Soviet occupation of Romania
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|History of Romania|
The Soviet occupation of Romania refers to the period from 1944 to August 1958, during which the Soviet Union maintained a significant military presence in Romania. The fate of the eastern territories of Romania occupied by the Red Army and eventually incorporated into the Soviet Union is treated separately in the article on Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina.
During the Eastern Front offensive of 1944, the Soviet Army occupied what had been the Kingdom of Romania prior to the military occupation. The northwestern part of Moldavia was occupied as a result of armed combat that took place between the months of May and August of that year, while Romania was still an ally of Nazi Germany. The rest of the territory was occupied after Romania changed sides in World War II, as a result of the royal coup launched by King Michael on August 23, 1944. On that date, the King announced that Romania had unilaterally ceased all military actions against the Allied forces, accepted the Allied armistice offer, and joined the war against the Axis Powers. As no formal armistice offer had been extended yet, the Red Army occupied most of Romania as enemy territory prior to the signing of the Moscow Armistice of September 12, 1944.
The armistice convention and eventually the Paris Peace Treaties of 1947 provided a legal basis for the Soviet military presence in Romania, which lasted until 1958, reaching a peak of some 615,000 in 1946.
Soviet authors and the 1952 Constitution of Romania referred to the events of 1944 as the "liberation of Romania by the glorious Soviet Army". On the other hand, most Romanian and Western sources use the term "Soviet occupation of Romania," some applying it to the whole period from 1944 to 1958.
- 1 Background and beginning of the occupation
- 2 Founding documents
- 3 Soviet forces in Romania, 1944–1956
- 4 Reorganization of the Romanian Army
- 5 Reorganization of the security services
- 6 Expulsion of Germans
- 7 SovRoms
- 8 Comparison with Soviet occupation of other Eastern Bloc countries
- 9 In popular culture
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
Background and beginning of the occupation
After having withdrawn its troops from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina in response to the June 1940 Soviet Ultimatum, Romania entered an alliance with Nazi Germany and declared war on the Soviet Union. Romanian troops entered World War II in 1941 as part of Operation Barbarossa, under the German High Command. Following the recapturing of the territory annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, Romanian troops occupied Southern Ukraine all the way to the Southern Bug. However, Romania's eastern campaign ended in disaster, notably at Stalingrad.
By the end of 1943, the Red Army had regained control over most of the Soviet territory, and was advancing westward beyond the borders of USSR to defeat Nazi Germany and its allies. It was in this context that the Soviet forces crossed into Romania and occupied Northern and Eastern Moldavia.
On August 23, 1944 King Michael launched a coup d'état, thereby overthrowing the pro-Nazi government of Ion Antonescu, and putting Romania's Army on the side of the Allies. As a result, King Michael was spared the fate of another former German ally, Prince Kyril, Regent of Bulgaria, who was executed by the Soviets in 1945. As a matter of fact, King Michael was the last monarch behind the Iron Curtain to lose his throne, on December 30, 1947.
The coup facilitated the advance of the Red Army into Romania at an accelerated pace, and enabled the Romanian Army to liberate the country from the German occupation. In the absence of an actual signed armistice, the Soviet troops continued to treat the Romanians as a hostile force. The armistice was signed three weeks later, on September 12, 1944, "on terms Moscow virtually dictated." The coup effectively amounted to a "capitulation", an "unconditional" "surrender" to the Soviets and the rest of the Allies. In the wake of the cease fire order given by King Michael, between 114,000 and 160,000 Romanian soldiers were taken prisoners of war by the Soviets without resisting, and they were forced to march to remote detention camps, located in the Soviet Union; about a third of the prisoners perished on the way.
By September 12, the Red Army had already gained control over much of the Romanian territory. Under the terms of its Armistice Agreement with the Allies, Romania became subject to an Allied Control Commission, composed of representatives of the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom, while the Soviet military command exercised predominant, de facto authority. Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina were again incorporated into the Soviet Union.
The Armistice Agreement
- "The Government and High Command of Rumania will ensure to the Soviet and other Allied forces facilities for free movement on Rumanian territory in any direction if required by the military situation, the Rumanian Government and High Command of Rumania giving such movement every possible assistance with their own means of communications and at their own expense on land, on water and in the air."
