Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose and galactose. The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide. (In the body, sucrose hydrolyses into fructose and glucose.) Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides. Chemically-different substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Some are used as lower-calorie food substitutes for sugar described as artificial sweeteners.
Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but are present in sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction only in sugarcane and sugar beet. Sugarcane refers to any of several species of giant grass in the genus Saccharum that have been cultivated in tropical climates in South Asia and Southeast Asia since ancient times. A great expansion in its production took place in the 18th century with the establishment of sugar plantations in the West Indies and Americas. This was the first time that sugar became available to the common people, who had previously had to rely on honey to sweeten foods. Sugar beet, a cultivated variety of Beta vulgaris, is grown as a root crop in cooler climates and became a major source of sugar in the 19th century when methods for extracting the sugar became available. Sugar production and trade have changed the course of human history in many ways, influencing the formation of colonies, the perpetuation of slavery, the transition to indentured labour, the migration of peoples, wars between sugar-trade–controlling nations in the 19th century, and the ethnic composition and political structure of the New World.
The world produced about 168 million tonnes of sugar in 2011. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in industrialised countries), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day.
Since the latter part of the twentieth century, it has been questioned whether a diet high in sugars, especially refined sugars, is good for human health. Sugar has been linked to obesity, and suspected of, or fully implicated as a cause in the occurrence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, macular degeneration, and tooth decay. Numerous studies have been undertaken to try to clarify the position, but with varying results, mainly because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that do not consume or are largely free of any sugar consumption.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Chemistry
- 4 Types of sugar
- 5 Sources
- 6 Production
- 7 Forms and uses
- 8 Consumption
- 9 Health effects
- 10 Recommended dietary intake
- 11 Measurements
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. The English word "sugar" originates from the Sanskrit शर्करा śarkarā, via Persian شکر shakkar. It most probably came to England by way of Italian merchants. The contemporary Italian word is zucchero, whereas the Spanish and Portuguese words, azúcar and açúcar respectively, have kept a trace of the Arabic definite article. The Old French word is zuchre – contemporary French sucre. The earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις (sákkʰaris). A satisfactory pedigree explaining the spread of the word has yet to be done. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugar cane juice, has a similar etymological origin; Portuguese xagara or jagara, from the Sanskrit śarkarā.
Ancient times and Middle Ages
Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times. It was not plentiful or cheap in early times and honey was more often used for sweetening in most parts of the world. Originally, people chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating back to 8th century BC that state that the use of sugarcane originated in India.
Sugar remained relatively unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century AD. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda (Devanagari:खण्ड,Khaṇḍa), which is the source of the word candy.
Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar on the various trade routes they travelled. Buddhist monks, as they travelled around, brought sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha (r. 606–647) in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626–649) made known his interest in sugar. China then established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 AD, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In South Asia, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts.
The triumphant progress of Alexander the Great was halted on the banks of the Indus River by the refusal of his troops to go further east. They saw people in the Indian subcontinent growing sugarcane and making granulated, salt-like sweet powder, locally called Sharkara (Devanagari:शर्करा,Śarkarā), pronounced as saccharum (ζάκχαρι). On their return journey, the Macedonian soldiers carried the "honey-bearing reeds" home with them. Sugarcane remained a little-known crop in Europe for over a millennium, sugar a rare commodity, and traders in sugar wealthy.
Crusaders brought sugar home with them to Europe after their campaigns in the Holy Land, where they encountered caravans carrying "sweet salt". Early in the 12th century, Venice acquired some villages near Tyre and set up estates to produce sugar for export to Europe, where it supplemented honey, which had previously been the only available sweetener. Crusade chronicler William of Tyre, writing in the late 12th century, described sugar as "very necessary for the use and health of mankind". In the 15th century, Venice was the chief sugar refining and distribution centre in Europe.
In August 1492, Christopher Columbus stopped at La Gomera in the Canary Islands, for wine and water, intending to stay only four days. He became romantically involved with the governor of the island, Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ossorio, and stayed a month. When he finally sailed, she gave him cuttings of sugarcane, which became the first to reach the New World.
