This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (December 2015)
Town Hall, Cathedral, Waterworks Building, Bima, Railway Station, Wladyslaw I monument
|Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.|
|Town rights||7 March 1330|
|• President||Roman Ciepiela|
|• City||72.4 km2 (28.0 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,600/km2 (4,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||33-100 to 33-110|
|Area code(s)||+48 014|
Tarnów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈtarnuf] ( listen); German: Tarnau; Yiddish: טארנא, Torna) is a city in southeastern Poland with 115,341 inhabitants (metro area 269,000 inhabitants) as of June 2009. The city has been situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship since 1999, but from 1975 to 1998, it was the capital of the Tarnów Voivodeship. It is a major rail junction, located on the strategic east-west connection from Lviv to Kraków. Also, from Tarnów two additional lines stem - a southwards main line to the Slovak border via Stróże, as well as a minor northwards line to Szczucin (now defunct).
- 1 Etymology and location
- 2 Transport
- 3 Economy
- 4 History
- 5 Sights
- 6 Climate
- 7 Education
- 8 Sports
- 9 Religion
- 10 Politics
- 11 Notable residents
- 12 International relations
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Etymology and location
Tarnów lies at the Carpathian foothills, on the Dunajec and the Biała rivers. The area of the city is 72.4 km2, and it is divided into 16 districts, known in Polish as osiedla. A few kilometers west of the city lies the district of Moscice, built in the late 1920s, together with a large chemical plant. The district was named after President of Poland, Ignacy Mościcki.
In the first documented mention of the settlement (1105), it was spelled Tharnow. The name later evolved to Tarnowo (1229), Tarnów (1327), and Tharnow (1473). The place's name, Tarnów, is widely used in different forms across Slavic Europe, and lands which used to be inhabited by Slavs, such as eastern Germany, Hungary, and northern Greece. There is a German town, Tarnow, Greek Tyrnavos (also spelled as Tirnovo), Czech Trnov, Bulgarian Veliko Tarnovo and Malko Tarnovo, as well as different Trnovos/Trnowos in Slovenia, Slovakia, Serbia, Bosnia, and Macedonia. The name Tarnów comes from an early Slavic word trn/tarn, which means a thorn, or an area covered by thorny plants.
Tarnów is an important road and rail hub. It lies at the intersection of two major roads - the A4 motorway European route E40, and National Road nr. 73, which goes from Kielce to Jasło. Furthermore, the city is a rail junction, with four lines - three main electrified routes (westwards to Kraków, eastwards to Dębica and southwards to Nowy Sącz), as well as secondary importance local connection to Szczucin. The history of rail transport in Tarnów dates back to the year 1856, when Galician Railway of Archduke Charles Louis reached the city. The complex of Tarnów Main Station, patterned after the Lviv railway station was completed in 1906. Since 2010, Tarnów station houses a gallery of modern art, the only such gallery located in a rail station in Poland. Tarnów also has three additional stations - Tarnów Moscice, as well as Tarnów Polnocny and Tarnów Klikowa, both of which are currently out of service.
The city's public transport system keeps 29 municipal bus routes, which provide convenient transport to all districts. Furthermore, in 1911-1942 Tarnów had a tram line, with the length of 2,500 meters.
Tarnów is an important center of economy and industry. The city has chemical plants (Zakłady Azotowe w Tarnowie-Mościcach S.A., Becker Farby Przemysłowe Sp. z o.o., Summit Packaging Polska Sp. z o.o.), mechanical industry), food plants Chłodniczego "Fritar", building materials (Leier Polska S.A., Bruk-Bet), textiles (Spółdzielnia "Tarnowska Odzież, Tarnospin, Tarkonfex"), and several warehouses, as well as a distribution center of the Lidl chain. Furthermore, Tarnów is an important center of natural gas industry, with headquarters of three gas corporations.
This section may be incomprehensible or very hard to understand.(December 2015)
In the ninth century St. Martin's Hill at a distance of about 2.5 km south of the present city center (now is the land of the village Zawada) was founded Slavic gord an area of over 20 hectares surrounded by fortifications in the form of high embankments. It functioned until the beginning of the eleventh century. This gord was one of the largest such facilities in Poland In the 989 gord with the entire country was incorporated into the Polish state. At the end of the eleventh century abandoned gord and a settlement with bulkheads they were assigned by Princess Judyta, wife of Władysław I Herman, the Benedictine abbey in Tyniec near Kraków. In one of them Benedictines founded the village Tarnów (today Tarnowiec) was first mentioned in 1124.