Article 18 of the same agreement stipulated that
- "An Allied Control Commission will be established which will undertake until the conclusion of peace the regulation of and control over the execution of the present terms under the general direction and orders of the Allied (Soviet) High Command, acting on behalf of the Allied Powers. In the Annex to Article 18, it was made clear that "The Rumanian Government and their organs shall fulfill all instructions of the Allied Control Commission arising out of the Armistice Agreement", and that The Allied Control Commission would have its seat in Bucharest.
The plenipotentiary signatories to the armistice as indicated therein were:
- Allied powers: "representative of the Allied (Soviet) High Command, Marshal of the Soviet Union, R. Y. Malinovski, duly authorized hereto by the Governments of the United States of America; the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom."
- Romania: "Minister of State and Minister of Justice L. Patrascanu, Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs, Adjutant of His Majesty the King of Rumania General D. Damaceanu, Prince Stirbey, and Mr. G. Popp."
Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
The effect of the Armistice Agreement ceased on September 15, 1947, when the Paris Peace Treaty with Romania entered into force. Article 21, paragraph 1 of the new treaty provided the legal foundation for continued and unlimited Soviet military presence in Romania:
- Upon the coming into force of the present Treaty, all Allied Forces shall, within a period of 90 days, be withdrawn from Roumania, subject to the right of the Soviet Union to keep on Roumanian territory such armed forces as it may need for the maintenance of the lines of communication of the Soviet Army with the Soviet zone of occupation in Austria.
The Romanian delegation at the Paris Conference was headed by Minister of Foreign Affairs Gheorghe Tătărescu. The Peace Treaty with Romania was signed on February 10, 1947, in the Salon de l'Horloge of the Ministère des Affaires Étrangères. On the Romanian side, the four signatories were Gheorghe Tătărescu, Lucrețiu Pătrășcanu, Ștefan Voitec, and Dumitru Dămăceanu. The signatories for the Allied powers included United States Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, and British Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Ernest Bevin.
Soviet forces in Romania, 1944–1956
|May 8, 1945||80,000|
|November 1, 1945||500,000|
|January 4, 1946||420,000|
|March 1, 1946||615,000|
|June 1, 1946||400,000|
|November 1, 1946||240,000|
|1947||60,000 – 130,000|
|May 1 – July 1, 1948||35,000|
|October 1, 1948||32,000|
|July 1, 1949||28,000|
|October 1, 1949||19,000|
|January 1, 1950||32,000|
|April 1, 1950||33,000|
|September 1, 1950 –
After the conclusion of the Armistice Agreement in 1944, Soviet troops occupied the entire territory of Romania. Estimates of troop levels vary between 750,000 and 1 million (estimates of British military officials), to between 1 and 1.5 million (estimates of the Romanian General Staff); many Western diplomats and experts refer to more than 1 million Soviet troops.
On November 8, 1945, King Michael's name day, an anti-communist demonstration in front of the Royal Palace in Bucharest was met with force, resulting in dozens of casualties. Soviet officers restrained Romanian soldiers and police from firing on civilians, and Soviet troops restored order.
The estimated strength of Soviet forces stationed in Romania (including air, navy, ground, and security troops), from VE Day to 1952, is shown in the table on the right.
During the second half of 1946, more than half of the combat capabilities of the Soviet Air Forces were residing outside the USSR, with the largest portion in Poland and Romania (2,500 planes in each country). The troop levels surged to a high of 615,000 in March 1946, but they were drawn down after the conclusion of the Peace Treaty in 1947. By the end of 1946, Soviet units in Romania were concentrated in five areas: Craiova–Slatina, Sibiu–Alba-Iulia, Constanța, and Brăila–Focșani. Troop levels reach a relatively stable level from May 1948 until October 1956: two full divisions, plus supporting units adding up to roughly a third division.
Although with the signing of the Austrian State Treaty in 1955 the reason for the presence of Soviet troops as stated in the Paris Peace Treaties ceased to exist, Premier Gheorghiu-Dej announced that these troops would stay as long as foreign soldiers continue to be stationed in West Germany.
Soviet troops stationed in Romania participated in the suppression of the Hungarian Revolution of November 1956. Soviet troop facilities inside Romania were off limits to all Romanians at the time.
Reorganization of the Romanian Army
|Land forces||120,000 officers and troops|
|Anti-aircraft forces||5,000 officers and troops|
|Naval forces||5,000 officers and troops|
|Air forces||8,000 officers and troops|
|Total||138,000 officers and troops|
The Soviet occupation of Romania led to a complete reorganization of the Romanian Army under the supervision of Soviet Army representatives. The manpower of the Romanian army was limited by the Paris peace treaty to a total of 138,000 (officers and troops); however, under the Soviet occupation it grew far beyond the limits imposed by the treaty, through increasing militarization of Romania's population. By 1953, regular army forces had grown to approximately 300,000; reserve army forces to approximately 135,000; and "interior" forces (border guards, security brigades, et al.) under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior to over 325,000.
