallel along the eastern coast and the strip of land between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal forms the Coromandel region.[25][26] Both the ghats meet at the Nilgiri mountains. The Nilgiris run in a crescent approximately along the borders of Tamil Nadu with northern Kerala and Karnataka, encompassing the Palakkad and Wayanad hills, and the Sathyamangalam ranges, and extending on to the relatively low-lying hills of the Eastern Ghats, on the western portion of the Tamil NaduAndhra Pradesh border forming the Tirupati and Annamalai hills.[27] The low lying coral islands of Lakshadweep are situated off the south-western coast of India. The Andaman and Nicobar islands lie far off the eastern coast of India. The Palk Strait and the chain of low sandbars and islands known as Rama's Bridge separate the region from Sri Lanka, which lies off the south-eastern coast.[28][29] The southernmost tip of mainland India is at Kanyakumari where the Indian Ocean meets the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.[30]

The Deccan plateau is the elevated region bound by the mountain ranges.[31] The plateau rises to 100 metres (330 ft) in the north and to more than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) in the south, forming a raised triangle within the downward-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline.[32] It also slopes gently from West to East resulting in major rivers arising in the Western Ghats and flowing east into the Bay of Bengal.[33] The volcanic basalt beds of the Deccan were laid down in the massive Deccan Traps eruption, which occurred towards the end of the Cretaceous period between 67 and 66 million years ago.[34] Layer after layer was formed by the volcanic activity that lasted 30,000 years[35] and when the volcanoes became extinct, they left a region of highlands with typically vast stretches of flat areas on top like a table.[36] The plateau is watered by east flowing rivers Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri and Vaigai. The major tributaries include Pennar, Tungabhadra, Bhavani and Thamirabarani.[37]

Climate

Climatic zones
South-west monsoon currents

The region has a tropical climate with rainfall dependent on monsoons. In the Köppen climate classification, it is a non-arid climate with mean temperatures of minimum 18 °C (64 °F).[38] The most humid is the tropical monsoon climate characterized by moderate to high year-round temperatures and seasonal heavy rainfall above 2,000 mm (79 in) per year. The tropical climate is experienced in a strip of south-western lowlands abutting the Malabar Coast, the Western Ghats and the islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar are also subject to this climate.[39] The tropical wet and dry climate, drier than areas with a tropical monsoon climate prevails over most of inland peninsular region except for a semi arid rain shadow east of the Western Ghats. Winter and early summer are long and dry periods with temperatures averaging above 18 °C (64 °F), summer is exceedingly hot with temperatures in low-lying areas exceeding 50 °C (122 °F) and the rainy season lasts from June to September with annual rainfall averaging between 750–1,500 mm (30–59 in) across the region. Once the dry northeast monsoon begins in September, most precipitation in India falls on Tamil Nadu, leaving other states comparatively dry.[40] The hot semi-arid climate predominates the land east of the Western Ghats and the Cardamom Hills. The region, which includes Karnataka, inland Tamil Nadu and western Andhra Pradesh gets between 400–750 millimetres (15.7–29.5 in) of rainfall annually with hot summers and dry winters with temperatures around 20–24 °C (68–75 °F). The months between March to May are hot and dry with mean monthly temperatures hover around 32 °C, with 320 millimetres (13 in)precipitation and without artificial irrigation, this region is not suitable for agriculture.[41]

The South–West Monsoon from June to September accounts for most of the rainfall along the region. The Arabian Sea branch of the south-west monsoon hits the Western Ghats along the coastal state of Kerala and moves northwards along the Konkan coast with precipitation on coastal areas, west of the Western Ghats. The high Western Ghats Mountain Range blocks the winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau and hence the leeward region receives very little rainfall.[42][43] The Bay of Bengal branch of south-west monsoon flows over the Bay of Bengal heading towards North-East India, picking up moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The Coramandel coast does not receive much rainfall from south-west monsoon due to the shape of the land. Tamil Nadu and southeast Andhra Pradesh receive rains from the North–East Monsoon.[44] The north-east monsoon take place from November to early March when the surface high-pressure system is strongest.[45]

The North Indian Ocean tropical cyclones tropical cyclones occur throughout the year in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea which brings devastating winds and heavy rainfall.[46] Tropical cyclones are rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.[47] Tropical cyclones typically form over the warm waters of Bay of Bengal.[48]

Subdivisions

South India consists of the five southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Puducherry, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar. Puducherry and the other five states has an elected state government while the Lakshadweep and Andaman islands are centrally administered by the President of India. Each sub-region is further divided into districts. Each state is headed by a Governor, who is a direct appointee of the President of India, while the Chief Minister is the elected head of the state government and represents the states ruling party or coalition.

States

S.No. Name ISO 3166-2 code[49][50] Date of formation Population Area
(km2)
Official
language(s)[51]
Capital Population density
(per km2)
Literacy Rate (%) % of urban population
1 Andhra Pradesh AP 1 Oct 1953 49,506,799 160,205 Telugu HyderabadNote 1 308 67.41[52] 29.6
2 Karnataka KA 1 Nov 1956 61,130,704 191,791 Kannada Bengaluru 319 75.60 34.0
3 Kerala KL 1 Nov 1956 33,387,677 38,863 Malayalam Thiruvananthapuram 859 93.91 26.0
4 Tamil Nadu TN 26 Jan 1950 72,138,958 130,058 Tamil Chennai 480 80.33 44.0
5 Telangana TG 2 Jun 2014 35,193,978[53] 114,840[53] Telugu, Urdu HyderabadNote 1 307[54] 66.50[54] N/A
  • ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.[55][56][57] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as joint capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[58]

Union territories

S.No. Name ISO 3166-2 code[49][50] Population Official
language[51]
Capital Population density
(per km2)
Literacy Rate(%) % of urban population
1 Andaman and Nicobar AN 379,944 English, Hindi Port Blair 46 86.27 32.6
2 Lakshadweep LD 64,429 English, Malayalam Kavaratti 2,013 92.28 44.5
3 Puducherry PY 1,244,464 Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu Puducherry 2,598 86.55 66.6

Demographics

Population Pyramid in South India

As per the 2011 census of India, the estimated population of South India is 252 million, around one fifth of the total population of India. The region's total fertility rate was less than the replacement level of 2.1 for all states with Kerala and Tamil Nadu having the lowest TFRs in India at 1.7.[59] As a result, the proportion of the population of South India to India's total population has declined from 1981 to 2011.[60][61] The population density of the region is approximately 463. Scheduled Castes and Tribes form 18% of the population of the region. Agriculture is the major employer in the region with 47.5% of the population is involved in agrarian activities. About 60% of the population lives in permanent housing structures. 67.8% of South India has access to tap water. Wells and springs are other major forms of water supply.