First documented mention of Tarnów (village in a place where Spycimir Leliwa coat of arms later founded the city) comes from the year 1309, when the list of miracles of Saint Kinga specifies a woman named Marta, who was resident of the settlement. In 1327, a magnate and knight named Spycimir (Leliwa coat of arms) purchased a village of Tarnów Wielki, and three years later, founded his own private town. On March 7, 1330, King Władysław I the Elbow-high granted Magdeburg rights to Tarnów. In 1331, construction of a castle on the St. Martin Hill was completed by Castellan of Kraków, Spycimir Leliwita of Leliwa coat of arms (its ruins can still be seen). The castle raised on a sandstone rock, on a north edge of the Carpathians Mountains 2 km from the Old Town. The fortress consisted of two wards, a “Przygródek” (outer ward with the main gate - the economic part of the castle and the seat of government latifundium Tarnów) and “Zamek Wysoki” (high castle) served as the residence of Tarnowski family. There was also a chapel of the Blessed Virgin. These both wards were surrounded by separate walls and divided by deep ditch, over that was thrown a bridge. On a courtyard of high castle there was a circular bergfried, a strong point of defence. To 1567. city Spycimir was owned by descendants bearing the name Tarnowski. Tarnów for centuries remained a private town, being successively owned by families: Tarnowski, Ostrogski, Zasławski and Sanguszko. Until the creation of Zamość was probably the largest city in the Kingdom of Polish belonging to the family of oligarchs. In 1364. Rafał from Tarnów, the son of Spycimir bought the rights of hereditary voit in Tarnów. So that the owners of the town gained a much greater impact on his life, through their managers, or burgraves, and later starostas. Among the first residents of Tarnów approximately 20% were German-speaking townspeople brought probably from Nowy Sącz as better acquainted with the functioning of the city under Magdeburg rights. January 7 every year the citizens of Tarnów elected six councilors. Each of them in turn for a month held the office of mayor.
One of the first brick buildings in Tarnów was parisch church (the first mention in 1346) Nativity of the Virgin Mary. In the 2nd half. XIV. were founded the parish school (the first mention 1413.) and the first guilds. Among the craftsmen in Tarnów were the most drapers and linen-drapers (the first mention of a guild of drapers and linen-drapers 1444). The merchants on a larger scale traded oxen imported from Red Ruthenia and Moldova. In Poland Tarnów commercial interests united mainly to Kraków, Bochnia, Biecz, Krosno, Nowy Sącz, Opatowiec, industry and Sandomierz. In the Kingdom of Hungary he maintained a close relationship Tarnów primarily from Bardejov and Kežmarok. Positive impact on the economic development of the city privileges were achieved in successive rulers for the efforts of the Polish Tarnów owners. The first of these was the privilege of 1419. assigned by King Władysław II Jagiełło. The King of the authorized dealers Tarnów to transport goods to Wrocław route through Opatowiec, Lelów and Krzepice (so you can get around Kraków, where in effect the staple right) and released them from paying customs duties applicable to it.
Approximately half of the fourteenth century city was surrounded by a fortified wall (first mention 1448.) length of 900 m with towers and two large gates (Krakowska from the west and Pilzneńska from the east) and one smaller gate on the south. Brick perimeter defense in the private city was a great rarity in Polish scale. After its construction was founded civilian archers' fraternity (the first mention of 1555.). Its members were obliged to shooting exercises and defense fortifications of the city (the first mention of 1555.). With events in the life of Tarnów in the fourteenth century. It should be noted royal visits: Kazimierz Wielki - in 1362 and 1363 Jadwiga – 1390, Władysław Jagiełło – 1392, and franciscan Jakub Strzemię consecration as bishop in Halych – 1392  At the end of the fourteenth century at the southern wall of the parish church built the first chapel. It was the chapel of St. Cross, also called the chapel of Corpus Christi.
In 1400. bishop of Kraków Piotr Wysz established at the parish church collegiate chapter, headed by the provost. In the following years for the collegiate church at the town wall were built houses of the canons, or members of the chapter. In the same year as the first in the list of students refurbished the Academy in Kraków was Maciej from Tarnów. In the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century, the richest merchant in Tarnów was Stanisław Zalasowski. He trading with cities in Poland and abroad, as well as credit operations as a banker Tarnowski family. With their support Zalasowski was knighted by the king.