At the inception of this organizational overhaul, pro-German elements were purged from the Romanian armed forces. In 1944–45, two divisions composed of Romanian volunteers— former prisoners of war, trained and indoctrinated in the Soviet Union during the war, and also Communist activists such as Valter Roman— were formed: the Tudor Vladimirescu Division, under the command of Colonel Nicolae Cambrea, and the Horia, Cloşca şi Crişan Division, under the command of General Mihail Lascăr (who was to serve as Minister of Defense from 1946 to 1947). These two units were to form the nucleus of the new Romanian Army under Soviet control. Once the Romanian Communist Party took the reins of power, 30% of officers and noncommissioned officers (mostly experienced soldiers, but at the same time a potential source of opposition to the Sovietization of the Army) were purged from the military.
Following the Romanian Workers' Party seizure of political power, the Sovietization of the Romanian army went into full gear, under the supervision of the new Minister of Defense, Emil Bodnăraş. This reorganization involved the adoption of the Soviet model of military and political organization, and a change of the military doctrine of combat and defense, in the context of Romania's integration into the Soviet strategic system, at the dawn of the Cold War.
Soviet officers were appointed as advisers charged with supervising the thorough reorganization of the army. They held leadership and surveillance positions in the main institutions of the state, but also in areas of lesser importance. In the beginning, they only held a few positions in the Ministry of Defense, the General Staff, and the political sections inside the army. With the passage of time, the number of Soviet advisers gradually increased, while at the same time their positions became permanent. In November 1952, there were 105 permanent and 17 temporary Soviet adviser positions in military schools. After 1955, their number began to decrease: 72 in 1955, 63 in 1956, 25 in 1957 and 10 in 1958.
After 1945, new military regulations were developed, following the templates of the Red Army, and they were finalized in 1949–1952. Consequently, a number of officers and military students were sent to the Soviet Union to complete their training. Between 1949 and 1952, 717 Romanian students were being trained in the USSR, while in 1958 471 Romanian military students were pursuing education in the USSR. Their number decreased in the following years.
Reorganization of the security services
Immediately following the August 23, 1944 events, communists began to infiltrate the Ministry of Internal Affairs on a large scale. The General Directorate of the Security of the People (Romanian initials: DGSP, but more commonly just called the Securitate) was officially founded on August 30, 1948 by Decree 221/30. The Securitate was set up by SMERSH, an NKVD unit charged with dismantling the existing intelligence agencies and replacing them with Soviet-style bodies in the Soviet-occupied countries of Eastern Europe. The SMERSH unit in Romania, called Brigada Mobilă, was led until 1948 by the NKVD colonel Boris Grünberg, also known in Romania as Alexandru Nicolschi. Its stated purpose was to "defend democratic conquests and guarantee the safety of the Romanian Peoples' Republic against both internal and external enemies." The first Director of the Securitate was NKVD general Panteleimon Bondarenko, who also went by the name Gheorghe Pintilie. Alexandru Nicolschi (by then a general) and another Soviet officer, Major General Vladimir Mazuru (born Mazurov), held the two deputy director positions.
Expulsion of Germans
The Red Army played a crucial role in the expulsion of Transylvanian Saxons from Romania that was initiated in January 1945. In October 1944, the Sănătescu government, at the request of the Allied Control Commission, began arresting young Romanian citizens of German descent, who were eventually placed at the disposal of the Soviet command. Faced with ultimatums from the Soviet command, the Rădescu government ordered the forced transportation by train of Transylvanian Saxons to the Soviet Union. In a Protest (dated January 13, 1945), the Rădescu government affirmed the Romanian government's duty to protect each of its citizens, regardless of ethnic origin, and noted the absence of a legal basis for the deportation of the Transylvanian Saxons. Such deportations would be outlawed in 1949 by the Fourth Geneva Convention; its Article 49 states: "Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive."
