State of the Union

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
(Redirected from State of the Union Address)
Jump to: navigation, search

The State of the Union Address is an annual message[1] presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress at the beginning of each calendar year in office.[2] The message typically includes a budget message and an economic report of the nation, and also allows the President to propose a legislative agenda (for which the cooperation of Congress is needed) and national priorities.[3]

The address fulfills rules in Article II, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution, requiring the President to periodically "give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient."[1] During most of the country's first century, the President primarily only submitted a written report to Congress. After 1913, Woodrow Wilson, the 28th U.S. President, began the regular practice of delivering the address to Congress in person as a way to rally support for the President's agenda.[1] With the advent of radio and television, the address is now broadcast live across the country on many networks.[4]


The practice arises from a duty given to the president in the Constitution of the United States:

He shall from time to time give to Congress information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.

— Article II, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution

Although the language of this State of the Union Clause[5] of the Constitution is not specific, since the 1930s, the President makes this report annually in late January or early February. Between 1934 and 2013 the date has been as early as January 3,[6] and as late as February 12.[7]

While not required to deliver a speech, every president since Woodrow Wilson, with the notable exception of Herbert Hoover,[8] has made at least one State of the Union report as a speech delivered before a joint session of Congress. Before that time, most presidents delivered the State of the Union as a written report.[6]

Since Franklin Roosevelt, the State of the Union is given typically each January before a joint session of the United States Congress and is held in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol. Newly inaugurated presidents generally deliver an address to Congress in February of the first year of their term, but this speech is not officially considered to be a "State of the Union".[6]

What began as a communication between president and Congress has become in effect a communication between the president and the people of the United States. Since the advent of radio, and then television, the speech has been broadcast live on most networks, preempting scheduled programming. To reach the largest audience, the speech, once given during the day, is now typically given in the evening, after 9pm ET (UTC-5).


File:Washington - State of the Union.djvu George Washington delivered the first regular annual message before a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1790, in New York City, then the provisional U.S. capital. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson discontinued the practice of delivering the address in person, regarding it as too monarchical (similar to the Speech from the Throne). Instead, the address was written and then sent to Congress to be read by a clerk until 1913 when Woodrow Wilson re-established the practice despite some initial controversy. However, there have been exceptions to this rule. Presidents during the latter half of the 20th century[who?] have sent written State of the Union addresses. The last President to do this was Jimmy Carter in 1981, after his defeat by Ronald Reagan and days before his term ended.[9]

For many years, the speech was referred to as "the President's Annual Message to Congress".[10] The actual term "State of the Union" first emerged in 1934 when Franklin D. Roosevelt used the phrase, becoming its generally accepted name since 1947.[10]

Prior to 1934, the annual message was delivered at the end of the calendar year, in December. The ratification of the 20th Amendment on January 23, 1933, changed the opening of Congress from early March to early January, affecting the delivery of the annual message. Since 1934, the message or address has been delivered to Congress in January or February.

The Twentieth Amendment also established January 20 as the beginning of the presidential term. In years when a new president is inaugurated, the outgoing president may deliver a final State of the Union message, but none has done so since Jimmy Carter sent a written message in 1981. In 1953 and 1961, Congress received both a written State of the Union message from the outgoing president and a separate State of the Union speech by the incoming president. Since 1989, in recognition that the responsibility of reporting the State of the Union formally belongs to the president who held office during the past year, newly inaugurated Presidents have not officially called their first speech before Congress a "State of the Union" message.

The text of the first page of Ronald Reagan's first State of the Union Address, given January 26, 1982

Warren Harding's 1922 speech was the first to be broadcast on radio, albeit to a limited audience,[11] while Calvin Coolidge's 1923 speech was the first to be broadcast across the nation.[2] President Roosevelt's address in 1936 was the first delivered in the evening,[12] but this precedent was not followed again until the 1960s. Harry S. Truman's 1947 address was the first to be broadcast on television. In 1968, television networks in the United States for the first time imposed no time limit for their coverage of a State of the Union address. Delivered by Lyndon B. Johnson, this address was followed by extensive televised commentary by, among others, Daniel Patrick Moynihan and Milton Friedman.[13] Ronald Reagan's 1986 State of the Union Address is the only one to have been postponed. He had planned to deliver it on January 28, 1986 but postponed it for a week after learning of the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster and instead addressed the nation on the day's events.[14][15] Bill Clinton's 1997 address was the first broadcast available live on the World Wide Web.[16]