In the fifteenth century in Tarnów and its suburbs were created important religious foundations. In 1415. voivode of Kraków Jan of Tarnów and his brother Spytek, founded at the collegiate "at the grave of his father," a new chapel with an altar dedicated Sending the Apostles. Call the Chapel of the Apostles Sending refers to the feast, which is celebrated in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church July 15. Because on that day in 1410. fought the Battle of Grunwald in which both brothers attended, this foundation can be interpreted also as a vote for victory in this battle. Probably in 1440. at the Great Suburb was consecrated by cardinal Isidore of Kiev Isidore of Kiev wooden church built by the residents of that suburb. Today it is the Church of Our Lady of the Scapular on Burek. In 1448. decision of the city councilors and the effort of the city with built chapel Holy Spirit at the hospital (shelter) for the walls (today in this place J. Bem square). In 1459. at the Little Suburb on the south-eastern side of the city walls Jan Amor Iunior from Tarnów, along with his brother Jan Rafał, a canon of Kraków, they built a wooden monastery with the Church Our Lady of the Snows for the franciscans observants (Bernardines). In 1467. founded by Jan Amor Iunior from Tarnów (owner of Tarnów in the years 1448 to 1500) in place of the wooden buildings of the monastery and church started to build brick buildings. The work was completed in 1499. probably. The whole team was surrounded by a brick and earthen fortifications connected to the city walls. Currently, these buildings after rebuilding acted as secular. In the second half of the fifteenth century Tarnów already in operation steam and a wooden water pipe supplying water from the village Krzyż (today the city district) into the tanks on the market. From 1448. first mentioned in written sources about the existence of the town hall (brick or wood).
The town's development was interrupted by two or three big fires in 1483 and 1494. They destroyed the city still made up mostly of wooden buildings. As part of the reconstruction plan Tarnów conducted a correction tracking. At the same time allowed to postpone built into the market, which enabled the construction of houses with extended arcade. The first one was probably house Rynek 5 (Market 5). They rebuilt and enlarged as collegiate in Tarnów. It was built by her high tower, added the vault and short chancel of late Gothic stalls preserved to this day. It also was added to the south chapel of Our Lady of the Scapular and the ornate portal to the southern entrance. In the center of the Market built two brick buildings official. First intended for the court voit’s and jurors. The second building with a tower, used as the seat of the city council with the mayor, or the appropriate city hall. From 1445. comes the first mention of a Jew from Tarnów (his name Kaleph), and in 1498 about Jewish stalls in Tarnów. In the years 1468 and 1482. Tarnów reached the first written sources epidemics.
The sixteenth century
Approximately 1513. began work on the renovation and expansion of the city's fortifications on the second line (brick rampart and the embankment) from the side of the streets today Wałowa and Targowa. It was strengthened two main gates: Krakowska and Pilzneńska and smaller at the current Wielkie Schody (Grand Staircase) Street also built the bastions at the monastery. Work on the fortified walls lasted until 1544. founded in that time, including half-moon tower preserved to this day at Basztowa Street. This work supported financially and supervised the grand crown hetman and castellan of Kraków Jan Amor Tarnowski, owner of the town since 1514.
On the initiative of Jan Amor Tarnowski originated in the collegiate magnificent tombstones dedicated to her mother, first wife, father, brother and son. The first of these is an example of the transition from Gothic to Renaissance style. Other Renaissance monuments have been ordered in the studio Bartolommeo Berrecci. In 1524. at the request of Jan and Barbara Mikołajowski coat of arms Griffin from nearby Mikołajowice was completed reconstruction of a brick house near the collegiate called since then “Mikołajowski". The house is in an almost unchanged survived to our times. At around the same time two buildings of municipal authorities in the market combined in one town hall. In 1526. for the Krakowska Gate, founded by Adam Eberhard townsman built wooden church Saint Anne (in 1654. rebuilt in brick). In 1994. it was exposed its foundations. In the 20s or 30s XVI. at the initiative of Hetman Jan Amor Tarnowski Tarnów castle was rebuilt by introducing into its design elements of the Renaissance. The whole high castle was fortified with thick curtains of walls, on the flanks there placed half-moon bastions. On the east side there was built huge building. It was probably an artillery bastion. There were also new embankment and earthworked bastions. In this time Jan Amor Tarnowski castle was visited by the distinguished creators Polish Reneissance, like: Jan Kochanowski, Jan Frycz Modrzewski, Andrzej Orzechowski and many other. Inside there was situated the famous library. From April 4 until October 2, 1528. Jan Amor Tarnowski castle and income of the city made available to King of Hungary Jan Zápolya. He from the castle Tarnów had sought to regain control over his kingdom. Before leaving Tarnów King in gratitude for the hospitality he gave the city five hundred Hungarian złoty income from trade tariffs, paid so far by the townspeople of Tarnów. The original of this privilege is stored in the Regional Museum in Tarnów. In 1537. in the castle and the town was visited by the King of Poland Sigismund I the Old, along with the queen Bona Sforza.