The Portuguese took sugar to Brazil. By 1540, there were 800 cane sugar mills in Santa Catarina Island and there were another 2,000 on the north coast of Brazil, Demarara, and Surinam. The first sugar harvest happened in Hispaniola in 1501; and, many sugar mills had been constructed in Cuba and Jamaica by the 1520s.
Sugar was a luxury in Europe prior to the 18th century, when it became more widely available. It then became popular and by the 19th century, sugar came to be considered a necessity. This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient unleashed major economic and social changes. It drove, in part, colonization of tropical islands and nations where labor-intensive sugarcane plantations and sugar manufacturing could thrive. The demand for cheap labor to perform the hard work involved in its cultivation and processing increased the demand for the slave trade from Africa (in particular West Africa). After slavery was abolished, there was high demand for indentured laborers from South Asia (in particular India). Millions of slave and indentured laborers were brought into the Caribbean and the Americas, Indian Ocean colonies, southeast Asia, Pacific Islands, and East Africa and Natal. The modern ethnic mix of many nations that have been settled in the last two centuries has been influenced by the demand for sugar.
Sugar also led to some industrialization of former colonies. For example, Lieutenant J. Paterson, of the Bengal establishment, persuaded the British Government that sugar cane could be cultivated in British India with many advantages and at less expense than in the West Indies. As a result, sugar factories were established in Bihar in eastern India.
During the Napoleonic Wars, sugar beet production increased in continental Europe because of the difficulty of importing sugar when shipping was subject to blockade. By 1880, the sugar beet was the main source of sugar in Europe. It was cultivated in Lincolnshire and other parts of England, although the United Kingdom continued to import the main part of its sugar from its colonies.
Sugar cubes were produced in the nineteenth century. The first inventor of a process to make sugar in cube form was Moravian Jakub Kryštof Rad, director of a sugar company in Dačice. He began sugar cube production after being granted a five-year patent for the invention on January 23, 1843. Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle was another early manufacturer of sugar cubes at his refineries in Liverpool and London. Tate purchased a patent for sugar cube manufacture from German Eugen Langen, who in 1872 had invented a different method of processing of sugar cubes.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,619 kJ (387 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0 g|
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,576 kJ (377 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0 g|
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Scientifically, sugar loosely refers to a number of carbohydrates, such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or oligosaccharides. Monosaccharides are also called "simple sugars," the most important being glucose. Almost all sugars have the formula C
n (n is between 3 and 7). Glucose has the molecular formula C
6. The names of typical sugars end with -ose, as in "glucose" and "fructose". Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. The acyclic mono- and disaccharides contain either aldehyde groups or ketone groups. These carbon-oxygen double bonds (C=O) are the reactive centers. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of water (H
2O) per bond.
Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides, creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Enzymes must hydrolyze or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolized. After digestion and absorption the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. In these closed-chain forms, the aldehyde or ketone group remains non-free, so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium, with less than 0.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form.
Natural polymers of sugars
Biopolymers of sugars are common in nature. Through photosynthesis, plants produce glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), a phosphated 3-carbon sugar that is used by the cell to make monosaccharides such as glucose (C
6) or (as in cane and beet) sucrose (C
11). Monosaccharides may be further converted into structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectinfor cell wall construction or into energy reserves in the form of storage polysaccharides such as starch or inulin. Starch, consisting of two different polymers of glucose, is a readily degradable form of chemical energy stored by cells, and can be converted to other types of energy. Another polymer of glucose is cellulose, which is a linear chain composed of several hundred or thousand glucose units. It is used by plants as a structural component in their cell walls. Humans can digest cellulose only to a very limited extent, though ruminants can do so with the help of symbiotic bacteria in their gut. DNA and RNA are built up of the monosaccharides deoxyribose and ribose, respectively. Deoxyribose has the formula C
4 and ribose the formula C
Sugars are organic substances that burn easily upon exposure to an open flame. Because of this, the handling of sugars presents a risk for dust explosion. The 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion, which resulted in 14 deaths, 40 injured, and more than half of the facility's destruction, was caused by the ignition of sugar dust.