Delivery of the speech

A formal invitation is made by the Speaker of the House to the President several weeks before each State of the Union Address.[17][18]


Every member of Congress can bring one guest to the State of the Union address. The President may invite up to 24 guests with the First Lady in her box. The Speaker of the House may invite up to 24 guests in the Speaker’s box. Seating for Congress on the main floor is by a first-in, first-served basis with no reservations. The Cabinet, Supreme Court justices, members of the Diplomatic Corps, and the military leaders constituting the Joint Chiefs of Staff have reserved seating.

Protocol of entry into House chamber

By approximately 8:30 pm on the night of the address, the members of the House have gathered in their seats for the joint session.[19] Then, the Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the Speaker and loudly announces the Vice President and members of the Senate, who enter and take the seats assigned for them.[19]

The Speaker, and then the Vice President, specify the members of the House and Senate, respectively, who will escort the President into the House chamber.[19] The Deputy Sergeant at Arms addresses the Speaker again and loudly announces, in order, the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps, the Chief Justice of the United States and the Associate Justices, and the Cabinet, each of whom enters and takes their seats when called.[19] The justices take the seats nearest to the Speaker's rostrum and adjacent to the sections reserved for the Cabinet and the members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[20]

The Sergeants at Arms of the House (left) and of the Senate (right) wait at the doorway to the House chamber before President Barack Obama enters to deliver the 2011 State of the Union Address.

Just after 9 pm, as the President reaches the door to the chamber,[21] the House Sergeant at Arms stands just inside the doors, faces the Speaker, and waits until the President is ready to enter the chamber.[20] When the President is ready, the Sergeant at Arms always announces the entrance, loudly stating the phrase: "Madam [or Mister] Speaker, the President of the United States!"[21]

As applause and cheering begins, the President slowly walks toward the Speaker's rostrum, followed by members of the Congressional escort committee.[21] The President's approach is slowed by pausing to shake hands, hug, kiss, and autograph copies of the speech for Members of Congress.[20] After taking a place at the House Clerk's desk,[21] the President hands two manila envelopes, previously placed on the desk and containing copies of the speech, to the Speaker and Vice President.

After continuing applause from the attendees has diminished, the Speaker introduces the President to the Representatives and Senators, stating: "Members of Congress, I have the high privilege and distinct honor of presenting to you the President of the United States."[20][21] This leads to a further round of applause and, eventually, the beginning of the address by the President.[21]

At close of the ceremony, attendees leave on their own accord. The Sergeants at Arms guides the President out of the Chamber. Some politicians stay to shake hands with and congratulate the President on the way out.

Designated survivor and other logistics

Customarily, one cabinet member (the designated survivor) does not attend the speech, in order to provide continuity in the line of succession in the event that a catastrophe disables the President, the Vice President, and other succeeding officers gathered in the House chamber. Additionally, since the September 11 attacks in 2001, a few members of Congress have been asked to relocate to undisclosed locations for the duration of the speech to form a rump Congress in the event of a disaster.[22] Since 2003, each chamber of Congress has formally named a separate designated survivor.[23][24]

President George W. Bush with Senate President (U.S. Vice President) Dick Cheney and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi during the 2007 State of the Union address. 2007 marked the first time that a woman had occupied the Speaker of the House chair. (audio only)

Both the Speaker and the Vice President sit at the Speaker's desk, behind the President for the duration of the speech. If either is unavailable, the next highest-ranking member of the respective house substitutes. Once the chamber settles down from the President's arrival, the Speaker officially presents the President to the joint session of Congress. The President then delivers the speech from the podium at the front of the House Chamber.