According to the census of 1536 the tax. Tarnów had 200 houses and probably with the suburbs from 1500 to 2000 inhabitants. From 1533. comes the first mention of a pharmacy in Tarnów. In the years 1554-1560 Jan Amor Tarnowski as the owner of Tarnów and an expert with Magdeburg law inscribed in the books of the city (Acta obligationum) rules and laws governing the functioning of the security and defense of the city. W 1559. he developed the principles of operation of the collegiate school. It was the first known in Poland magnate initiative for educating young people bourgeois. At that time, the foundation of Father provost Marcin Łyczko was built brick school building. Today, his former classroom serves as an exhibition hall of the Diocesan Museum. Since 1547. upon receipt by Jan Amor Tarnowski hereditary title of count's latifundium Tarnów also come to be called the County Tarnów.
At the end of the life of Jan Amor Tarnowski (d. 1561) began work on the construction of his tombstone in the collegiate church. Tombstone designed and made Gianmaria Mosca called Padovano. Reneissance monument was inspired by monuments Venetian doges. After the death of Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski (son of Jan Amor Tarnowski) in 1567. Padovano also had to rearrange a monument to the story, to place the figure of Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski. The result was the highest (13.8 m) in Poland (and probably the highest in the north of the Alps), a Renaissance monument, extended even later section on his sister, Zofia Ostrogska (d. 1570). After the death of castellan of Wojnicz Jan Krzysztof Tarnowski County Tarnów has become its property. Since 1553. Zofia was married to duke Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski, the governor (voivode) of Kiev province. In 1568. completed the reconstruction of the town hall in the Mannerist style. In his attic, modeled on the attic Kraków's Cloth Hall were portraits of the 28 magnates Leliwa coat of arms of the families Tarnowski, Melsztyński and Jarosławski. At this time in Tarnów he accepted the model bourgeois Renaissance building, visible today best in tenements Rynek (Market) 19, 20 and 21. Tarnowski family line, called the older, made unsuccessful attempt to redeem County Tarnów, who after the death of Zofia would accrue to her husband Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski. In April of 1570. Stanisław Tarnowski with the help of the oligarchs, having a private feud with duke Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski, brought the armed forces who stormed the castle Tarnów. Townspeople remained loyal to Zofia and her husband, whose military blockade of the castle began which lasted until July 1570. The following year, Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski received from King Sigismund Augustus confirm the hereditary possession of the County Tarnów and Stanisław Tarnowski warrant century of silence about the case and pay a huge compensation for Ostrogski.
In the years 1578-1585 the efforts of duke Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski King Stephen Báthory (Tarnów visited twice - in 1576 and 1578) released five privileges of trade for Tarnów. In 1581. Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski issued first privilege for the Jews of Tarnów, where he took them from municipal law and guaranteed the inviolability of the synagogue and cemetery. In times when Tarnów was owned by Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski (d. 1608) abuse problem became made by starostas appointed by him. Shortly after 1587. he endowed his son Janusz and gave him Tarnów.
At the end of the sixteenth century, duke Janusz Ostrogski brought to Tarnów Scots. They were initially in his court. Then they came Tarnów Scottish immigrants originating, inter alia Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee. In the seventeenth century, the Scots were already the largest non-Polish national group among the townspeople of Tarnów. Most of the Scots were shopkeepers, but among them were also merchants doing business on a large scale. In the seventeenth century they were the most economically active part of the inhabitants of Tarnów. Scot Alexander Dixon was for a time the voit of Tarnów. The newcomers from Scotland were Protestant. The dead were buried in a cemetery in the garden of Nikelson family (near the S. Staszic Street) liquidated in 1737. Until then, most Scots went back to their homeland or Polonized up. In 1597. it was consecrated church Holy Trinity on Terlikówka (since 1994 parish). In the sixteenth century, there were no major fires in Tarnów. Plague touched people in 1516 and 1572.
The seventeenth century
In 1603. brothers Janusz and Alexander Ostrogski divided the County Tarnów. City and castle, divided into two equal parts. Because Alexander died in the same year, the estate had to be divided again between Janusz and children Alexander. From now part of Tarnów belongs to Janusz and his heirs were called "dukely" and part owned by the heirs of Alexander eventually become known as "zamoyska". This division adversely affected the development of the city. Janusz Ostrogski died in 1620 He was buried in the Collegiate Tarnów and commemorated together with his first wife Zuzanna wonderful monument made in the Mannerist style by Jan Pfister. From that moment formally half Tarnów and its suburbs became the property of his grandson Władysław Dominik Zasławski-Ostrogski, but by the time he reaches the age of majority management on the part of the "dukely" of the city held the widow of Janusz, Theophila, his grandmother.