South India has better demographic indicators, when compared to the rest of India. The average literacy rate in South India is approximately 80%, considerably higher than the Indian national average of 74% with Kerala having the highest literacy rate of 93.91%.[4][62] South India has the highest sex ratio with Kerala and Tamil Nadu being the top two states.[63] The South Indian states rank amongst the top 10 in economic freedom, life expectancy, access to drinking water, house ownership and TV ownership.[64][65][66][67][68] Of the three demographic related targets of the Millennium Development Goals set by United Nations expected to be achieved by 2015, Kerala and Tamil Nadu achieved the goals related to improvement of maternal health and of reducing infant mortality and child mortality by 2009.[69][70]

Languages

Dravidian language tree

The largest linguistic group in South India is the Dravidian family of languages, a family of approximately seventy-three languages[71][72] The major languages spoken include Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.[73] Tulu is spoken by about 1.5 million people in coastal Kerala and Karnataka and Konkani, an Indo-Aryan language, is spoken by half a million people in the Konkan coast. English is also widely spoken in urban areas of South India.[74] Urdu is spoken by around 12 million Muslims in southern India.[75][76][77] Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Konkani are listed amongst the 22 official languages of India as per the Official Languages Act (1963). Tamil was the first language to be granted classical language status by the Government of India in 2004.[78][79] Other major languages declared classical were Kannada (in 2008), Telugu (in 2008) and Malayalam (in 2013)[80][81]

S.No. Language Number of Speakers Areas Spoken
1 Telugu 74,002,856 Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
2 Tamil 60,793,814 Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar
3 Kannada 37,924,011 Karnataka
4 Malayalam 33,066,392 Kerala, Lakshadweep
5 Konkani 2,489,015 Kerala, Karnataka

Religion

Religion
Religion Percent(%)
Hindu
  
80%
Muslim
  
11%
Christian
  
8%
Other
  
1%

Hinduism is the major religion with about 80% of the population adhering to it. About 11% of the population follow Islam and 8% follow Christianity.[82] Evidence of Prehistoric religion in South India comes from scattered Mesolithic rock paintings depicting dances and rituals in Stone Age sites such as the Kupgal petroglyphs of eastern Karnataka.[83] Hinduism, often regarded as the oldest religion in the world traces its roots to prehistoric times in India.[84][85][86] The main spiritual traditions of South India include both Shaivite and Vaishnavite branches of Hinduism, although Buddhist and Jain philosophies had been influential several centuries earlier. Shravanabelagola in Karnataka is a popular pilgrimage center for Jains. Ayyavazhi is spread significantly across the southern parts of South India.[87] Islam was introduced to South India in the early 7th century by Arab traders in Malabar Coast of Kerala and spread during the rule of Deccan Sultanates from 17th to 18th century.[88] The Muslims in Kerala of Arab descent are called Jonaka Mappila. Christianity was introduced to South India by Thomas the Apostle, who visited Muziris in Kerala in 52 CE and baptised Kerala's Jewish settlements.[89][90][91][92][93] Kerala is also home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world who are supposed to have arrived in the Malabar coast during the time of King Solomon.[94][95][96]

Economy

Major crop areas
Tidel Park, Chennai

The economy of South India after independence in 1947 conformed to a socialist framework, with strict governmental control over private sector participation, foreign trade and foreign direct investment. Through 1960–1990, the South Indian economies experienced mixed economic growth. In the 1960s, Kerala achieved above average economic growth while Andhra Pradesh's economy declined during this period. Kerala experienced an economic decline in the 1970s while the economies of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka consistently exceeded national average growth rates after 1970 due to reform-oriented economic policies compared to other Indian states.[97] As of 2013–14, the total Gross domestic product of the region is 27.1 trillion (US$400 billion). Tamil Nadu has the third highest GDP and is the second most industrialized state in the country.[98]

Over 48% of South India's population is engaged in agriculture, which is largely dependent on seasonal monsoons. Some of the main crops cultivated in South India include paddy, sorghum, pearl millet, pulses, sugarcane, cotton, chilli and ragi. Areca, coffee, tea, rubber and spices are cultivated on the hilly regions. The staple food is rice and the delta regions of Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri are amongst the top rice producing areas in the country.[99][100] Frequent droughts have left farmers debt-ridden forcing them to sell their livestock and sometimes to commit suicide.[101] The region accounts for 92% of the total Coffee production in India.[102] South India is also a major producer of cotton, tea, rubber,turmeric and spices.[103][104][105][106][107] Other major agriculture related produce include silk and poultry.[108][109]

Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore and Thiruvananthapuram are amongst the major IT hubs of India and Bangalore is also known as the Silicon Valley of India. The growth of information technology (IT) hubs in the region have spurred economic growth and attracted foreign investments and job seekers from other parts of the country.[110] Software exports from South India grossed over 640 billion (US$9.5 billion) in fiscal 2005–06.[111] Chennai known as Detroit of Asia, accounts for about 35% of India's overall automotive components and automobile output.[112] The region supplies two thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps and is one of the largest exporters of jewelry, wet grinders and auto components.[113][114] The region is a major producer of textiles.[115]

Economic and demographic indicators[2]
Parameter South India National
Gross domestic product (GDP) 27.1 trillion (US$400 billion) 104.7 trillion (US$1.6 trillion)
Net state domestic product (SDP) 27,027 (US$400) 23,222 (US$350)
Population below poverty line 17.4% 26.1%
Urban population 32.8% 27.8%
Households with electricity 89.3% 67.9%
Literacy rate 80% 74%[116]

Administration

Fort St. George (Tamil Nadu)
Vidhan Bhavan (Andhra Pradesh)
Vidhan Soudha (Karnataka)

South India elects 132 members to the Lok Sabha accounting for roughly one-fourth of the total strength. The region has an allocation of 58 seats in Rajya Sabha out of the total 245. Puducherry and the other five states has an elected state government while the Lakshadweep and Andaman islands are centrally administered by the President of India.[117] Each state is headed by a Governor, who is a direct appointee of the President of India and the Chief Minister is the elected head of the state government and represents the ruling party or coalition.[118] Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry follow Unicameral legislature while Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Telangana follow Bicameral legislature.

State legislatures elect members for terms of five years.[119] States with bicameral legislatures have an upper house Legislative Council) with members not be more than one-third the size of the assembly. Governors may suspend or dissolve assemblies and can administer when no party is able to form a government.[119] Each state is organized into a number of districts, which are further sub divided into revenue divisions and taluks for administration.[119] Local bodies govern respective cities, towns and villages with each electing a mayor, municipal chairman and panchayat chairman respectively to head the same.[119]

State/UT Lok Sabha[120] Rajya Sabha[121] Vidhan Sabha Governor/Lieutenant Governor Chief Minister
Andaman and Nicobar 1 N/A N/A A. K. Singh N/A
Andhra Pradesh 25 11 175 E. S. L. Narasimhan N. Chandrababu Naidu
Karnataka 28 12 225 Vajubhai Vala Siddaramaiah
Kerala 20 9 141 P. Sathasivam Oommen Chandy
Lakshadweep 1 N/A N/A H. Rajesh Prasad N/A
Puducherry 1 1 30 A. K. Singh N. Rangaswamy
Tamil Nadu 39 18 234 Konijeti Rosaiah J. Jayalalithaa
Telangana 17 7 119 E. S. L. Narasimhan K. Chandrashekar Rao
Total 132 58 924

Politics

Politics in South India is dominated by a mix of regional and national political parties. Justice Party and Swaraj Party were the two major parties in the erstwhile Madras Presidency.[122] The Justice Party eventually lost the 1937 elections to the Indian National Congress and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari became Chief Minister of Madras Presidency.[123] During the 1920s and 1930s, the Self-Respect Movement movement emerged in the Madras Presidency spearheaded by Theagaroya Chetty and Periyar.[124] In 1944, Periyar who had started the Self-Respect Movement transformed the party into a social organization, renaming the party Dravidar Kazhagam and withdrew from electoral politics. The initial aim was the secession of Dravida Nadu from the rest of India on independence. After Independence, C. N. Annadurai, a follower of Periyar formed the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam in 1948. The Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu led to the rise of Dravidian parties which formed its first government in 1967 in Tamil Nadu. In 1972, a split in the DMK resulted in the formation of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam led by M. G. Ramachandran. Dravidian parties continue to dominate Tamil Nadu electoral politics - with the national parties, usually aligned as junior partners to the major Dravidian parties, AIADMK and DMK.[125][126]