The SovRoms were Soviet-Romanian joint ventures established on Romanian territory at the end of World War II, and lasting until 1954–1956. An agreement between the two countries regarding the establishment of these enterprises was signed in Moscow on May 8, 1945. In theory, the purpose of these ventures was to generate funding for post-war reconstruction efforts. However, their real purpose was to provide resources for the Soviet side. Generally, they were a contributing factor to the draining of Romania's resources, in addition to the war reparations demanded by the Armistice Agreement and the Paris Peace Treaties, which had been set at 300 million U.S. dollars. The Soviet contribution to the creation of the SovRoms consisted mostly in reselling leftover German equipment to Romania, at systematically overvalued prices. The total value of goods sent from Romania to the Soviet Union was estimated at 2 billion dollars, exceeding by far the amount of war reparations demanded by the Soviets. By 1952, 85% of Romanian exports were directed towards the Soviet Union. The last Sovrom was dissolved in 1956.
One of these companies was Sovromcuarţ, which started its operations in 1950 at the Băiţa mine in Bihor County, under a name that was meant to conceal the true object of its activity. Its initial workforce consisted of 15,000 political prisoners; after most of them died of radiation poisoning, they were replaced by local villagers, who were completely unaware of the fact that they were working with radioactive material. Romania secretly  delivered 17,288 tons of uranium ore to the Soviet Union between 1952 and 1960, which was used, at least in part, in the Soviet atomic bomb project. Uranium mining continued there until 1961. All ore was shipped abroad for processing, initially to Sillamäe in Estonia; the uranium concentrate was then used exclusively by the Soviet Union.
Comparison with Soviet occupation of other Eastern Bloc countries
Comparing the Soviet occupation of Romania to that of Bulgaria, David Stone notes: "Unlike Bulgaria, Romania had few cultural and historical ties with Russia, and had actually waged war on the Soviet Union. As a result, Soviet occupation weighted heavier on the Romanian people, and the troops themselves were less disciplined."
In popular culture
- Davai ceas, davai palton (eng.: give the wristwatch, give the overcoat). The well-known Romanian stage actor Constantin Tănase was performing in Bucharest a year after the arrival of Soviet troops. He used to satirize the soldiers' habit of "requisitioning" all personal property in sight (in particular, wristwatches and coats), demanding them by saying, "Davai ceas, davai palton". There are differing accounts of his demise, in August 1945, but one of them states that he was found dead two days after one of his satirical acts.
- The writer Mihail Sebastian was among the eyewitnesses to the events of 1944. In his diary (Journal, 1935-1944: The Fascist Years), he described the atmosphere in Bucharest at the time, as follows: "Bewilderment, fear, doubt. Russian soldiers rape women (as Dina Cocea was saying yesterday). Soldiers stop cars, let the driver and passengers out, get behind the wheel, and take off. Stores looted. This afternoon, at Zaharia, three of them broke in the safe, taking watches. (The watch is the toy they like the best.)" Sebastian died in a tram accident just weeks after the Soviet Army occupied Romania. His Journal has recently gained a new audience in the West. In 2004, American playwright David Auburn wrote a one-man play, entitled The Journals of Mihail Sebastian; it made its debut the same year in New York City, starring actor Stephen Kunken in the role of Sebastian.
- The 25th Hour. Virgil Gheorghiu's best-known book depicts the plight of a young farmhand, Johann Moritz, under German and Soviet occupation. Johann is sent to a labor camp by a police captain who covets his wife, Suzanna. At first, he is tagged as a Jew. Later, he is "rescued" by a Nazi officer, who forces him into service as a model for German propaganda. Imprisoned after the war, he is severely beaten by his Russian captors, then put on trial by Allied forces because of his work for the Nazis. In 1967, Carlo Ponti produced a film based on this book; directed by Henri Verneuil, it featured Anthony Quinn as Johann and Virna Lisi as Suzanna.
- History of Romania
- Jassy–Kishinev Offensive (August 1944)
- Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
- Potsdam Agreement
- Romania during World War II
- Romanian anti-communist resistance movement
- Southern Group of Forces
- Soviet occupations
- The term "occupation" is widely used by Western and post-Revolutionary Romanian historians. Examples include:
- "Soviet forces occupied Romania in 1944 and stayed for more than a decade." Roger E. Kirk, Mircea Răceanu, Romania Versus the United States: Diplomacy of the Absurd, 1985-1989, p. 2. Palgrave Macmillan, 1994, ISBN 0-312-12059-1.
- "Soviet occupation troops had been withdrawn in 1958." Gordon L. Rottman, Ron Volstad, Warsaw Pact Ground Forces, p. 45. Osprey, 1987, ISBN 0-85045-730-0.