Types of sugar
Fructose, galactose, and glucose are all simple sugars, monosaccharides, with the general formula C6H12O6. They have five hydroxyl groups (−OH) and a carbonyl group (C=O) and are cyclic when dissolved in water. They each exist as several isomers with dextro- and laevo-rotatory forms that cause polarized light to diverge to the right or the left.
- Fructose, or fruit sugar, occurs naturally in fruits, some root vegetables, cane sugar and honey and is the sweetest of the sugars. It is one of the components of sucrose or table sugar. It is used as a high-fructose syrup, which is manufactured from hydrolyzed corn starch that has been processed to yield corn syrup, with enzymes then added to convert part of the glucose into fructose.
- In general, galactose does not occur in the free state but is a constituent with glucose of the disaccharide lactose or milk sugar. It is less sweet than glucose. It is a component of the antigens found on the surface of red blood cells that determine blood groups.
- Glucose, dextrose or grape sugar, occurs naturally in fruits and plant juices and is the primary product of photosynthesis. Most ingested carbohydrates are converted into glucose during digestion and it is the form of sugar that is transported around the bodies of animals in the bloodstream. It can be manufactured from starch by the addition of enzymes or in the presence of acids. Glucose syrup is a liquid form of glucose that is widely used in the manufacture of foodstuffs. It can be manufactured from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis.
Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are all compound sugars, disaccharides, with the general formula C12H22O11. They are formed by the combination of two monosaccharide molecules with the exclusion of a molecule of water.
- Lactose is the naturally occurring sugar found in milk. A molecule of lactose is formed by the combination of a molecule of galactose with a molecule of glucose. It is broken down when consumed into its constituent parts by the enzyme lactase during digestion. Children have this enzyme but some adults no longer form it and they are unable to digest lactose.
- Maltose is formed during the germination of certain grains, the most notable being barley, which is converted into malt, the source of the sugar's name. A molecule of maltose is formed by the combination of two molecules of glucose. It is less sweet than glucose, fructose or sucrose. It is formed in the body during the digestion of starch by the enzyme amylase and is itself broken down during digestion by the enzyme maltase.
- Sucrose is found in the stems of sugar cane and roots of sugar beet. It also occurs naturally alongside fructose and glucose in other plants, in particular fruits and some roots such as carrots. The different proportions of sugars found in these foods determines the range of sweetness experienced when eating them. A molecule of sucrose is formed by the combination of a molecule of glucose with a molecule of fructose. After being eaten, sucrose is split into its constituent parts during digestion by a number of enzymes known as sucrases.
The sugar contents of common fruits and vegetables are presented in Table 1. All data with a unit of g (gram) are based on 100 g of a food item. The fructose/glucose ratio is calculated by dividing the sum of free fructose plus half sucrose by the sum of free glucose plus half sucrose.
as a % of
|Red Pepper, Sweet||6.0||4.2||2.3||1.9||0.0||1.2||0.0|
|Sugar Cane||13 - 18||0.2 – 1.0||0.2 – 1.0||11 - 16||1.0||high|
|Sugar Beet||17 - 18||0.1 – 0.5||0.1 – 0.5||16 - 17||1.0||high|
- ^A The carbohydrate figure is calculated in the USDA database and does not always correspond to the sum of the sugars, the starch, and the "dietary fibre".
Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is a biennial plant in the Family Amaranthaceae, the tuberous root of which contains a high proportion of sucrose. It is cultivated in temperate regions with adequate rainfall and requires a fertile soil. The crop is harvested mechanically in the autumn and the crown of leaves and excess soil removed. The roots do not deteriorate rapidly and may be left in a clamp in the field for some weeks before being transported to the processing plant. Here the crop is washed and sliced and the sugar extracted by diffusion. Milk of lime is added to the raw juice and carbonatated in a number of stages in order to purify it. Water is evaporated by boiling the syrup under a vacuum. The syrup is then cooled and seeded with sugar crystals. The white sugar that crystallizes out can be separated in a centrifuge and dried. It requires no further refining.