20s and 30s the seventeenth century was a period of intense trade contacts with dealers merchants Tarnów in Gdańsk. Merchants from Tarnów, as one of the few, floated up the Vistula to Gdańsk wine, grain, salt, fruits, especially prunes and metal ores. At that time, most of the Jews in Tarnów dealt with transit trade and forbidden usury for Catholics. Their financial services were used townspeople also priests. In 1627. at the request of the city co-owner Tomasz Zamoyski of King Sigismund III Vasa approved by all guilds from Tarnów and equated them with those of Kraków. Three years later, the renovated monastery of women brought three Bernardine nuns of Lublin. In this way, the sisterhood returned to Tarnów. The first monastery was founded in 1550. deserted since the end of the sixteenth century. When the monastery was built wooden church St. Michael the Archangel (non-existent). In the 20s the seventeenth century. Rebuilt after a fire (1614) also the franciscans observants (Bernardines) church. In the 1st half the seventeenth century occurred in Tarnów to four major fires: in 1614. burned Bernardine monastery and the church; in 1617. fire destroyed much of Tarnów, including collegiate church choir and in 1621. burned down several houses in the city. A fire of unknown effects also occurred in 1632. Plague at the turn of 1622/1623 took in Tarnów about 300 victims.
In 1633. Władysław Dominik Zasławsko-Ostrogski officially took the possession, "the dukely" part of Tarnów. The second co-owner of Tomasz Zamoyski (“Zamoyska” part) . The next year they both received from King Władysław IV confirmed all royal privileges for Tarnów. In the years 1648-1651 due to the ongoing Khmelnytsky Uprising owners of the town burghers commanded repairing walls, exercises with weapons and forbid admission of strangers to the city. In 1652. Tarnów arrived from the east pandemic of bubonic plague, typhus and smallpox. It lasted almost a year culminating in the summer of 1653. According to the chronicler Bernardine died in 1500 people (the population of Tarnów at this time is estimated at about 1700 people). It was the most tragic in the history of the city a natural disaster. October 3, 1655. the Swedish army after the victory at the Battle of Wojnicz reached Tarnow. In return for giving up robbery soldiers embraced offered to them by the city of 5,000 florins. The Swedes also robbed two monasteries, where the nobility deposited his fortune. A few days later the burghers and the nobility many staying in Tarnów was able to defend against demoralized troops of the Polish army bent on pillage around. Swedish another attack took place in March 1656. and was caused by a delay in the payment of ransom for the Swedish crew of Kraków. The Swedes received 6,000 florins ransom, but they let the soldiers at night robbery of the city without Bernardine monasteries. In 1662. Tarnów had 768 inhabitants. What did not make the Swedes made a fire on June 1, 1663., which destroyed the whole town between the walls, including the town hall, the collegiate church and synagogue. After the reconstruction of the town hall in the tower clock was installed functioning today. At that time also he established a brick synagogue. During the reconstruction period Tarnów management of "dukely" part of Tarnów exercised Katarzyna of Sobieszyn (sister later the King of Poland Jan Sobieski) because her son Alexander Janusz Zasławski-Ostrogski was a minor. The "zamoyska" part belonged to Jan "Sobiepan" Zamoyski (d. 1665). In 1671. Tarnów had again presented well, because passing through the town Ulrich Werdum described it in his diary, as a neat, well-fortified city (embankments, dry moat, a wall with a porch and a strong tower), brick church and several houses in the style Italian. Restored life also at the castle. In the 70s the seventeenth century also expanded the church and Bernardine. The church of, among others, Baroque Chapel of the Immaculate Conception with a large crypt for burials benefactors, the monastery was extended by wing with the objectives for the penitents (unsaved). Also arose brick Bernardine nuns monastery (today Bernardine monks) completed in 1680. Janusz Aleksander Zasławski-Ostrogski decided to settle the matter functioning of Jews in the town. They accounted for at this time 10-12% of the inhabitants of the city. To this end, in 1670. he issued a general privilege for Jews, in which he confirmed all the privileges granted by his predecessors and led to a settlement between them and the city and features craft. In these documents it was first mentioned Jewish street (ulica Żydowska). In 1673. on the first rabbi in Tarnów selected Shmuel Shmelke Horowitz. In 1682. In Tarnów and its suburbs was 101 homes, of which about ⅓ were brick houses. The population was approximately a thousand people. In 1697. in a situation of continuous threat to the peace in the kingdom Tarnów city council signed an agreement with Synagogue (sovereignty Jews in Tarnów) on a common pay tribute both enemy forces and soldiers confederations. In the same year Teofila Ludwika with Lubomirska owner of the "dukely" Tarnów parts bought from Zygmunt Walewski part called "zamoyska". So formally became owner of both parts of Tarnów, but different legal legacy led it to long-term processes of children Zygmunt Walewski.