In the State of the Union address, the President traditionally outlines the administration's accomplishments over the previous year, as well as the agenda for the coming year, often in upbeat and optimistic terms.[25] Since the 1982 address, it has also become common for the President to honor special guests sitting in the gallery, such as American citizens or visiting heads of state. During that 1982 address, President Ronald Reagan acknowledged Lenny Skutnik for his act of heroism following the crash of Air Florida Flight 90.[26] Since then, the term "Lenny Skutniks" has been used to refer to individuals invited to sit in the gallery, and then cited by the President, during the State of the Union.[27][28]

State of the Union speeches usually last a little over an hour, partly because of the large amounts of applause that occur from the audience throughout. The applause is often political in tone, with many portions of the speech being applauded only by members of the President's own party. As non-political officeholders, members of the Supreme Court or the Joint Chiefs of Staff rarely applaud in order to retain the appearance of political impartiality. In recent years, the presiding officers of the House and the Senate, the Speaker and the Vice President, respectively, have departed from the neutrality expected of presiding officers of deliberative bodies, as they, too, stand and applaud in response to the remarks of the President with which they agree.

For the 2011 address, Senator Mark Udall of Colorado proposed a break in tradition wherein all members of Congress sit together regardless of party, as well as the avoiding of standing;[29] this was in response to the 2011 Tucson Shooting in which Representative Gabrielle Giffords was shot and wounded in an assassination attempt. This practice was also repeated during the 2012 address and every address after.[30]

Opposition response

Since 1966,[31] the speech has been followed on television by a response or rebuttal by a member of the major political party opposing the President's party. The response is typically broadcast from a studio with no audience. In 1970, the Democratic Party put together a TV program with their speech to reply to President Nixon, as well as a televised response to Nixon's written speech in 1973.[32] The same was done by Democrats for President Reagan's speeches in 1982 and 1985. The response is not always produced in a studio; in 1997, the Republicans for the first time delivered the response in front of high school students.[33] In 2010, Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell gave the Republican response from the House of Delegates chamber of the Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, in front of about 250 attendees.[34]

In 2004, the Democratic Party's response was delivered in Spanish for the first time, by New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson.[35] In 2011, Minnesota Congresswoman Michele Bachmann also gave a televised response for the Tea Party Express, a first for a political movement.[36]


Although much of the pomp and ceremony behind the State of the Union address is governed by tradition rather than law, in modern times, the event is seen as one of the most important in the US political calendar. It is one of the few instances when all three branches of the US government are assembled under one roof: members of both houses of Congress constituting the legislature, the President's Cabinet constituting the executive, and the Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court constituting the judiciary. In addition, the military is represented by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, while foreign governments are represented by the Dean of the Diplomatic Corps. The address has also been used as an opportunity to honor the achievements of some ordinary Americans, who are typically invited by the President to sit with the First Lady.[28]

Local versions

Certain states have a similar annual address given by the governor. For most of them, it is called the State of the State address. In Iowa, it is called the Condition of the State Address; in Kentucky, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, the speech is called the State of the Commonwealth address. The mayor of Washington, D.C. gives a State of the District address. American Samoa has a State of the Territory address given by the governor. Puerto Rico has a State Address given by the governor. In Guam, the governor delivers an annual State of the Island Address.

Some cities or counties also have an annual State of the City Address given by the mayor, county commissioner or board chair, including Sonoma County, California; Orlando, Florida; Cincinnati, Ohio; New Haven, Connecticut; Parma, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Seattle, Washington; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Los Angeles, California; Buffalo, New York; Rochester, New York; San Antonio, Texas; McAllen, Texas; and San Diego, California. The Mayor of the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County in Nashville, Tennessee gives a speech similar called the State of Metro Address. Some university presidents give a State of the University address at the beginning of every academic term.[37][38] Private companies usually have a "State of the Corporation" or "State of the Company" address given by the respective CEO.[39]

The State of the Union model has also been adopted by the European Union,[40] and in France since the presidency of Emmanuel Macron.