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a perennial grass in the family Poaceae. It is cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions for the sucrose that is found in its stems. It requires a frost-free climate with sufficient rainfall during the growing season to make full use of the plant's great growth potential. The crop is harvested mechanically or by hand, chopped into lengths and conveyed rapidly to the processing plant. Here, it is either milled and the juice extracted with water or extracted by diffusion. The juice is then clarified with lime and heated to kill enzymes. The resulting thin syrup is concentrated in a series of evaporators, after which further water is removed by evaporation in vacuum containers. The resulting supersaturated solution is seeded with sugar crystals and the sugar crystallizes out and is separated from the fluid and dried. Molasses is a by-product of the process and the fiber from the stems, known as bagasse, is burned to provide energy for the sugar extraction process. The crystals of raw sugar have a sticky brown coating and either can be used as they are or can be bleached by sulfur dioxide or can be treated in a carbonatation process to produce a whiter product.
Refined sugar is made from raw sugar that has undergone a refining process to remove the molasses. Raw sugar is a sucrose which is synthesized from sugar cane or sugar beet and cannot immediately be consumed before going through the refining process to produce refined sugar or white sugar.
The sugar may be transported in bulk to the country where it will be used and the refining process often takes place there. The first stage is known as affination and involves immersing the sugar crystals in a concentrated syrup that softens and removes the sticky brown coating without dissolving them. The crystals are then separated from the liquor and dissolved in water. The resulting syrup is treated either by a carbonatation or by a phosphatation process. Both involve the precipitation of a fine solid in the syrup and when this is filtered out, many of the impurities are removed at the same time. Removal of colour is achieved by using either a granular activated carbon or an ion-exchange resin. The sugar syrup is concentrated by boiling and then cooled and seeded with sugar crystals, causing the sugar to crystallize out. The liquor is spun off in a centrifuge and the white crystals are dried in hot air and ready to be packaged or used. The surplus liquor is made into refiners' molasses. The International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis sets standards for the measurement of the purity of refined sugar, known as ICUMSA numbers; lower numbers indicate a higher level of purity in the refined sugar.
Refined sugar is widely used for industrial needs for higher quality. Refined sugar is purer (ICUMSA below 300) than raw sugar (ICUMSA over 1,500). The level of purity associated with the colors of sugar, expressed by standard number ICUMSA (International Commission for Uniform Methods of sugar Analysis), the smaller ICUMSA numbers indicate that higher purity of sugar.
The five largest producers of sugar in 2011 were Brazil, India, the European Union, China and Thailand. In the same year, the largest exporter of sugar was Brazil, distantly followed by Thailand, Australia and India. The largest importers were the European Union, United States and Indonesia. At present, Brazil has the highest per capita consumption of sugar, followed by Australia, Thailand, and the European Union.
Forms and uses
- Brown sugars are granulated sugars, either containing residual molasses, or with the grains deliberately coated with molasses to produce a light- or dark-colored sugar. They are used in baked goods, confectionery, and toffees.
- Granulated sugars are used at the table, to sprinkle on foods and to sweeten hot drinks, and in home baking to add sweetness and texture to cooked products. They are also used as a preservative to prevent micro-organisms from growing and perishable food from spoiling, as in candied fruits, jams, and marmalades.
- Invert sugars and syrups are blended to manufacturers specifications and are used in breads, cakes, and beverages for adjusting sweetness, aiding moisture retention and avoiding crystallization of sugars.
- Liquid sugars are strong syrups consisting of 67% granulated sugar dissolved in water. They are used in the food processing of a wide range of products including beverages, hard candy, ice cream, and jams.
- Low-calorie sugars and sweeteners are often made of maltodextrin with added sweeteners. Maltodextrin is an easily digestible synthetic polysaccharide consisting of short chains of glucose molecules and is made by the partial hydrolysis of starch. The added sweeteners are often aspartame, saccharin, stevia, or sucralose.
- Milled sugars (known as confectioner's sugar and powdered sugar) are ground to a fine powder. They are used as icing sugar, for dusting foods and in baking and confectionery.
- Molasses is commonly used to make rum, and sugar byproducts are used to make ethanol for fuel.
- Polyols are sugar alcohols and are used in chewing gums where a sweet flavor is required that lasts for a prolonged time in the mouth.