Indian National Congress dominated the political scene in Tamil Nadu in 1950s and 1960s under leadership of K. Kamaraj, who led the party on the death of Jawaharlal Nehru and ensured the selection of Prime Ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi.[127] Congress continues to be a major party in other three states namely Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala. The party ruled with minimal opposition for thirty years in Andhra Pradesh before the formation of Telugu Desam Party by Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao in 1982.[128] Two party systems dominate South Indian politics with the United Democratic Front led by the Indian National Congress and the Left Democratic Front led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) alternating for the past fifty years. E. M. S. Namboodiripad, the first elected chief minister of Kerala in 1957 is credited as the leader of the first democratically elected communist government in the world.[129][130] Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal are significant parties in Karnataka.[131]

C. Rajagopalachari, the first Indian Governor General of India, post independence of India was from South India. The region has produced six Indian Presidents namely Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,[132] V. V. Giri,[133] Neelam Sanjiva Reddy,[134] R. Venkataraman,[135] K. R. Narayanan[136] and APJ Abdul Kalam.[137] Prime Ministers P. V. Narasimha Rao and H. D. Deve Gowda were from the region.[138]

Culture and heritage

The dance, clothing, and sculptures of South Indian exemplify the celebration of the beauty of the body and motherhood.[139][140][141][142][143][144]

Clothing

South Indian women traditionally wear Sari, a garment that consists of a drape varying from 5 yards (4.6 m) to 9 yards (8.2 m) in length and 2 feet (0.61 m) to 4 feet (1.2 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.[145][146] Ancient Tamil poetry such as the Silappadhikaram describes women in exquisite drapery or sari.[147] There are more than 80 recorded ways to wear a sari.[148][149] The most common style is for the sari to be wrapped around the waist, with the loose end of the drape to be worn over the shoulder, baring the midriff.[145] Madisar is a typical style worn by Brahmin ladies from Tamil Nadu.[150] In Indian philosophy, the navel is considered as the source of life and creativity and hence by tradition, the stomach and the navel is left unconcealed.[145]

The men wear a Dhoti, a 4.5 metres (15 ft) long, white rectangular piece of unstitched cloth often bordered in brightly colored stripes. It is usually wrapped around the waist and the legs and knotted at the waist.[151] A colorful lungi with typical batik patterns is the most common form of male attire in the countryside.[152] People in urban areas generally wear tailored clothing and western dress is getting increasingly popular in urban areas.[152] Western-style school uniforms are worn by both sexes in schools even in rural areas.[152]

Traditional meals is served on a banana leaf

Cuisine

Rice is the staple diet, while fish is an integral component of coastal South Indian meals.[153] Coconut and spices are used extensively in South Indian cuisine. The region has a rich cuisine involving both traditional non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes using of rice, legumes and lentils. Its distinct aroma and flavour is achieved by the blending of flavourings and spices including curry leaves, mustard seeds, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, green cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, coconut and rosewater.[154][155] The traditional way of eating a meal involves being seated on the floor, having the food served on a banana leaf[156] and using clean fingers of the right hand to transfer the food to the mouth. After the meal, the fingers are washed and the banana leaf is easily degradable or becomes fodder for cows.[157] Eating on banana leaves is a custom that dates back thousands of years, imparts a unique flavor to the food and is considered healthy.[158] Idli, Dosa, Uthappam, Appam, Pongal and Paniyaram are popular dishes for breakfast.[159][160] Rice is served with Sambar, Rasam and Poriyal for lunch. Andhra cuisine is characterized by pickles and spicy curries.[161] Chettinad cuisine is famous for non vegetarian and Hyderabadi cuisine is popular for its Biryani.[162]

Arts

Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu)
Kathakali (Kerala)
Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh)
Yakshagana (Karnataka)

The traditional music of South India is known as Carnatic music, which includes rhythmic and structured music by composers like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Tyagayya, Annamacharya, Bhakta Ramadasu, Muthuswami Dikshitar, Shyama Shastri, Kshetrayya, Mysore Vasudevachar and Swathi Thirunal.[163] The main instrument that is used in south Indian Hindu temples is the nadaswaram. It is said to have been created when the very first temple was established in South India. The nadaswaram and the thavil were played together in South Indian temples to create an ensemble.[164] The motion picture industry has emerged as an important platform in South India, over the years portraying the cultural changes, trends, aspirations and developments experienced by its people. South India is home to several distinct dance forms – Koodiyattam, Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi, Vilasini Natyam, Kathakali, Yakshagana, Theyyam, Ottamthullal, Margamkali, Oppana, Kerala Natanam and Mohiniaattam.[165][166][167][168][169]

Cinema

Films in the language native to each state are dominant, this includes Tamil cinema, Telugu cinema, Kannada cinema and Malayalam cinema. The first silent film from South India Keechaka Vadham was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1916.[170] In South India, the first Tamil talkie Kalidas which released on 31 October 1931, barely 7 months after India's first talking picture Alam Ara[171] Nataraja Mudaliar also established South India's first film studio in Madras.[172] Swamikannu Vincent built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore and introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema", the first of its kind was established in Madras called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone".[173] Filmmakers produced realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s,[174] K Balachandar, Balu Mahendra, Bharathiraaja and Mani Ratnam in Tamil cinema, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Shaji N. Karun, John Abraham and G. Aravindan also Bharathan and Padmarajan in Malayalam cinema ; K. N. T. Sastry and B. Narsing Rao in Telugu cinema. Cinema also influenced politics,[175] with prominent film personalities like C N Annadurai, M G Ramachandran, M Karunanidhi, N. T. Rama Rao and Jayalalithaa becoming Chief Ministers.[176] South Indian film industry released 1032 feature film in 2014 contributing to 53% of the total films produced in India.[177]

Table: Breakdown by languages
Breakdown of 2014 feature films certified by the Central Board of Film Certification
Language No. of films
Telugu 349
Tamil 326
Malayalam 201
Kannada 143
Tulu 7
Konkani 6
Total 1032

Literature

The large Gopuram is a hallmark of Dravidian architecture

South India has an independent literary tradition going back over 2500 years. The first known literature of South India are the poetic Sangams, which were written in Tamil between 2500 to 2100 years ago. The literature were composed in three successive poetic assemblies known as Tamil Sangams that were held in ancient times on a now vanished continent far to the south of India.[178] These include the oldest grammar treatise Tholkappiyam and epics Silappatikaram and Manimekalai written in Tamil.[179] References to Kannada literature appear from fourth century CE.[180][181] Telugu literature adopted a form of Prakrit which in course of development became the immediate ancestor of Telugu.[182] Distinct Malayalam literature came later in the 13th century.[183]

Architecture

South India has two distinct styles of rock architecture, the Dravidian style of Tamil Nadu and the Vesara style of Karnataka.[184] The temples considered of porches or Mantapas preceding the door leading to the sanctum, Gate-pyramids or Gopurams, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples and Pillared halls used for many purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of these temples. Besides these, a South Indian temple usually has a tank called the Kalyani or Pushkarni.[185] The Gopuram is a monumental tower, usually ornate at the entrance of any temple in Southern India. This forms a prominent feature of Koils, Hindu temples of the Dravidian style.[186] They are topped by the kalasam, a bulbous stone finial and function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.[187] The gopuram's origins can be traced back to early structures of the Tamil kings Pallavas; and by the twelfth century, under the Pandya rulers, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the gopuram's colossal size.[188][189]

Transport

Map showing highway distribution with population density

Road

South India has an extensive road network with 20,573 km (12,783 mi) of National Highways and 46,813 km (29,088 mi) of State Highways. The Golden Quadrilateral connects Chennai in the region with Mumbai via Bangalore and Kolkata via Vishakapatnam.[190][191] Bus services are provided by state run transport corporations namely Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation, Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation, Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation, Telangana State Road Transport Corporation, Kerala State Road Transport Corporation and Puducherry Road Transport Corporation.