The eighteenth century
The year 1704 began the most difficult period in the history of the old polish Tarnów. Since December of this year to 1710 in connection with ongoing in the territories of the Poland of the to Great Northern War Tarnów repeatedly encroaching upon the army warring parties (Saxon, Swedish and Russian), forcing the contribution and lunch or stationed in town at his expense, even for a few months. In 1705. pestilence in Tarnów took many victims. Six years later, a fire destroyed 23 houses in town inhabited by Jews. In 1710. 16-year-old Aleksander Dominik Lubomirski, who inherited Tarnów County after his mother, Teofila, confirmed the rights, privileges and freedoms of data townspeople by their ancestors. Later, however, there were no expressions of interest in the affairs of the city on his part. In 1717. Tarnów had 322 residents, and the suburbs 575, the lowest in its history. By this time probably it was also eventually abandoned castle Tarnów (demolished after 1747.) As a function of temporary residence lords Tarnów began serving wooden mansion in Gumniska. We only know of two buildings, which at that time were created in Tarnow. One of them was the Chapel of Relics (saved as part of the northern nave), built in 1712. The treasury of the collegiate church, where Tarnów attributed the rapid conclusion of the plague in 1705. The second was a "pretorium," or overground part of the Chapel of the Prison of Christ the cemetery Bernardine, finished in 1713. (has not survived). Aleksander Dominik Lubomirski died childless in 1720., and Tarnów inherited from his sister Marianna, wife of duke Paweł Karol Sanguszko. This desiring prevent the total collapse of the city, in 1723. Ordered the owners of empty squares in the city that within a year and six weeks cabinetry or sold them wanting to build in. In addition, builders slowed from taxes for five years and banned those clergy and nobility having a plot in Tarnów selling them and charging sums without its prior permission. It is unclear to what extent the action encapsulating Tarnów was advanced in 1735. When in December of that year a fire destroyed the entire city within the walls and suburbs. Despite the enormity of the devastation the most pressing need was to get to Tarnów new residents. At that time the ruined city was inhabited for only a few hosts Catholics, there was no Christian merchant. Most Jews, constituting at the same time most of the population of Tarnów, crowded, occupied today the Jewish street, which posed a big threat sanitation and fire. In 1736. Paweł Karol Sanguszko allowed to settle in Tarnów Jews from other towns and surrounded them his protection. Against the settlement of the "new" Tarnów synagogue of the Jews protested, not wanting to take responsibility for unfamiliar newcomers settled in Tarnów without her will and knowledge. She tried to also forbid Jews from settling outside Jewish street. For all move owner of the town needed the approval of two bond owners of its parts. For example, when Paweł Karol Sanguszko in 1737. Ordered to pay half of the Synagogue taxes per Tarnów due to the very bad state of the city did not receive this acceptance of their representatives on the spot. Then Synagogue voluntarily pledged to pay extra 120 zł for each installment of the poll tax in addition to the 200 zł promised in 1717. Until it has improved a town. In 1742. after three years of negotiations, Paweł Karol Sanguszko paid off the mortgage of the sum owed by Tarnów, becoming his first sole owner for nearly 140 years. In 1745. At the request of King Augustus III granted for Tarnów right to organize 10 fairs a year. Sanguszko invited not all merchants to Tarnów, three years exempting them from all. Before his death in 1750. Paweł Karol Sanguszko bequeathed County Tarnów his wife Barbara Dunin. Two years later, keeping a promise made by him, she began construction of a brick church for Bernardine nuns, completed in 1776. (Now a church Bernardine monks). In the 2nd half. eighteenth century begun building boom in Tarnów, largest since the end of the sixteenth century. They rebuilt houses in the Market Square after a fire in 1743. Some of them lost at the road arcaded replaced by high ground floor. There's a new type of building in the baroque style, crowned with a high roof, often broken, with the front wall devoid of decoration, with a portal consisting of two stone pillars and arches profiled arc. The city and the suburbs were built many mansions with Baroque features. The former Great suburb preserved one of them with “lamus” (today the Etnographic Museum at the street Krakowska 10). In 1756. canon Wojciech Kaszewicz transformed the collegial school on academic colony at the Academy of Kraków. According to the letter of the act of foundation Rector of the Academy of Kraków he cast as directors and professors of Tarnów schools more able master of this Academy. In 1767. was located in Tarnów station Royal Mail. The end of the 60s the seventeenth century brought another period of unrest in the city's history related to the ongoing fighting in Lesser Poland between Bar Confederation and Russian forces. In July, 1768. Tarnów invading Russian troops. Soldiers, rape and pillage. Stolen, among others, documents and recently purchased a silver seal with a pledge transport. The following year he came to the city branch of the confederates, who has collected tribute. Because of the constant threat of the city these raids in 1771. It happened that no one in Tarnów did not want to take on the duties of the mayor and commissioner of goods princely decreed that anyone who has possessions between the walls will be successively for 12 days presided over the city council, under penalty of arrest and confiscation of property.