- Screened sugars are crystalline products separated according to the size of the grains. They are used for decorative table sugars, for blending in dry mixes and in baking and confectionery.
- Sugar cubes (sometimes called sugar lumps) are white or brown granulated sugars lightly steamed and pressed together in block shape. They are used to sweeten drinks.
- Syrups and treacles are dissolved invert sugars heated to develop the characteristic flavors. (Treacles have added molasses.) They are used in a range of baked goods and confectionery including toffees and licorice.
- In winemaking, fruit sugars are converted into alcohol by a fermentation process. If the must formed by pressing the fruit has a low sugar content, additional sugar may be added to raise the alcohol content of the wine in a process called chaptalization. In the production of sweet wines, fermentation may be halted before it has run its full course, leaving behind some residual sugar that gives the wine its sweet taste.
In most parts of the world, sugar is an important part of the human diet, making food more palatable and providing food energy. After cereals and vegetable oils, sugar derived from sugar cane and beet provided more kilocalories per capita per day on average than other food groups. According to the FAO, an average of 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day, was consumed annually per person of all ages in the world in 1999. Even with rising human populations, sugar consumption is expected to increase to 25.1 kilograms (55 lb) per person per year by 2015.
The per capita consumption of refined sugar in the United States has varied between 27 and 46 kilograms (60 and 101 lb) in the last 40 years. In 2008, American per capita total consumption of sugar and sweeteners, exclusive of artificial sweeteners, equalled 61.9 kg (136 lb) per year. This consisted of 29.65 kg (65.4 lb) pounds of refined sugar and 31 kg (68.3 lb) pounds of corn-derived sweeteners per person.
Some studies involving the health impact of sugars are effectively inconclusive. The FAO meta studies and WHO studies have shown directly contrasting impacts of sugar in refined and unrefined forms and since most studies do not use a population that do not consume any "free sugars" at all, the baseline is effectively flawed. Hence, there are articles such as Consumer Reports on Health that stated in 2008, "Some of the supposed dietary dangers of sugar have been overblown. Many studies have debunked the idea that it causes hyperactivity, for example".
Sugar addiction is the term for the relationship between sugar and the various aspects of food addiction including "bingeing, withdrawal, craving and cross-sensitization". Some scientists assert that consumption of sweets or sugar could have a heroin addiction-like effect.
Blood glucose levels
It used to be believed that sugar raised blood glucose levels more quickly than did starch because of its simpler chemical structure. However, it turned out that white bread or French fries have the same effect on blood sugar as pure glucose, while fructose, although a simple carbohydrate, has a minimal effect on blood sugar. As a result, as far as blood sugar is concerned, carbohydrates are classified according to their glycemic index, a system for measuring how quickly a food that is eaten raises blood sugar levels, and glycemic load, which takes into account both the glycemic index and the amount of carbohydrate in the food. This has led to carbohydrate counting, a method used by diabetics for planning their meals.
Studies in animals have suggested that chronic consumption of refined sugars can contribute to metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. Some experts have suggested that refined fructose is more damaging than refined glucose in terms of cardiovascular risk. Cardiac performance has been shown to be impaired by switching from a carbohydrate diet including fiber to a high-carbohydrate diet. Switching from saturated fatty acids to carbohydrates with high glycemic index values shows a statistically-significant increase in the risk of myocardial infarction. Other studies have shown that the risk of developing coronary heart disease is decreased by adopting a diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids but low in sugar, whereas a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet brings no reduction. This suggests that consuming a diet with a high glycemic load typical of the "junk food" diet is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease.
The consumption of added sugars has been positively associated with multiple measures known to increase cardiovascular disease risk amongst adolescents as well as adults. Studies are suggesting that the impact of refined carbohydrates or high glycemic load carbohydrates are more significant than the impact of saturated fatty acids on cardiovascular disease. A high dietary intake of sugar (in this case, sucrose or disaccharide) can substantially increase the risk of heart and vascular diseases. According to a Swedish study of 4301 people undertaken by Lund University and Malmö University College, sugar was associated with higher levels of bad blood lipids, causing a high level of small and medium low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In contrast, the amount of fat eaten did not affect the level of blood fats. Incidentally quantities of alcohol and protein were linked to an increase in the good HDL blood fat.