State National Highway [192] State Highway[193] Road density (m/km2) Motor vehicles per 1000 pop.[194]
Andhra Pradesh 7,356 km (4,571 mi) 10,650 km (6,620 mi) 16.50 145
Karnataka 6,432 km (3,997 mi) 20,774 km (12,908 mi) 22.92 182
Tamil Nadu 5,006 km (3,111 mi) 10,764 km (6,688 mi) 37.15 257
Kerala 1,811 km (1,125 mi) 4,341 km (2,697 mi) 37.49 198
Andaman and Nicobar 330 km (210 mi) 38 km (24 mi) N/A 152
Puducherry 64 km (40 mi) 246 km (153 mi) N/A 521
Total 21,000 km (13,000 mi) 46,813 km (29,088 mi)

Rail

The Great Southern India Railway Co. was founded in Britain in 1853 and registered in 1859.[195] Construction of track in Madras Presidency began in 1859 and the 80-mile link from Trichinopoly to Negapatam was opened in 1861. The Carnatic Railway founded in 1864, opened a Madras-Arakkonam-Conjeevaram line in 1865. The Great Southern India Railway Company was subsequently merged with the Carnatic Railway Company in 1874 to form the South Indian Railway Company.[196] In 1880, the Great Indian Peninsula Railway established by the British, built a railway network radiating inward from Madras.[197] In 1879, the Madras Railway constructed a railway line from Royapuram to Bangalore and the Maharaja of Mysore established Mysore State Railway to carryout extension from Bangalore to Mysore.[198] Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway was founded on 1 January 1908 by merging the Madras Railway and the Southern Mahratta Railway.[199][200]

On 14 April 1951, the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, the South Indian Railway and the Mysore State Railway were merged to form the Southern Railway to form the first zone of Indian Railways.[201] The South Central zone was created on 2 October 1966 as the ninth zone of Indian Railways and the South Western zone was created on 1 April 2003.[202] Most of the region is covered by the three zones with small portions of coasts covered by East Coast Railway and Konkan Railway. Metro rail is operated by Namma Metro in Bangalore, Chennai Metro in Chennai and Hyderabad Metro in Hyderabad. Chennai MRTS provides suburban rail services in Chennai and was the first elevated railway line in India.[203] The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is a UNESCO World Heritage site.[204]

Sl. No Name of the Railway zone Abbr. Route length
(in Km)
Headquarters Founded Divisions Major Stations
1. Southern SR 5,098 Chennai 14 April 1951 Chennai,[205] Tiruchirappalli,[206] Madurai,[207] Palakkad,[208] Salem,[209] Thiruvananthapuram[210] Chennai Central, Coimbatore Main, Ernakulam, Erode, Katpadi, Kollam, Kozhikode, Madurai, Mangalore Central, Palakkad, Salem, Thiruvananthapuram Central, Thrissur, Tiruchirappalli, Tirunelveli
2. South Central SCR 5,803 Secunderabad 2 October 1966 Secunderabad,[211] Vijayawada, Hyderabad, Guntakal, Guntur, Nanded Guntur, Nellore, Secunderabad, Tirupati Main, Vijayawada
3. South Western SWR 3,177 Hubli 1 April 2003 Hubli, Bangalore, Mysore, Gulbarga[212] Bangalore City, Hubli, Mysore
4. East Coast ECoR 2,572 Bhubaneswar 1 April 2003 Khurda Road, Sambalpur, Waltair[213] Visakhapatnam
5. Konkan KR 741 Navi Mumbai 26 January 1988 Karwar, Ratnagiri Madgaon

Air

In 1915, Tata Sons started a regular airmail service between Karachi and Madras marking the beginning of air transportation in the southern part of India.[214] In March 1930, a discussion initiated by pilot G. Vlasto led to the founding of Madras Flying Club which became a pioneer in pilot training South India.[215] Air India's first flight was operated between Bombay and Madras via Belgaum in 1954.[216]

There are 9 international airports, 2 customs airports, 15 domestic airports and 11 air bases in South India. Chennai International Airport serves as the regional headquarters of the Airports Authority of India for the southern region of India comprising the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, and Kerala and the union territories of Puducherry and Lakshadweep.[217] Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad and Kochi are amongst the top 10 busiest airports in the country.[218][219][220]

The Southern Air Command of Indian Air Force is headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram and the Training Command is headquartered at Bangalore. The Indian Air Force operates nine air bases in Southern India and two in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[221] The Indian Navy operates airbases at Kochi, Arakkonam, Uchipuli, Vizag, Campbell Bay and Diglipur.[222][223]

State/UT International CustomsNote 1 Domestic Military
Andaman and Nicobar 1 0 0 4
Andhra Pradesh 0 1 5 0
Karnataka 2 0 2 3
Kerala 3 0 0 1
Lakshadweep 0 0 1 0
Puducherry 0 0 1 0
Tamil Nadu 3 1 3 6
Telangana 1 0 3 2
Total 9 2 15 16

^ Restricted international airport

Rank Name City State IATA Code Total
Passengers (2015)
1 Kempegowda International Airport Bangalore Karnataka BLR 10,679,004
2 Chennai International Airport Chennai Tamil Nadu MAA 8,845,225
3 Rajiv Gandhi International Airport Hyderabad Telangana HYD 6,971,931
4 Cochin International Airport Kochi Kerala COK 4,401,403
5 Thiruvananthapuram International Airport Thiruvananthapuram Kerala TRV 1,987,362
6 Kozhikode International Airport Kozhikode Kerala CCJ 1,350,695
7 Coimbatore International Airport Coimbatore Tamil Nadu CJB 981,834
8 Visakhapatnam Airport Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh VTZ 971,794
9 Mangalore International Airport Mangalore Karnataka IXE 937,471
10 Tiruchirappalli International Airport Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu TRZ 744,049
11 Madurai Airport Madurai Tamil Nadu IXM 450,552
12 Veer Savarkar International Airport Port Blair Andaman and Nicobar IXZ 458,231
13 Vijayawada Airport Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh VGA 216,179
14 Tirupati Airport Tirupati Andhra Pradesh TIR 201,985
15 Rajahmundry Airport Rajahmundry Andhra Pradesh RJA 120,844

Water

The region is covered by water on three sides and has a long coastline. A total of 89 ports are situated along the coast: Tamil Nadu (15), Karnataka (10), Kerala (17), Andhra Pradesh (12), Lakshadweep (10), Pondicherry (2) and Andaman & Nicobar (23).[224] Major ports include Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Mangalore, Tuticorin, Ennore and Kochi.