- "The country had to endure a long Soviet occupation (until 1958), and to pay the Soviets massive reparations." Lucian Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, p. 106. Reaktion Books, 2001, ISBN 1-86189-103-2.
- "Soviet occupation forces in Romania [allowed for] unlimited interference in Romanian political life." Verona (Military Occupation and Diplomacy: Soviet Troops in Romania, 1944-1958), p. 31.
- "In June 1958, based on complex arrangements between the Romanians, the Russians, and the Yugoslavs, the occupying Soviet Army units left Romania." Tismăneanu, p. 25. "Romanian communists remained an unappealing marginal group until the occupation of the country by the Red Army in 1944." ibid., p. 59. "The Soviet Army occupied Romanian territory and ... the Soviet-controlled political formation called the RCP was exploiting this state of affairs to establish a Stalinist regime as soon as possible, whatever the human cost." ibid., p. 91.
- "The primary focus is the occupation of the rest of Romania from 1944 to 1958...There is little doubt that the Soviet occupation had a devastating economic, political, and social impact on Romania." Aurel Braun, review of The Red Army in Romania, in Slavic Review, Vol. 61, No. 1, 146-147, Spring 2002.
- "The withdrawal of Soviet troops signified the end of the country's direct military occupation, which lasted 14 years." Istoria României în date, p. 553. Editura Enciclopedică, Bucharest, 2003, ISBN 973-45-0432-0
- "Wisner (who had, as an OSS officer, witnessed the brutal Soviet occupation of Romania)", David F. Rudgers, "The origins of covert action", Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 35 , no. 2 (2000), 249–262
- Flori Stănescu, Dragoş Zamfirescu, Ocupaţia sovietică în România - Documente 1944-1946 (The Soviet Occupation in Romania - Documents 1944-1946). Vremea, 1998, ISBN 973-9423-17-5.
- "The first period of communist rule in Romania, 1944-1958 is defined by Stefan Fisher Galati as the loss of national identity by the destruction of the "bourgeois nationalist" legacy and the diminution of Romania's national sovereignty under a virtual Soviet occupation." Constantin Iordachi, "The Anatomy of a Historical Conflict: Romanian-Hungarian Diplomatic Conflict in the 1980s", MA Thesis, Central European University, 1995-1996.
- (Romanian) Valeriu Rapeanu, "The Dictatorship Has Ended and along with It All Oppression" (from the Proclamation to The Nation of King Michael I on the night of August 23, 1944), Curierul Naţional, August 7, 2004
- "Background Note: Romania", United States Department of State, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, October 2007. The text of the treaty states: "The treaty also required massive war reparations by Romania to the Soviet Union, whose occupying forces left in 1958."
- Verona, pp. 49–51
- (Romanian) Constitutia Republicii Populare Romane 1952
- Country Studies: Romania. Chap. 23. US Library of Congress
- Ioan Vlad, Alexandru Baboş, Războiul României pentru reîntregirea naţională(1941-1945), Ch. 3, in Istoria artei militare, Sibiu, 1996[verification needed]
- "Hitler Resorts To 'Puppets' In Romania", The Washington Post, August 25, 1944
- "King Proclaims Nation's Surrender and Wish to Help Allies", The New York Times, August 24, 1944
- "Bulgaria - Bulgarian resistance to the Axis alliance," Encyclopædia Britannica
- (Romanian) Alexandru Dutu and Florica Dobre, "Generali români in prizonierat"
- Vartan Arachelian "Pamfil Şeicaru despre 23 August: 'Mai multă ruşine, mai puţine victime' ", Ziua, August 16, 2004
- The Armistice Agreement with Rumania
- Verona, pp. 47–51
- Verona, pp. 46–47
- David R. Stone, "The 1945 Ethridge Mission to Bulgaria and Romania and the Origins of the Cold War in the Balkans", Diplomacy & Statecraft, Volume 17, no. 1, March 2006, pp. 93-112.
- Verona, p. 49
- Verona, pp. 58–59
- Gravitational Pull - TIME September 05, 1955
- Verona, p. 104
- Assembly of Captive European Nations, First Session, pp. 65-67
- "Development of the Romanian Armed Forces after World War II", from the Library of Congress Country Studies and the CIA World Factbook
- Oroian, p. 28
- Oroian, p. 29-30
- Oroian, p. 37
- Oroian, p. 38-40
- Oroian, p. 40-41
- Banu, p.28-29; Cioroianu, p.70
- Khrushchev, p. 720
- Banu, p.29; Cioroianu, p.70
- Banu, p.30
- Cioroianu, p.70
- (Romanian) Constantin Tănase: A căzut cortina! ("Constantin Tănase: The Curtain Dropped!"), Jurnalul Naţional, January 15, 2007.