Under Austrian partition
31 July 1772 r. to Tarnów entered the Austrian army to stay in Tarnów for 146 years. Tarnów found himself in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria under the authority of the Austrian emperor (by this time Tarnów was never in Galicia), cut off from the Kingdom Polish border. December 29, 1773 on. The magistrate, all the townspeople Tarnów and proxies collegiate chapter swore an oath of allegiance to the Empress of Austria. The city then had a population of about 1,500 inhabitants within the city walls. The following year, Barbara Dunin Sanguszkowa relinquished their tenure rights to Tarnów and counties Tarnów for sons. Tarnów fell Hieronim, who restored the town rank family residence. The first palace Sanguszko in Tarnów was established at the Market (Rynek 4). Built a new brewery Sanguszko on Strusina. Initially, in addition to changing market days, the presence of the garrison and the introduction of conscription imperial authority did not intervene in the life of the city. Introduced office physics (the doctor) city, whose duty is to combat the epidemic, monitoring compliance with sanitary regulations, supervision of working in the district doctors and surgeons and the fight against quacks. In 1777. the second street inhabited almost exclusively by Jews became a Pilzneńska Street (today Wekslarska). Although Jews could not buy or rent houses on the market (e.g. due to the imperial ban on Jews renting houses and apartments belonging to Christians), but sometimes illegally arable these homes due to debt in their formal owners. In 1791. was acquired legally by the Jew first house at the Market.
Truly a change in the city began 10 years after the invasion to Tarnów Austrian troops, and their defense by Joseph II, emperor reformer (Tarnów visited in 1787.) tending to administrative centralization and germanization countries under its authority. Created at that time in Tarnów determined the development of institutions and raising the status of a city and then delineated the streets of Krakowska, Lwowska and Wałowa are still the most important streets of Tarnów. In 1782. Tarnów established the seat of the district, and a year later episcopal covering the entire part of the Diocese of Kraków remaining under Austrian rule (officially erected by the Pope in 1786.). Were also eliminated all associations (brotherhood) church, collegiate chapter, the treasury and the buildings belonging to it were confiscated. In 1783. It was canceled Bernardine monastery of nuns, which five years later was transferred Bernardine monks. For the purposes of secular churches were occupied St. Anna and the Holy Spirit. In 1784. it banned burials in cemeteries churchyard and ordered their liquidation. The dead were originally buried in the cemetery at the chapel Bernardine Prison of Christ, and then to the newly established municipal cemetery in Zabłocie, today called the Old (the first known burial 1788) In 1784. it was liquidated numbering less than 30 years Tarnów colony academic establishing in its place a gymnasium with languages of instruction German and Latin Four years later, he founded a modern school of German-Jewish, with young Jews having good shape imperial subjects (existed until 1806). Groundbreaking changes also occurred in the communication system of Tarnów.
In 1785. officially opened the "imperial road", also called "Tract mid-Galicia" or "Viennese". The modern way of wooden covered bridge over the river Biała from Cieszyn Silesia led to Lvov. Route coming to the city from the west Krakowska Street, on the eastern side Lwowska Street. Also completed two workarounds hill town, connecting western and eastern sections of route: from the north present Wałowa Street, and to the south a string of streets Targowa - Bernardyńska - Szeroka. Construction of a new communication system Tarnów was associated with the beginning of the liquidation of city fortifications. First of all, the gates of which constitute a major obstacle in relation to the new route network of city streets investment portfolio. Bernardyńska and Szeroka streets built after the removal of the wall surrounding the Bernardine monastery. Lot created after the dismantling of fortifications was sold for the construction of houses. In 1787. in Tarnów (Rynek 4) was placed Court Nobles (Forum Nobilium) leading matters clergy and nobility for seven districts. Thanks Tarnów became a town frequented by the Galician nobility and the clergy, which positively influenced its development. Along with the emergence of new offices they began arriving officers, teachers, engineers and clergymen of Austrian, Czech and German. 14 March 1794. in the family working in the Court Nobles lawyer was born, Józef Zachariasz Bem, a national hero of Polish and Hungarian. In 1787. there has been a fundamental change in the system and the functioning of the city. At that, the emperor received the duke Hieronim Sanguszko judicial and administrative authority over the city, which came under the sole custody of the government. Owned by the Duke of remaining old Suburbs Great and Small with Grabówka. Election of the new magistrate ordered the delegate criminal justice in the whole circumference of Tarnów. At the head of the Magistrate had become acting president at the same time as a judge of the city. The first president-judge Stanisław Mayr. Activity at the Magistrate has also started the police department.