Name Cargo Handled
(FY2013–14)
Vessel Traffic
(FY2012–13)
Container Traffic
million tonnes  % Increase
(over previous FY)
million tonnes  % Increase
(over previous FY)
'000 TEUs  % Increase
(over previous FY)
Visakhapatnam 80.00 -0.91% ↓ 2,066 -16.36% ↓ 263 6.48% ↑
Chennai 51.11 -4.30% ↓ 1,928 -5.63% ↓ 1,468 -4.68% ↓
Mangalore 39.37 6.29% ↑ 1,096 -5.11% ↓ 50 4.17% ↑
Tuticorin 28.64 1.35% ↑ 1,292 -13.40% ↓ 508 6.72% ↑
Ennore 27.34 -52.85% ↓ 475 23.38% ↑ -- --
Kochi 20.89 5.25% ↑ 1,367 -1.09% ↓ 351 4.78% ↑

The Kerala backwaters are a network of interconnected canals, rivers, lakes and inlets, a labyrinthine system formed by more than 900 km of waterways.[225] In the midst of this landscape, there are a number of towns and cities, which serve as the starting and end points of transportation services and backwater cruises.[226]

The Eastern Naval Command and Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy are headquartered at Visakhapatnam and Kochi respectively.[227][228] Indian Navy has its major operational bases in Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Kochi, Karwar and Kavaratti in the region.[229][230][231]

Flora and fauna

South India has the largest elephant population

There is a wide diversity of plants and animals in South India, resulting from its varied climates and geography. Deciduous forests are found along the Western Ghats while tropical dry forests and scrub lands Deccan thorn scrub forests are common in the interior Deccan plateau. The southern Western Ghats have high altitude rain forests called the South Western Ghats montane rain forests. The Malabar Coast moist forests are found on the coastal plains.[232] The Western Ghats is one of the eight hottest biodiversity hotspots in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[233][234][235]

Some of India's major protected areas are found in South India. These include Project Tiger reserves Periyar National Park, Kalakad – Mundanthurai, Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary and Nagarjunsagar Wildlife Sanctuary.[236] Important ecological regions of South India are the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, located at the conjunction of the borders of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the Nilgiri Hills including Mudumalai National Park, Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park, Silent Valley National Park, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary and the Anamalai Hills including the Eravikulam National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary and Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park in the Western Ghats. Bird sanctuaries including Vedanthangal, Ranganathittu, Kumarakom, Neelapattu and Pulicat are home to numerous migratory and local birds.[237][238] Lakshadweep has been declared a bird sanctuary by the Wildlife Institute of India.[239] Other protected ecological sites include the backwaters like the Pulicat Lake in Andhra Pradesh, Pichavaram in Tamil Nadu and the backwaters of Kerala formed by the Vembanad Lake, the Ashtamudi Lake, the Paravur Lake and the Kayamkulam Lake.

Symbols of States of South India
Name Animal Bird Tree Fruit Flower
Andhra Pradesh[240] Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) Indian roller (Coracias indica) Neem (Azadirachta indica) Mango (Mangifera indica) Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)
Karnataka[241] Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Indian roller (Coracias indica) Sandal (Santalum album) Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)
Kerala[242][243] Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) Coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Kani konna (Cassia fistula)
Tamil Nadu[244][245] Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius) Emerald dove ('Chalcophaps indica) Palm tree (Borassus flabellifer) Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Glory lily (Gloriosa superba)
Telangana[246] Deer (Axis axis) Indian roller (Coracias indica) Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) Mango (Mangifera indica) Tanner's Cassia (Senna auriculata)
Puducherry[247] Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus) Bael fruit tree (Aegle marmelos) Cannonball (Couroupita guianensis)
Lakshadweep[248][249] Butterfly fish (Chaetodon falcula) Noddy tern (Anous stolidus) Bread fruit tree (Artocarpus incisa)