Historic speeches

Roosevelt's Second Bill of Rights (excerpt)
  • President James Monroe first stated the Monroe Doctrine during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress on December 2, 1823. It became a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States and one of its longest-standing tenets, and would be invoked by many U.S. statesmen and several U.S. presidents, including Theodore Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan.
  • The Four Freedoms were goals first articulated by Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech, he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.
  • During his State of the Union Address on January 11, 1944, FDR proposed the Second Bill of Rights. Roosevelt's argument was that the "political rights" guaranteed by the constitution and the Bill of Rights had "proved inadequate to assure us equality in the pursuit of happiness".
  • During his State of the Union address on January 8, 1964, Lyndon B. Johnson introduced legislation that would come to be known as the "War on Poverty". This legislation was proposed by Johnson in response to a national poverty rate of around nineteen percent. The speech led the United States Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which established the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) to administer the local application of federal funds targeted against poverty.
  • During his State of the Union address on January 15, 1975, Gerald R. Ford very bluntly stated that "the state of the Union is not good: Millions of Americans are out of work... We depend on others for essential energy. Some people question their Government's ability to make hard decisions and stick with them; they expect Washington politics as usual." Ford said he didn't "expect much, if any, applause. The American people want action, and it will take both the Congress and the President to give them what they want. Progress and solutions can be achieved, and they will be achieved."
George W. Bush delivers the 2002 State of the Union
  • In his 2002 State of the Union Address, President George W. Bush identified North Korea, Iran, and Iraq as representing significant threats to the United States. He said, "States like these and their terrorist allies constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world". In this speech, he would outline the objectives for the War on Terror.

TV ratings

Television ratings for recent State of the Union Addresses were:[41][42][43]

