Soyuz TM-19

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Soyuz TM-19
Mission type Mir crew transport
Operator Rosaviakosmos
COSPAR ID 1994-036A
SATCAT № 23139
Mission duration 125 days, 22 hours, 53 minutes, 36 seconds
Orbits completed 1,993
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft Soyuz 7K-STM No.68[1]
Spacecraft type Soyuz-TM
Manufacturer RKK Energia
Launch mass 7,150 kilograms (15,760 lb)
Crew size 2 up
3 down
Members Yuri Malenchenko
Talgat Musabayev
Landing Ulf Merbold
Callsign Ага́т (Agat - Agate)
Start of mission
Launch date July 1, 1994, 12:24:50 (1994-07-01UTC12:24:50Z) UTC
Rocket Soyuz-U2
Launch site Baikonur 1/5
End of mission
Landing date November 4, 1994, 11:18:26 (1994-11-04UTC11:18:27Z) UTC
Landing site 88 kilometres (55 mi) northeast of Arkalyk
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 396 kilometres (246 mi)
Apogee 397 kilometres (247 mi)
Inclination 51.6 degrees
Period 92.48 minutes
Epoch 31 July 1994[2]
Docking with Mir
Docking port Kvant-1 aft
Docking date 3 July 1994, 13:55:01 UTC
Undocking date 4 November 1994, 08:31:30 UTC
Soyuz TM-19 patch.png
Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)
← Soyuz TM-18 Soyuz TM-20

The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

Soyuz TM-19 was the tenth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander Russia Yuri Malenchenko
First spaceflight
Flight Engineer Kazakhstan Talgat Musabayev
First spaceflight
Research Cosmonaut None Germany Ulf Merbold
Third and last spaceflight

Mission highlights

Commander Malenchenko and Flight Engineer Musabayev, spaceflight rookies, were to have been launched with veteran cosmonaut Gennadi Strekalov, who would have returned to Earth with Viktor Afanaseyev and Yuri Usachyov in Soyuz-TM 18 after a few days on Mir. However, cancellation of one of two Progress-M cargo ships scheduled to resupply Mir during the Agat crew’s stay meant Strekalov’s couch had to carry supplies. The result was an unusual all-rookie flight. Docking occurred without incident on July 3. On November 3, Musabayev, Malenchenko, and Merbold undocked in Soyuz-TM 19 and backed 190 m from Mir. They then activated the Kurs automatic approach system, which successfully redocked the spacecraft. The cosmonauts then transferred back to Mir. The test was related to the difficulties Soyuz-TM 20 and Progress-M 24 experienced during their automatic approaches. Final undocking and reentry the following day occurred without incident.

Mission accomplishments

  • Docked with Mir
  • Exchange part of crew
  • Conducted medical experiments
  • Conducted materials experiments
  • Both cosmonauts perform EVA 09.09.1994 (5h 6m) to repair station's external insulation
  • Both cosmonauts repeat EVA on 14.09.1994 (6h 1m) for same purpose
  • First successful manual docking of a Progress supply ship


  1. McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 9 November 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 9 November 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Both cosmonauts and Doctor Valeri Polyakov (arrived on Soyuz TM-18) became the 16th resident crew; many technical problems with the station arose during this mission, necessitating a previously untried manual supply dock by Malenchenko.