Notes

  1. "The Better Half by Ramachandra Guha". Outlook. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Also A Head For Numbers | Jul 16,2007". Outlook. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India". NCBI. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Census 2011, Chapter 6 (State of Literacy), p.14" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "NFHS India". NFHS. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Henry Yule, A. C. Burnell. Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India. Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-164583-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Origins of the word 'Carnatic' in the Hobson Jobson Dictionary". Retrieved 15 September 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Agarwal D.P. (2006). Urban Origins in India (PDF). Uppsala University.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. T. K. Velu Pillai, 1940; Wilfred Schoff 1912 "Periplus Maris Erythraei" (trans) 1912, Menachery, G 1998; James Hough 1893; K.V. Krishna Iyer 1971
  10. (Bjorn Landstrom, 1964; Miller, J. Innes. 1969; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; & Koder S. 1973; Leslie Brown, 1956
  11. Elisseeff, Vadime (2001). The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce. UNESCO Publishing / Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-92-3-103652-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "They administered our region". The Hindu. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Nilakanta Sastri 1955, p. 216
  14. Hibbert 2000, p. 221
  15. Mazumdar 1917, p. 58
  16. Mazumdar 1917, p. 59
  17. "Article 1". Constitution of India. Law Ministry, GOI. Retrieved 31 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of law and justice, Government of India. Retrieved 3 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Edward Balfour (1885). The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial Industrial, and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures. Bernard Quaritch. pp. 1017–1018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. James Outram (1853). A few brief Memoranda of some of the public services rendered by Lieut.-Colonel Outram, C. B.: Printed for private circulation. Smith Elder and Company. p. 31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities". Nature. Retrieved 16 Nov 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "UN designates Western Ghats as world heritage site". Times of India. Retrieved 2 July 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Eparchaean Unconformity, Tirumala Ghat section". Geological Survey of India. Retrieved 20 September 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Geological Monuments of India. Eparchaean Unconformity (Tirupati Tirupati Road). Geological Survey of India. 2001. pp. 5–8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Eagan, J. S. C (1916). The Nilgiri Guide And Directory. Chennai: S.P.C.K. Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Adam's bridge". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Map of Sri Lanka with Palk Strait and Palk Bay" (PDF). UN. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Kanyakumari alias Cape Comorin". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Dr. Jadoan, Atar Singh (September 2001). Military Geography of South-East Asia. India: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 270 pages. ISBN 81-261-1008-2. Retrieved 2008-06-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "The Deccan Peninsula". Sanctuary Asia. 5 January 2001.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "Eastern Deccan Plateau Moist Forests". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 5 January 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "What really killed the dinosaurs?". MIT News Office. 11 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "India's Smoking Gun: Dino-killing Eruptions". ScienceDaily. 10 August 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Deccan Plateau". Britnnica. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Thammineni Pullaiah, D. Muralidhara Rao, K. Sri Ramamurthy. Flora of Eastern Ghats: Hill Ranges of South East India. Retrieved 1 January 2015. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types: The Köppen System". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 205–211. ISBN 0-13-020263-0. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Chouhan, T. S. (1992). Desertification in the World and Its Control. Scientific Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7233-043-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. "India's heat wave tragedy". BBC. 17 May 2002.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Caviedes, C. N. (18 September 2001). El Niño in History: Storming Through the Ages (1st ed.). University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-2099-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. World Wildlife Fund (2001). "South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests". WildWorld Ecoregion Profile. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 2010-03-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. "South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "North East Monsoon". IMD. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. Robert V. Rohli, Anthony J. Vega (2007). Climatology. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-7637-3828-0. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "Annual frequency of cyclonic disturbances (Maximum sustained windspeeds of 17 knots or more), Cyclones (34 knots or more) and Severe Cyclones (48 knots or more) over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS) and land surface of India" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "The only difference between a hurricane, a cyclone, and a typhoon is the location where the storm occurs". NOAA. Retrieved October 1, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. "hurricane". Oxford dictionary. Retrieved October 1, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. 49.0 49.1 "ISO Online Browsing Platform". ISO. Retrieved 4 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. 50.0 50.1 "Code List: 3229". UN/EDIFACT. GEFEG. Retrieved 25 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. 51.0 51.1 "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (pdf). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 14 January 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (pdf). AP govt. portal. p. 43. Retrieved 11 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. 53.0 53.1 "Telangana State Profile" (PDF). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. 54.0 54.1 "Population of Telangana" (pdf). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". The Times Of India. 2 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice. Government of India. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section" (PDF). 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. Sanchari Bhattacharya (June 1, 2014). "Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts". NDTV.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Maternal & Child Mortality and Total Fertility Rates" (PDF). India: Office of Registrar General. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Ishtiaq, M. (1999). Language Shifts Among the Scheduled Tribes in India: A Geographical Study. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-81-208-1617-6. Retrieved 7 September 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. "Comparative Speaker's Strength of Scheduled Languages – 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001". Census of India. 1991.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. "CIA factbook". Retrieved 11 April 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "SRS Report 2012" (PDF). Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 19 April 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index for India's States 2011" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 13 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "Economic Freedom of the States of India: 2013" (PDF). Cato Institute. 2013. p. 24. Retrieved 29 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "Households access to safe drinking water". Government of India. Retrieved April 21, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "Access to safe drinking water in households in India" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 21 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. "TV ownership". Government of India. Retrieved 21 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. "Missing targets". Frontline. 12 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "Millenium Development Goals - Country report 2015" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. "Browse by Language Family". Ethnologue. 19 February 1999. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. Robert Caldwell., "A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages" 3rd ed. rev. and edited by J.L. Wyatt, T. Ramakrishna Pillai. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1998. ISBN 81-206-0117-3
  73. K.A. Nilakanta Sastri., "A History of South India"7th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  74. "Language in India". Language in India. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. "Census India". Census India. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "Language in India". Language in India. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. Upadhyaya, U. Padmanabha. Coastal Karnataka: Studies in Folkloristic and Linguistic Traditions of Dakshina Kannada Region of the Western Coast of India. Udupi: Rashtrakavi Govind Pai Samshodhana Kendra, 1996. P- ix, ISBN 81-86668-06-3, First All India Conference of Dravidian Linguistics, Thiruvananthapuram, 1973
  78. "India sets up classical languages". BBC. 17 September 2004. Retrieved 1 May 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. "Front Page : Tamil to be a classical language". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 18 September 2004. Retrieved 1 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. "Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as classical languages". Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India. Retrieved 31 October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. "Classical status for Malayalam". Thiruvananthapuram, India: The Hindu. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu" (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. "Ancient Indians made 'rock music'". BBC News. 19 March 2004. Retrieved 7 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. P. 484 Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions By Wendy Doniger, M. Webster, Merriam-Webster, Inc
  85. P. 169 The Encyclopedia of Religion By Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams
  86. P. 22 The Complete Idiot's Guide to Geography By Joseph Gonzalez, Michael D Smith, Thomas E. Sherer
  87. Dr. R.Ponnu's, Sri Vaikunda Swamigal and Struggle for Social Equality in South India, 2000, Page 100, "At present thousands of Pathis (Nizhal Thangals) are seen throughout South India."
  88. "Sufism: origin, history and politics". Southasiaanalysis.org. Retrieved 3 February 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. Erwin Fahlbusch (2008). The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. Orpa Slapak (2003). The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. p. 27. ISBN 965-278-179-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Medlycott, A E. 1905 "India and the Apostle Thomas"; Gorgias Press LLC; ISBN 1-59333-180-0.
  92. Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II.
  93. "Kerala Syrian Christians, Apostle in India". nasrani.net. Retrieved 25 October 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. Koder, S. "History of the Jews of Kerala". The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, ed. G. Menachery, 1973.
  95. Lord, James Henry. (1977) The Jews in India and the Far East. 120 pp.; Greenwood Press Reprint; ISBN 0-8371-2615-0
  96. Katz, Nathan; & Goldberg, Ellen S; (1993) The Last Jews of Cochin: Jewish Identity in Hindu India. Foreword by Daniel J. Elazar, Columbia, SC, Univ. of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-847-6
  97. "Working Paper No. 144 : Economic Growth in Indian States" (PDF). ICRIER. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. "Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) at Current Prices (as on 31-05-2014)" (PDF). Planning Commission Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. "India: A Country Study:Crop Output". Library of Congress, Washington D.C. September 1995. Retrieved March 21, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. "Andhra Pradesh facts". Retrieved 10 April 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. Farooq, Omer (3 June 2004). "BBC". BBC News. Retrieved 10 April 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. Yeboah, Salomey (8 March 2005). "Value Addition to Coffee in India". Cornell Education:Intag 602. Retrieved 2010-10-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. "Nicknames of places in India". Retrieved 28 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. "Manchester of South India". The Indian Express. Retrieved 28 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. "Production of Spice by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. "Possibilities for improving vehicular traffic flow explored". The Hindu. 8 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. "Turmeric at an all-time high price". Economic Times. 29 December 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. "Sericulture note". Government of Tamil Nadu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  109. "Tamil Nadu Poultry Industry Seeks Export Concessions". Retrieved 28 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. "Maharashtra tops FDI equity inflows". Business Standard. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  111. "BusinessLine article on Tamil Nadu Software Exports". Retrieved 5 October 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  112. "Madras, the Detroit of South Asia". rediff.com. 30 April 2004. Retrieved 22 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  113. "India's Gems and Jewellery Market is Glittering". Resource Investor. Retrieved 30 August 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  114. "Industry of Coimbatore". Retrieved 28 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  115. "Lok Sabha Elections 2014: Erode has potential to become a textile heaven says Narendra Modi". DNA India. 17 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  116. "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  117. "Union Territories of India". National Portal of India. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  118. Durga Das Basu (1960). Introduction to the Constitution of India. LexisNexis Butterworths. pp. 241, 245. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. 119.0 119.1 119.2 119.3 "State and local governments of India". Britannica. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  120. "Lok Sabha Introduction". National Informatics Centre, Government of India. Retrieved 22 September 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  121. "Rajya Sabha". Indian Parliament. Retrieved 8 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  122. Ralhan 2002 , p. 180
  123. Ralhan 2002 , p. 199
  124. W.B. 2005, pp. 3–8