- Cogs & Machines, Time, November 6, 1950
- The Bright Side of the Ax, Time, February 24, 1967
- Romania - History "[From The Library of Congress]: This text comes from the Country Studies Program, formerly the [American] Army Area Handbook Program. The Country Studies Series presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world." See sections "Armistice Negotiations and Soviet Occupation" and "Postwar Romania, 1944-85."
- (Romanian) Andrei Marga, "Deportarea Saşilor Transilvǎneni"
- (Romanian) Ion Alexandrescu, "1945–1956: Din «cleştele» German — în braţele «fratelui» de la răsărit. Societăţile mixte sovieto-române (Sovrom)" ("1945–1956: From the German «Tongs» — into the Arms of the Eastern «Brother». Mixed Soviet-Romanian Societies (Sovrom)"), in Dosarele Istoriei, 3/1996
- (Romanian) Florian Banu, "Uraniu românesc pentru «marele frate»" ("Romanian Uranium for the «Big Brother»"), in Dosarele Istoriei, 9/2005
- (Romanian) Adrian Cioroianu, Pe umerii lui Marx. O introducere în istoria comunismului românesc ("On the Shoulders of Marx. An Incursion into the History of Romanian Communism"), Editura Curtea Veche, Bucharest, 2005. ISBN 973-669-175-6
- (Romanian) Cristina Diac and Florin Mihai, "1939-1944: 23 august, Cronica unui dezastru", Jurnalul Naţional, August 23, 2006.
- Stephen Fischer-Galati, "The New Rumania: from People's Democracy to Socialist Republic", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1967. OCLC 243006
- Constantin Hlihor and Ioan Scurtu, "The Red Army in Romania", Center for Romanian Studies, Iaşi, Portland, OR, 2000. ISBN 973-98392-5-8
- Sergei Khrushchev, Nikita Khrushchev (2004). Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev. University Park: Pennsylvania State University. ISBN 0-271-02332-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- (Romanian) Cornel Micu, "Armata Roşie ocupă Bucureştiul", Jurnalul Naţional, October 26, 2005.
- Stephen D. Roper, Romania: The Unfinished Revolution, Routledge, London, 2000. ISBN 90-5823-027-9
- Vladimir Tismăneanu, Stalinism for All Seasons: A Political History of Romanian Communism, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2003, ISBN 0-520-23747-1
- Sergiu Verona, "Military Occupation and Diplomacy: Soviet Troops in Romania, 1944-1958", Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 1992, ISBN 0-8223-1171-2
- (Romanian) Teofil Oroian, "«Umbrela protectoare» a consilierilor sovietici. Armata Roşie în România (Prolonged and Defying Stationing of Soviet Troops in Romania)", in Dosarele Istoriei, 12/2003, pp. 22-28
- (Romanian) Teofil Oroian, "Scurtă «cronică» a consilierilor (Soviet Counsellors in the Romanian Army. A Brief Historical Perspective)", in Dosarele Istoriei, 12/2003, pp. 28-32
- (Romanian) Teofil Oroian, "Doctrină, metode şi procedee de luptă de inspiraţie sovietică (War Doctrine, Fighting Methods and Procedures of Soviet Inspiration)", in Dosarele Istoriei, 12/2003, pp. 32–33, 35-41
- (Romanian) Mircea Tănase, "Relaţii româno-sovietice sub cupola paraşutei (The Paratroopers and the Romanian-Soviet Relations)", in Dosarele Istoriei, 9/2005, pp. 11–16
- (Romanian) Liviu Ţăranu, "RPR-URSS: Relaţii economice în numele «internaţionalismului proletar» (Communist Romania and Soviet Union: Economic Relations in the 50's)", in Dosarele Istoriei, 9/2005, pp. 23–28
- Romania and peace conditions after the Second World War, on the website of Radio Romania International, January 31, 2005
- Review of Verona's book, by J. Calvitt Clarke III, at Jacksonville University.
- (Romanian) Paula Mihailov Chiciuc, "Practica sovietică a lui 'Veni, vidi, vici'", Jurnalul Naţional, April 25, 2006
- "Paris-WWII Peace Conference-1946: Settling Romania's Western Frontiers", at the Honorary Consulate of Romania in Boston, has pictures of the Romanian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference