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Start-1 launch vehicle lifting off from the Svobodny Cosmodrome
Function Small orbital launch vehicle
Manufacturer Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology
Country of origin Russia
Height 22.7 m (74.4 ft)
Diameter 1.61 m (5.28 ft)
Mass 47,200 kg (104,000 lb)
Stages 4
Payload to LEO 532 kg (1,393 lbm)
Payload to
167 kg (368 lbm)
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites LC-5, Svobodny Cosmodrome
LC-158, Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Total launches 6
Successes 6
First flight 25 March 1993
First stage - Start-1
Engines 1 MIHT-1
Thrust 980 kN (220,310 lbf)
Specific impulse 263 sec.
Burn time 60 seconds
Fuel Solid
Second stage - Start-2
Engines 1 MIHT-2
Thrust 490 kN (110,150 lbf)
Specific impulse 280 sec.
Burn time 64 seconds
Fuel Solid
Third stage - Start-3
Engines 1 MIHT-3
Thrust 245 kN (55,078 lbf)
Specific impulse 280 sec.
Burn time 56 seconds
Fuel Solid
Fourth stage - Start-4
Engines 1 MIHT-4
Thrust 9.8 kN (2,203 lbf)
Specific impulse 295
Burn time 207 seconds
Fuel Solid

Start-1 is a Russian satellite launch vehicle based on the RT-2PM Topol, a Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile developed by Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology.


The Start-1 launch vehicle derives its name from the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) between the United States and the Soviet Union. The START I treaty called for both sides to limit their nuclear arsenals to 6,000 nuclear warheads atop a total of 1,600 ICBMs, SLBMs, and bombers. This led to a lot of surplus ICBMs on both sides, including the Soviet Topol. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia took over responsibility for executing the treaty. The Russian government decided to dispose of some of their ICBMs by using them as launch vehicles, which was an allowed method of disposal under the treaty.[1]

Modification of the ICBMs into launch vehicles was carried out by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology, which also designed the Topol missile.[2] On March 25, 1993 (13:15 GMT), the first Start-1 rocket was launched from Plesetsk Cosmodrome with a non-commercial payload. The first commercial launch was conducted almost four years later on March 4, 1997 from Svobodny Cosmodrome with a Russian payload. Since that time all flights of the Start-1 have been conducted from Svobodny. Currently, the Russian company United Start Launch manages the Start-1 program.

The most notable flight of the Start-1 was conducted on April 25, 2006 with the launch of the Israeli EROS B Earth observation satellite. The launch received more coverage than usual because of the tensions between Israel and Iran at the time. While the Eros B satellite is commercial, its primary customer is the Israeli government, which could use it to spy on Iranian military and nuclear facilities.[3]


File:Start-1 rocket diagram.JPG
Diagram of the Start-1 rocket.

The Start-1 launch vehicle is derived from the RT-2PM Topol ICBM. The first three stages of the Topol missile are used as the first three stages of the Start-1 rocket and are essentially unmodified for their new purpose. A fourth stage, specially developed by the Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology, and the payload shroud take the place of the nuclear warhead and are the main differences between the Topol ICBM and the Start-1 rocket. Additionally, a Post-Boost Propulsion System (PBPS) may be added between the fourth stage and the payload to circularize the orbit of the payload if necessary. The PBPS provides propulsion using a solid-propellant nitrogen gas generator. The gas goes through three pairs of nozzles that can swivel to maneuver the payload.

The Start-1 rocket is unique amongst launch vehicles in that its launch platform is mobile, allowing for the Start-1 to potentially launch from anywhere. The Start-1 launches from an unmodified Topol Transporter-Erector-Launcher (TEL). The TEL is a massive fourteen-wheeled vehicle, six of which pivot for steering. The launch vehicle is transported and launched inside a mobile Transport and Launch Carrier (TLC) carried by the TEL. The TLC consists of an air-tight composite cylinder that protects the launch vehicle and payload from variations in temperature and humidity. The TLC lies in the middle of the TEL lengthwise and bisects the driver's cab in two.

File:Start moving to launch big.jpg
A Start-1 TEL moving towards the launch pad

Before launch, the TEL is moved to the launch pad where it deploys four stabilizing jacks which lift the whole vehicle off the ground. Approximately 90 seconds before the launch, the TLC ejects the protective front nose cone, exposing the rocket so that it can launch. The TLC then is raised to a vertical position. During the launch sequence, the TEL uses compressed gas to force the rocket out of the TLC. Once the rocket reaches a height of approximately 30 meters (the height of the top of the TLC in the vertical position), the first stage ignites. The time from first-stage ignition to spacecraft separation is approximately 15 minutes.


File:Start rocket diagram.jpg
Diagram of the Start rocket.

A version of the Start-1 rocket, simply called Start, was developed in parallel with the Start-1 program. Start differed from Start-1 by using the second stage of the Start-1 twice, giving it a total of five stages. With the extra stage, payload to LEO was increased to 850 kg. The first (and, so far, only) launch of the Start rocket occurred on 28 March 1995 from LC158 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. The Start rocket carried Gurwin, an Israeli technology satellite; EKA, a Russian dummy test satellite; and Oscar 29, an amateur radio satellite built by the Autonomous University of Mexico. The rocket, however, failed not too long after liftoff, dumping debris and its payload into the Sea of Okhotsk. Little information has come forth from the Russian government as to what caused the rocket to fail, or even whether or not the Start program has been canceled.


Flight number Date (UTC) Launch site Version Payload Orbit Result
1 March 25, 1993
LC-158, Plesetsk Start-1 EKA-1 LEO Success
2 March 28, 1995
LC-158, Plesetsk Start Gurwin
LEO (planned) Failure
3 March 4, 1997
LC-5, Svobodny Start-1.2 Zeya SSO Success
4 December 24, 1997
LC-5, Svobodny Start-1 Early Bird 1 SSO Success
5 December 5, 2000
LC-5, Svobodny Start-1 EROS A SSO Success
6 February 20, 2001
LC-5, Svobodny Start-1 Odin SSO Success
7 April 25, 2006
LC-5, Svobodny Start-1 EROS B SSO Success

See also


  1. "Start-1 Launch Vehicle".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Mark Wade. "Topol ICBM". Encyclopedia Astronautica.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Anatoly Zak. "Start Launcher".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links