  125. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  126. Hasan, Zoya (2 February 2003). "The democratisation of politics". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 April 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  127. Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 164.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  128. "Telugu Desam Party turns 29, NT Rama Rao remembered". DNA India. Retrieved 31 May 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  129. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  130. Sarina Singh; Amy Karafin; Anirban Mahapatra (1 September 2009). South India. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74179-155-6. Retrieved 6 January 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  131. Price, Pamela. "Ideological Elements in Political Instability in Karnataka" (PDF). University of Oslo.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  132. Ramachandra Guha (15 April 2006). "Why Amartya Sen should become the next president of India". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 November 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  133. "Giri, Shri Varahagiri Venkata". Vice President's Secretariat. Retrieved 30 November 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  134. Bhargava, G.S. "Making of the Prez – Congress chief selects PM as well as President". The Tribune. India. Retrieved 6 January 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  135. Hazarika, Sanjoy (17 July 1987). "Man in the News; India's Mild New President: Ramaswamy Venkataraman". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 January 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  136. "Narayanan, Shri K, R". Vice President's Secretariat. Retrieved 6 December 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  137. Ramana, M. V.; Reddy, C. Rammanohar (2002). Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream. New Delhi: Orient Longman. p. 169.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  138. SA Aiyar (26 June 2011). "Unsung hero of the India story". Times of India. Twenty years ago, Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister and initiated economic reforms that transformed India.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  139. Beck, Brenda. 1976. "The Symbolic Merger of Body, Space, and Cosmos in Hindu Tamil Nadu." Contributions to Indian Sociology 10(2): 213-43.
  140. Bharata (1967). The Natyashastra [Dramaturgy], 2 vols., 2nd. ed. Trans. by Manomohan Ghosh. Calcutta: Manisha Granthalaya.
  141. Boulanger, Chantal; (1997) Saris: An Illustrated Guide to the Indian Art of Draping, Shakti Press International, New York. ISBN 0-9661496-1-0
  142. Dehejia, Vidya, Richard H. Davis, R. Nagaswamy, Karen Pechilis Prentiss (2002) The Sensuous and the Sacred: Chola Bronzes from South India. ISBN 0-295-98284-5
  143. Kallarasa Virachita Janavasya Ed: G.G. Manjunathan. Kannada Adhyayana Samsthe, University of Mysore, Mysore 1974
  144. Wadley, Susan, ed. 1980. The Powers of Tamil Women. Syracuse: Syracuse U. Press.
  145. 145.0 145.1 145.2 Boulanger, Chantal (1997). Saris: An Illustrated Guide to the Indian Art of Draping. New York: Shakti Press International. ISBN 0-9661496-1-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  146. Lynton, Linda (1995). The Sari. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Incorporated. ISBN 0-8109-4461-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  147. Parthasarathy, R. (1993). The Tale of an Anklet: An Epic of South India – The Cilappatikaram of Ilanko Atikal, Translations from the Asian Classics. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 0-231-07849-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  148. Anita Rao Kashi. "How to Wear a Sari in India". World Hum. Retrieved 18 March 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  149. "Indian Sari Comes West to American Women". Palm Beach Daily News. 9 November 1964. Retrieved 20 March 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  150. "Madisar Pudavai". Tamilnadu.com. 5 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  151. "About Dhoti". Britannica. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  152. 152.0 152.1 152.2 "Clothing in India". Britannica. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  153. "Food Balance Sheets and Crops Primary Equivalent". FAO. Retrieved 17 August 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  154. Czarra, Fred (2009). Spices: A Global History. Reaktion Books. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-86189-426-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  155. Dalby, Andrew (2002). Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices. Berkeley: University of California Press,.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  156. Molina, A.B., Roa, V.N., Van den Bergh, I., Maghuyop, M.A. Advancing banana and plantain R & D in Asia and the Pacific. p. 84. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  157. "Serving on a banana leaf". ISCKON. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  158. "The Benefits Of Eating Food On Banana Leaves". India Times. 9 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  159. K.T. Achaya (1 November 2003). The Story of Our Food. Universities Press. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-81-7371-293-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  160. D. Balasubramanian (21 October 2014). "Changes in the Indian menu over the ages". The Hindu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  161. "The Telangana Table". Lesley A. Outlook Traveller. 1 June 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  162. "Varieties from Chettinad cuisine". The Hindu. 26 May 2003.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  163. "The Hindu : Sci Tech / Speaking Of Science : The music of we primates: Nada Brahmam". Hindu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  164. Terada, Yoshitaka. "Temple Music Traditions in Hindu South India: "Periya Melam" and its Performance Practice." Asian Music 39.2 (2008): 108-51. ProQuest. Web. 24 Sep. 2013.
  165. International Tamil Language Foundation (2000). The Handbook of Tamil Culture and Heritiage. Chicago: International Tamil Language Foundation. p. 1201.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  166. bharata-natya Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007
  167. Samson, Leela (1987). Rhythm in Joy: Classical Indian Dance Traditions. New Delhi: Lustre Press Pvt. Ltd. p. 29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  168. Banerjee, Projesh (1983). Indian Ballet Dancing. New Jersey: Abhinav Publications. p. 43.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  169. Bowers, Faubion (1967). The Dance in India. New York: AMS Press, Inc. pp. 13 & 15.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  170. "Metro Plus Chennai / Madras Miscellany : The pioneer 'Tamil' film-maker". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  171. Velayutham, Selvaraj. Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. p. 2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  172. Muthiah, S. (7 September 2009). "The pioneer 'Tamil' film-maker". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  173. "He brought cinema to South". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  174. Rajadhyaksha, Ashish (1998). Oxford Guide to Film Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 65.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  175. K. Moti Gokulsing, Wimal Dissanyake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  176. Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  177. "Indian Feature Films certified during the year 2014". Retrieved 19 Jul 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  178. Zvelebil, Kamil (1973). The smile of Murugan on Tamil literature of South India. Leiden. Zvelebil dates the Ur-Tolkappiyam to the 1st or 2nd century BCE<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  179. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  180. Ramanujan, A. K. (1973). Speaking of Śiva. Penguin. p. 11. ISBN 0-14-044270-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  181. R.S. Mugali (2006). The Heritage of Karnataka. pp. 173–175. ISBN 1-4067-0232-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  182. Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 16. ISBN 81-206-0313-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  183. "Malayalam Language". Britannica. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  184. Harman, William P. (1992). The sacred marriage of a Hindu goddess. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  185. Fergusson, James (1997) [1910]. History of Indian and Eastern Architecture (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Low Price Publications. p. 309.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  186. Ching, Francis D.K.; et al. (2007). A Global History of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 762. ISBN 0-471-26892-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  187. Ching, Francis D.K. (1995). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 253. ISBN 0-471-28451-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  188. Mitchell, George (1988). The Hindu Temple. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 151–153. ISBN 0-226-53230-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  189. "Gopuram". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20 January 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  190. "Govt declares Golden Quadrilateral complete". The Indian Express. 7 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  191. "National Highways Development Project Map". National Highways Institute of India.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  192. "List of highways by state". NHAI. Retrieved 21 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  193. "Basic Road Statistics of India 2014". Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  194. "Road Transport Yearbook 2011–2012". Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India. 2012. p. 115. Retrieved April 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  195. "Indian Tramway Limited". Herepath's Railway and Commercial Journal. 32 (1595): 3. January 1, 1870.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  196. "Always the second station". The Hindu. 3 July 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  197. Shyam Rungta (1970). The Rise of Business Corporations in India, 1851–1900. Cambridge U.P. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-07354-7. British investment in Indian railway reaches £100m by 1875<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  198. "Origin and development of Southern Railway" (PDF). Retrieved 14 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  199. "Railways". The Cambridge Economic History of India, Vol 2, page 755. Orient Longmans Private Limited. Retrieved 13 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  200. "Third oldest railway station in country set to turn 156". Indian Railways. Retrieved 13 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  201. "Chapter 1 - Evolution of Indian Railways-Historical Background". Ministry of Railways. Retrieved 13 February 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  202. "About Us". South Central Railway. Retrieved 20 Sep 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  203. Year Book 2009. Bright Publications. p. 569.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  204. "Nilgiri Mountain Railway". railtourismindia.com. Retrieved 8 March 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  205. "Chennai Railway Division". Railway Board. Southern Railway zone. Retrieved 24 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  206. "Tiruchirappalli Railway Division". Railway Board. Southern Railway zone. Retrieved 24 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  207. "Madurai Railway Division". Railway Board. Southern Railway zone. Retrieved 24 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  208. "Palakkad Railway Division". Railway Board. Southern Railway zone. Retrieved 24 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  209. "Salem Railway Division". Railway Board. Southern Railway zone. Retrieved 24 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  210. "Thiruvananthapuram Railway Division". Railway Board. Southern Railway zone. Retrieved 24 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  211. "Secunderabad Railway Division". Railway Board. South Central Railway zone. Retrieved 24 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  212. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  213. "Waltair Railway Division". Railway Board. East Coast Railway zone. Retrieved 29 May 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  214. "Civil Aviation". Transport Corporation of India Ltd. Retrieved 21 July 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  215. Ayyappan, V. (21 August 2009). "When Good Old Madras Took Wing". The Times of India. Chennai: The Times Group. Retrieved 25 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  216. "History of Chennai Airport". Office of the Commissioner of Customs. Retrieved 3 December 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  217. "Regional Headquarters". Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 30 December 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  218. "Traffic Statistics-2015(April-September)" (PDF). AAI. Retrieved 26 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  219. "Aircraft Movements-2015" (PDF). AAI. Retrieved 26 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  220. "Cargo Statistics-2015" (PDF). AAI. Retrieved 26 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  221. "Indian Air Force". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 29 June 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  222. "Organisation of Southern Naval Command". Indian Navy. Retrieved 26 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  223. "ENC Authorities & Units". Indian Navy. Retrieved 26 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  224. "List of ports".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  225. "Austin Pick: A Billion People in a Coconut Shell". Retrieved 28 December 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  226. "Prime Destinations in Kerala for Backwater Tour". Retrieved 1 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  227. "Vizag based Eastern naval command". Times of India. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  228. "Southern naval command". Indian Navy. Retrieved 1 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  229. "INS Kadamba". Indian Navy. Retrieved 4 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  230. "India set to drop anchor off China". Deccan Chronicle. 26 June 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  231. "Navy commissions full-scale station in Lakshadweep". The Hindu. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  232. "Indo-Malayan Terrestrial Ecoregions". Retrieved 15 April 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  233. "Biodiversity Hotspot – Western Ghats & Sri Lanka, Conservation International". Retrieved 15 April 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  234. "Western Ghats". UNESCO. Retrieved 21 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  235. Clara Lewis, TNN 3 Jul 2012, 04.02AM IST (3 July 2007). "39 sites in Western Ghats get world heritage status". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 February 2014. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  236. Panwar, H. S. (1987). Project Tiger: The reserves, the tigers, and their future. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, N.J. pp. 110–117.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  237. H.R. Baker and Chas. M. Inglis (1930). The birds of southern India, including Madras, Malabar, Travancore, Cochin, Coorg and Mysore. Madras: Superintendent, Government Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  238. Richard Grimmett and Tim Inskipp (November 30, 2005). Birds Of Southern India. A&C Black.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  239. "List of proposals" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  240. "Symbols of AP". andhrabulletin.in. Retrieved 15 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  241. "Symbols of Karnataka". Government of Karnataka. Retrieved 15 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  242. "Symbols of Kerala". knowindia.gov.in. Retrieved 17 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  243. "Symbols of Kerala". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 17 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  244. "Symbols of Tamil Nadu". knowindia.gov.in. Retrieved 12 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  245. "Symbols of Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 12 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  246. "Telangana symbols". Government of Telangana. Retrieved 2 January 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  247. "Tamil Nadu News : Puducherry comes out with list of State symbols". The Hindu. 21 April 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  248. "Symbols of Lakshadweep". knowindia.gov.in. Retrieved 17 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  249. "Symbols of Lakshadweep" (PDF). lakshadweep.in. Retrieved 17 October 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