There is a common notion that sugar leads to hyperactivity, in particular in children, but studies and meta-studies tend to disprove this. Some articles and studies do refer to the increasing evidence supporting the links between refined sugar and hyperactivity. The WHO FAO meta-study suggests that such inconclusive results are to be expected when some studies do not effectively segregate or control for free sugars as opposed to sugars still in their natural form (entirely unrefined) while others do. One study followed thirty-five 5-to-7-year-old boys who were reported by their mothers to be behaviorally "sugar-sensitive". They were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, mothers were told that their children were fed sugar, and, in the control group, mothers were told that their children received a placebo. In fact, all children received the placebo, but mothers in the sugar expectancy condition rated their children as significantly more hyperactive. This result suggests that the real effect of sugar is that it increases worrying among parents with preconceived notions.
Obesity and diabetes
Controlled trials have now shown unequivocally that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages increases body weight and body fat, and that replacement of sugar by artificial sweeteners reduces weight. Studies on the link between sugars and diabetes are inconclusive, with some suggesting that eating excessive amounts of sugar does not increase the risk of diabetes, although the extra calories from consuming large amounts of sugar can lead to obesity, which may itself increase the risk of developing this metabolic disease. Other studies show correlation between refined sugar (free sugar) consumption and the onset of diabetes, and negative correlation with the consumption of fiber. These included a 2010 meta-analysis of eleven studies involving 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes. This found that "SSBs (sugar-sweetened beverages) may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes not only through obesity but also by increasing dietary glycemic load, leading to insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and inflammation". As an overview to consumption related to chronic disease and obesity, the World Health Organization's independent meta-studies specifically distinguish free sugars ("all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey, syrups and fruit juices") from sugars occurring naturally in food. The reports prior to 2000 set the limits for free sugars at a maximum of 10% of carbohydrate intake, measured by energy, rather than mass, and since 2002 have aimed for a level across the entire population of less than 10%. The consultation committee recognized that this goal is "controversial. However, the Consultation considered that the studies showing no effect of free sugars on excess weight have limitations".
In regard to contributions to tooth decay, the role of free sugars is also recommended to be below an absolute maximum of 10% of energy intake, with a minimum of zero. There is "convincing evidence from human intervention studies, epidemiological studies, animal studies and experimental studies, for an association between the amount and frequency of free sugars intake and dental caries" while other sugars (complex carbohydrate) consumption is normally associated with a lower rate of dental caries. Lower rates of tooth decay have been seen in individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance.
Also, studies have shown that the consumption of sugar and starch have different impacts on oral health with the ingestion of starchy foods and fresh fruit being associated with low levels of dental caries.
Recommended dietary intake
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends  that both adults and children reduce the intake of free sugars to less than 10% of total energy intake. A reduction to below 5% of total energy intake brings additional health benefits, especially in what regards dental caries. These recommendations were based on the totality of available evidence reviewed regarding the relationship between free sugars intake and body weight and dental caries.
Free sugars include monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods and beverages by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, and sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates.
Various culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture.
- Firmly packed brown sugar 1 lb = 2.5 cups (or 1.3 L per kg, 0.77 kg/L)
- Granulated sugar 1 lb = 2.25 cups (or 1.17 L per kg, 0.85 kg/L)
- Unsifted confectioner's sugar 1 lb = 3.75 cups (or 2.0 L per kg, 0.5 kg/L)
The "Engineering Resources – Bulk Density Chart" published in Powder and Bulk gives different values for the bulk densities:
- Beet sugar 0.80 g/mL
- Dextrose sugar 0.62 g/mL ( = 620 kg/m^3)
- Granulated sugar 0.70 g/mL
- Powdered sugar 0.56 g/mL
- The -g- is unexplained, possibly reflecting a Venetian dialect.
- Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
- σάκχαρ, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- This form is not phonetically explained, but may reflect a mediation through a language en route from the Sanskrit original. Modern Greek ζάχαρη [sáχari] is due to cluster simplification [kχ] > [χ] and initial sandhi (acc. την σάχαρη [tin sáχari] > τη ζάχαρη [ti záχari]). The word has also changed its nominal class.
- "Jaggery". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2012-08-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Moxham, Roy, The Great Hedge of India, Carroll & Graf, 2001 ISBN 0-7867-0976-6.
- Kenneth F.Kiple & Kriemhild Conee Ornelas. World history of Food – Sugar. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Sharpe, Peter (1998). "Sugar Cane: Past and Present". Illinois: Southern Illinois University.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- George Rolph (1873). Something about sugar: its history, growth, manufacture and distribution.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Adas, Michael (January 2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-832-0. Page 311. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Adas" defined multiple times with different content
- "Sugarcane: Saccharum Offcinarum" (PDF). USAID, Govt of United States. 2006. p. 7.1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kieschnick, John (2003). The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09676-7.
- Sen, Tansen. (2003). Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600–1400. Manoa: Asian Interactions and Comparisons, a joint publication of the University of Hawaii Press and the Association for Asian Studies. ISBN 0-8248-2593-4. Pages 38–40.
- Kieschnick, John (2003). The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture Princeton University Press. 258. ISBN 0-691-09676-7.
- Ponting, Clive (2000) . World history: a new perspective. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 481. ISBN 0-7011-6834-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Barber, Malcolm (2004). The two cities: medieval Europe, 1050–1320 (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-415-17415-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Abreu y Galindo, J. de; A. Cioranescu (ed) (1977). Historia de la conquista de las siete islas de Canarias. Tenerife: Goya ediciones. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Benitez-Rojo 1996, p. 93.
- Sidney Mintz (1986). Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-009233-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Forced Labour". The National Archives, Government of the United Kingdom. 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Walton Lai (1993). Indentured labor, Caribbean sugar: Chinese and Indian migrants to the British West Indies, 1838–1918. ISBN 978-0-8018-7746-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Steven Vertovik (Robin Cohen, ed.) (1995). The Cambridge survey of world migration. pp. 57–68. ISBN 978-0-521-44405-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- K Laurence (1994). A Question of Labour: Indentured Immigration Into Trinidad & British Guiana, 1875–1917. St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-12172-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "St. Lucia's Indian Arrival Day". Caribbean Repeating Islands. 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Indian indentured labourers". The National Archives, Government of the United Kingdom. 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Early Sugar Industry of Bihar – Bihargatha. Bihargatha.in. Retrieved on 2012-01-07.
- "How Sugar is Made – the History". SKIL: Sugar Knowledge International. Retrieved 2012-03-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "A Visit to the Tate & Lyle Archive". The Sugar Girls blog. 10 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Duncan Barrett and Nuala Calvi. The Sugar Girls. Collins. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-00-744847-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pigman, Ward; Horton, D. (1972). Pigman and Horton, ed. The Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry Vol 1A (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 1–67. ISBN 0-12-556352-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (11th ed.), Merck, 1989, ISBN 091191028X<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>, 8205.