Date President Viewers,




Rating Networks
1/29/2019[44] Donald Trump TBD TBD TBD TBD
2/28/2017dagger Donald Trump 47.741 33.857 28.7 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, UNIVISION, PBS, CNN, FOX BUSINESS, FOXNC, MSNBC, NBC UNIVERSO
1/25/2011 Barack Obama 42.789 30.871 26.6 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, CENTRIC, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
1/27/2010 Barack Obama 48.009 34.182 29.8 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION, CNN, BET, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
2/24/2009dagger Barack Obama 52.373 37.185 32.5 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION
1/28/2008 George W. Bush 37.515 27.702 24.7 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO**, UNIVISION
1/24/2007 George W. Bush 45.486 32.968 29.6 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, UNIVISION
1/31/2006 George W. Bush 43.179 30.528 31.2 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, AZTECA AMERICA, TELFUTURA
2/02/2005 George W. Bush 39.432 28.359 35.3 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, TELEMUNDO, TELEFUTURA
1/20/2004 George W. Bush 43.411 30.286 28.0 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
1/28/2003 George W. Bush 62.061 41.447 38.8 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
1/29/2002 George W. Bush 51.773 35.547 33.6 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, CNBC, FOXNC, MSNBC
2/27/2001dagger George W. Bush 39.793 28.201 27.6 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC
1/27/2000 Bill Clinton 31.478 22.536 22.4 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC
1/19/1999 Bill Clinton 43.500 30.700 31.0 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC
1/27/1998 Bill Clinton 53.077 36.513 37.2 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN, FOXNC, MSNBC, CNBC
2/04/1997 Bill Clinton 41.100 27.600 28.4 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN
1/23/1996 Bill Clinton 40.900 28.400 29.6 ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, CNN
1/24/1995 Bill Clinton 42.200 28.100 29.5 ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN
1/25/1994 Bill Clinton 45.800 31.000 32.9 ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN
2/17/1993dagger Bill Clinton 66.900 41.200 44.3 ABC, CBS, NBC, CNN
dagger The 1993, 2001, 2009 and 2017 addresses were not, officially, State of the Union addresses, but rather addresses to a joint session Congress because in those years the presidents were in office for only a few weeks at the time the speech was given.[2][43]
**Tape delayed[43]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "State of the Union Address | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". Retrieved January 28, 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Diaz, Daniella (February 28, 2017). "Why Trump's Tuesday speech isn't a State of the Union address". CNN. Retrieved February 28, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Ben's Guide to U.S. Government". United States Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on February 25, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "31.7 Million Viewers Tune In To Watch Pres. Obama's State of the Union Address". The Nielsen Company (Press release). January 21, 2015. On Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015, President Barack Obama delivered his annual State of the Union address. The address was carried live from 9:00 p.m. to 10:15 p.m. on 13 networks and tape-delayed on Univision.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Vasan Kesavan and J. Gregory Sidak (2002). "The Legislator-In-Chief". William and Mary Law Review. 44 (1). Retrieved June 28, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 The President's State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications (PDF). Congressional Research Service. January 24, 2014. p. 2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Jackson, David (January 11, 2013). "Obama State of the Union set for Feb. 12". USA Today.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "State of the Union Addresses and Messages: research notes by Gerhard Peters". The American Presidency Project (APP). Retrieved 24 January 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Peters, Gerhard. "State of the Union Messages". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 25, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 Kolakowski, Michael & Neale, Thomas H. (March 7, 2006). "The President's State of the Union Message: Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. Retrieved January 28, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Robert Yoon, CNN Political Research Director (February 12, 2013). "State of the Union firsts". CNN. Retrieved September 29, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "The First Evening Annual Message". Retrieved 2019-01-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Kurlansky, Mark (2004). 1968: The Year That Rocked the World. New York: Ballantine. p. 44. ISBN 0-9659111-4-4.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Address to the nation on the Challenger disaster". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved July 4, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Weinraub, Bernard (January 29, 1986). "The Shuttle Explosion: Reagan Postpones State of the Union Speech". The New York Times. p. A9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Office of the Clerk. Joint Meetings, Joint Sessions, and Inaugurations. House History. United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on January 18, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Speaker Boehner Extends President Obama Formal Invitation to Deliver State of the Union Address". Speaker Boehner's Press Office (Press release). January 11, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "State of the Union 2015". Speaker Boehner's Press Office (Press release). December 19, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 "Joint Session of Congress Pursuant to House Concurrent Resolution 228 to Receive a Message from the President" (PDF). Congressional Record: H414. January 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 "President Delivers State of the Union Address" (Transcript). CNN. January 28, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 "Joint Session of Congress Pursuant to House Concurrent Resolution 228 to Receive a Message from the President" (PDF). Congressional Record: H415. January 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Roberts, Roxanne (September 20, 2016). "The truth behind the 'designated survivor,' the president of the post-apocalypse". Washington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Schultheis, Emily (February 28, 2017). "Joint session 2017: The history of the "designated survivor"". CBS News. Retrieved January 31, 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Oritz, Erik (January 30, 2018). "Designated survivors recount nights as doomsday presidents". NBC News. Retrieved January 31, 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Widmer, Ted (January 31, 2006). "The State of the Union Is Unreal". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. O'Keefe, Ed (January 24, 2012). "Three decades of 'Skutniks' began with a federal employee". Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Wiggin, Addison (January 25, 2011). "Small Business Owners Should Be Obama's Lenny Skutnik". Forbes. Retrieved January 24, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. 28.0 28.1 Clines, Francis X. (August 24, 1996). "Bonding as New Political Theater: Bring On the Babies and Cue the Yellow Dog". The New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Epstein, Jennifer (January 13, 2011). "Mark Udall wants parties together at State of the Union". Politico.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Hennessey, Kathleen (January 21, 2012). "Rival parties to mix it up – nicely – at State of the Union". Los Angeles Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Office of the Clerk. "Opposition Responses to State of the Union Messages (1966–Present)". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 23, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York: Basic Books. p. 47. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Sincere, Richard E., Jr. (February 1997). "O.J., J.C., and Bill: Reflections on the State of the Union". Metro Herald. Archived from the original on July 31, 2002. Retrieved January 23, 2007. Watts told his audience—about 100 high school students from the CloseUp Foundation watched in person, while a smaller number watched on television at home—that he is 'old enough to remember the Jim Crow' laws that affected him and his family while he grew up in a black neighborhood in small-town Oklahoma.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Kumar, Anita (2010-01-28). "Virginia Gov. McDonnell gives Republican Party response to State of the Union". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-01-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. York, Byron (January 21, 2004). "The Democratic Response You Didn't See". National Review. Retrieved January 23, 2007. And then there was the Spanish-language response—the first ever—delivered by New Mexico governor, and former Clinton energy secretary, Bill Richardson.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Michele Bachmann offers Tea Party response to President Obama's State of the Union Address". The Washington Post. January 26, 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "UNH State of the University 2015". The University of New Hampshire (Press release). February 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "State of the University 2015". Santa Clara University (Press release). February 19, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Goldman, Jeremy (January 20, 2015). "Why Your Company Deserves a 'State of the Union' Address". Inc.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. "EU has survived economic crisis, Barroso says in first State of Union address". September 7, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. "2018 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2018-01-31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. "2017 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. 2017-02-28. Retrieved 2018-01-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 "2016 State of The Union Address TV Ratings". Nielsen. 2016-01-13. Retrieved 2018-01-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. Speaker Nancy Pelosi (3 January 2019) Pelosi Invites President Trump to Deliver State of the Union Address

External links