References and bibliography

  • Beck, Brenda. 1976. "The Symbolic Merger of Body, Space, and Cosmos in Hindu Tamil Nadu." Contributions to Indian Sociology 10(2): 213–43.
  • Bharata (1967). The Natyashastra [Dramaturgy], 2 vols., 2nd. ed. Trans. by Manomohan Ghosh. Calcutta: Manisha Granthalaya.
  • Boulanger, Chantal; (1997) Saris: An Illustrated Guide to the Indian Art of Draping, Shakti Press International, New York. ISBN 0-9661496-1-0
  • Craddock, Norma. 1994. Anthills, Split Mothers, and Sacrifice: Conceptions of Female Power in the Mariyamman Tradition. Dissertation, U. of California, Berkeley.
  • Danielou, Alain, trans. 1965. Shilappadikaram (The Ankle Bracelet) By Prince Ilango Adigal. New York: New Directions. ISBN 0-8112-0001-9
  • Dehejia, Vidya, Richard H. Davis, R. Nagaswamy, Karen Pechilis Prentiss (2002) The Sensuous and the Sacred: Chola Bronzes from South India. ISBN 0-295-98284-5
  • Hart, George, ed. and trans. 1979. Poets of the Tamil Anthologies: Ancient Poems of Love and War. Princeton: Princeton U. Press
  • Kallarasa Virachita Janavasya Ed: G.G. Manjunathan. Kannada Adhyayana Samsthe, University of Mysore, Mysore 1974.
  • Gover, Charles. 1983 (1871). Folk-songs of Southern India. Madras: The South India Saiva Siddhanta Works Publishing Society.
  • Nagaraju, S. 1990. "Prehistory of South India". In South Indian Studies, H. M. Nayak and B. R. Gopal, eds., Mysore: Geetha Book House, pp. 35–52.
  • Trawick, Margaret. 1990a. Notes on Love in a Tamil Family. Berkeley: U. of California Press.
  • Wadley, Susan, ed. 1980. The Powers of Tamil Women. Syracuse: Syracuse U. Press.
  • Zvelebil, Kamil. 1975. Tamil Literature. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-04190-7
  • Economy referenced from the Encyclopaedia Britannica online.
  • Some economic statistics from Union Budget and Economic Survey, Government of India. URL accessed 10 April 2006.
  • Menachery G (1973) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, B.N.K. Press, vol. 2, ISBN 81-87132-06-X, Lib. Cong. Cat. Card. No. 73-905568; B.N.K. Press
  • Mundalan, A. Mathias. (1984) History of Christianity in India, vol.1, Bangalore, India: Church History Association of India.
  • Leslie Brown, (1956) The Indian Christians of St. Thomas. An Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1956, 1982 (repr.)
  • Podipara, Placid J. (1970) "The Thomas Christians". London: Darton, Longman and Tidd, 1970.
  • Menachery G (ed); (1998) "The Indian Church History Classics", Vol. I, The Nazranies, Ollur, 1998. [ISBN 81-87133-05-8].
  • David de Beth Hillel (1832) "travels"; madras publication;
  • Menachery G (ed) (1982) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, B.N.K. Press, vol. 1;
  • Lord, James Henry (1977) "The Jews in India and the Far East"; Greenwood Press Reprint; ISBN 0-8371-2615-0.
  • Poomangalam C. A. (1998) The Antiquities of the Knanaya Syrian Christians; Kottayam, Kerala.
  • James Hough (1893) "The History of Christianity in India".
  • K.V. Krishna Iyer (1971) Kerala's Relations with the Outside World, pp. 70, 71 in "The Cochin Synagogue Quatercentenary Celebrations Commemoration Volume", Kerala History Association, Cochin.
  • Periplus Maris Erythraei "The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea", (trans). Wilfred Schoff (1912), reprinted South Asia Books 1995 ISBN 81-215-0699-9
  • Miller, J. Innes. (1969). The Spice Trade of The Roman Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Oxford University Press. Special edition for Sandpiper Books. 1998. ISBN 0-19-814264-1.
  • Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II., Trichur.
  • Koder S. 'History of the Jews of Kerala". The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. G. Menachery,1973.
  • Vellian Jacob (2001) Knanite community: History and culture; Syrian church series; vol. XVII; Jyothi Book House, Kottayam
  • Weil, S. (1982) "Symmetry between Christians and Jews in India: The Cananite Christians and Cochin Jews in Kerala. in Contributions to Indian Sociology,16.
  • Bjorn Landstrom (1964) "The Quest for India", Double day English Edition, Stockholm.
  • T. K. Velu Pillai, (1940) "The Travancore State Manual"; 4 volumes; Trivandrum
  • Caldwell, R (1998) "A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages" 3rd ed. rev. and edited by J.L. Wyatt, T. Ramakrishna Pillai. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0117-3
  • Bloch, J. (1954) "The grammatical structure of Dravidian Languages". tr. of 'Structure grammaticale des langues Dravidiennes' (1946) Poona: Deccan College Handbook Series.

External links

Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.