- Buss, David; Robertson, Jean (1976). Manual of Nutrition; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. pp. 5–9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Norman Kretchmer; Claire B. Hollenbeck (1991). "Sugars and Sweeteners". CRC Press, Inc. ISBN 9780849388354.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Peter H. Raven & George B. Johnson (1995). Carol J. Mills, ed. Understanding Biology (3rd ed.). WM C. Brown. p. 203. ISBN 0-697-22213-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Schenck, Fred W. (2006). "Glucose and Glucose-Containing Syrups". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> doi: 10.1002/14356007.a12_457.pub2
- "Lactase". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Maltase". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sucrase". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- NAL USDA National Nutrient Database
- "Biennial beet". GMO Compass. Retrieved 2014-01-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "How Beet Sugar is Made". SKIL. Retrieved 2012-03-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "How Cane Sugar is Made". SKIL. Retrieved 2012-03-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Tantangan Menghadapi Ketergantungan Impor Gula Rafinasi" (in Bahasa Indonesia). Asosiasi Gula Rafinasi Indonesia. Retrieved 9 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Rafinasi Vs Gula Kristal Putih" (in Bahasa Indonesia). Kompas Gramedia. Retrieved 9 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Refining and Processing Sugar" (PDF). The Sugar Association. Retrieved 16 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pakpahan, Agus; Supriono, Agus, eds. (2005). "Bagaimana Gula Dimurnikan - Proses Dasar". Ketika Tebu Mulai Berbunga (in Bahasa Indonesia). Bogor: Sugar Observer. ISBN 979-99311-0-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "How Sugar is Refined". SKIL. Retrieved 2012-03-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Deulgaonkar, Atul (March 12–25, 2005). "A case for reform". Frontline. 22 (8).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pakpahan, Agus; Supriono, Agus, eds. (2005). "Industri Rafinasi Kunci Pembuka Restrukturisasi Industri Gula Indonesia". Ketika Tebu Mulai Berbunga (in Bahasa Indonesia). Bogor: Sugar Observer. pp. 70–72. ISBN 979-99311-0-X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sugar: World Markets and Trade" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. November 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- International Illovo Sugar. Retrieved on 2012-01-07.
- "The journey of sugar". British Sugar. Retrieved 2012-03-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Types and uses". Sugar Nutrition UK. Retrieved 2012-03-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Low calorie sugars and sweeteners". Silver Spoon. Retrieved 2012-03-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- European Parliament and Council (1990). "Council Directive on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs". Council Directive of 24 September 1990 on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs. p. 4. Retrieved 2011-09-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Robinson, Jancis (2006). The Oxford Companion to Wine (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 665–666. ISBN 0-19-860990-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Food Balance Sheets". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "World agriculture: towards 2015/2030". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 92-5-104761-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Welsh, Jean A.; Andrea J. Sharma; Lisa Grellinger; Miriam B. Vos (2011). "Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 94. American Society for Nutrition. 726-734. Retrieved January 18, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sugar: World Markets and Trade" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service. May 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sugarcane profile". Ag Marketing Research Center, partially funded by USDA Rural Development. 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sugars and Sweeteners". Economic Research Service, USDA. 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation (2003). "WHO Technical Report Series 916 Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases". Retrieved 2013-12-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Shaking salt and sugar from your diet". Consumer Reports on Health. Consumers Union of U.S. January 2008. Retrieved July 22, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> For example, a 1995 meta-analysis of 23 studies, in: Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
- "Carbohydrates and the Glycemic Load". Harvard School of Public Health.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Beaser, Richard S.; Campbell, Amy P. (2005). The Joslin guide to diabetes: a program for managing your treatment (2nd ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7432-5784-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. "Diabetes Quiz." Last Modified 2007-07-11.
- American Dietetic Association. "Nutrition: Fact vs. Fiction."
- Joslin Diabetes Center "Classroom Presentation on Diabetes for Elementary School Age Children."
- Marschilok, Catherine. "Ask a Medical Professional: Diabetes Myths and Misconceptions." Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.
- American Diabetes Association. "Diabetes Myths."
- National Diabetes Education Program. "Tips for Teens with Diabetes." Last Modified November 2007.
- Lee S. Gross, Li Li, Earl S. Ford and Simin Liu (2004). "Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 79 (5): 774–779. PMID 15113714. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- See Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015
- "Measurement & conversion charts". Domino Sugar. 2011. Archived from the original on Oct 3, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Engineering Resources – Bulk Density Chart". Powder and Bulk.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Barrett, Duncan & Calvi, Nuala (March 2012). The Sugar Girls. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-744847-0. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hannah, A.C. (1996). The International Sugar Trade. Cambridge: Woodhead. ISBN 1-85573-069-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hugill, Anthony (1978). Sugar And All That. Gentry Books. ISBN 0-85614-048-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hannah, A.C. (1996). The International Sugar Trade. Cambridge: Woodhead. ISBN 1-85573-069-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Saulo, Aurora A. (March 2005). "Sugars and Sweeteners in Foods" (PDF). College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Taubes, Gary (April 13, 2011). "Is sugar toxic?". New York Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sugars.|