With the buildings, which at that time were created in Tarnów replace neoclassical building was a palace, called later "tenement Kamienobrodzki" at the Small Market (Kazimierz Wielki Square 5, housed in the hall, which were held stage shows, and during the carnival balls) palace Sanguszko (House of Prince, later office of district Kreishauptmann) and the post office. The last two stood at the current square J. Sobieski. In 1799. in Gumniska Hieronim Sanguszko began construction of a brick "Summer Palace" with a garden in the Dutch style. With the accidents that took place in Tarnów before the end of the eighteenth century. Replace the earthquake on December 3, 1786. (minor damage) and two fires in 1792., one of which destroyed the chapel of Christ Prison.
28 April 1798 r. Emperor Franz II granted the town Tarnów new privilege, which, among others, defined structure of municipal authorities, approved the townspeople Tarnów property and the ownership of the city and its coat of arms. Given the town the right to sell alcoholic beverages, and the right to organize four fairs a year. The magistrate obliged to provide troops stationed in Tarnów Austrian quarters and the necessary facilities. For this purpose, purchased from the Fund for Religious Church received farms: Zawale, Dyksonówka, Kantoria i Dąbrówka Infułacka. Shortly afterwards between today's streets E. Goldhammer and Matki Bożej Fatimskiej (Our Lady of Fatima) was the first building barracks. With the current Piłsudski Street was erected existing today the first military hospital of neoclassical façade. Changes also occurred in the spatial layout of the city from the east. Folwarczna Street (currently streets Kupiecka and partly L. Waryński), together with streets Nowa, Bóżnic and Pod Dębem Square (now Heroes of the Ghetto Square) have become the centerpiece of a new urban layout for a heart attack. At the Pod Dębem Square determined on market days stopping place for visitors to Tarnów peasants. With time, it was built at cheap hotels In the former gardens of Bernardine created a new plaza (now Drzewny), who had become one of the main squares of the city . These urban planning have been implemented only partially or not at all (as in the case of a planned complex of buildings curial Katedralna Street) due to the financial crisis caused by the Napoleonic wars State (Austria was one of the pillars of the anti-French Third Coalition). For the Napoleonic troops operating at the time in Moravia and later to the Duchy of Warsaw tried to infiltrate some middle school students in Tarnów. One of them was a romantic poet Kazimierz Brodziński. In 1808. diocese of Tarnów after the transfer of the bishopric to Kielce ceased to exist and previous cathedral has become an ordinary parish church in the diocese of Przemyśl In the spring of 1809. Tarnów took a short branch troops Duchy of Warsaw. After his departure in half a year from the Russian soldiers they were stationed auxiliary body. Released their balloon caught fire after hooking the roof of the old Bernardine Church, serving as a powder magazine and the ammunition. To an explosion that could destroy the city has not happened through its powerful vault building.
In June 1814. there was a fire Tarnów lasting 5 hours. It was the last big fire around the city. As a result, a square shaped Chlebowy (of Bread), called since from 1877. until today Rybny (Fish). In the 1st quarter of the nineteenth century demolition of buildings were churches of St. Anna and the Holy Spirit. In place of the other of them they were made public plaza popularly called Burek (by identifying the paved [brukowany] road). The seat of the county was placed in a former palace Sanguszkos at the Sobieski Square).
In 1815. was born in Tarnów Władysław Józef Krogulski, composer, pianist and conductor. During this period Tarnów visited Emperor Franz II (1817 and 1823) and passing Tsar Alexander I (1818). In 1820. Tarnów had 2 136 inhabitants, and its suburbs – 2 274th. Changes in the borders on the map of Europe after the Congress of Vienna again posed the problem of church administration on Polish soil under the authority of the Austrian. In 1822. Tarnów was incorporated into the newly created Diocese of Tyniec, headed by Bishop Gregor Thomas Ziegler. He's due to a better location Tarnów in four years led to transfer its registered office to him and rename the diocese in Tarnów. The seat of the bishop and the consistory became a palatial house bought by Rynek (Market) 4 Gubernium of Galician from duke Eustachy Sanguszko. Seminary (originally the fourth year of study) was transferred from Bochnia and placed in Tarnów Bernardine monastery. Also started work better aligning the cathedral to its function (e.g. pierced the wall between the side chapels.) 8 July 1827. was held solemn enthronement of Bishop Ziegler to the Cathedral in Tarnów, who in the same year he was nominated bishop of Linz.
In December 1830. the counting of 3 500 thousand (among them Jews 1/3) Tarnów news reached the residents of the November Uprising in the Congress Poland against Russia. A group of high school students from Tarnów went there to fight with weapons in hand. Many residents of Tarnów material support to the struggle for independence. A significant role in hostilities played born in Tarnów, General Józef Bem. The uprising was also attended by duke Władysław Sanguszko. After the fall of the November Uprising Tarnów reached by many refugees. Some of them had a positive impact on the economic development of the city as such. Franciszek Eliasiewicz, which Zabłocie established a factory farm machinery, not exiting independence. Władysław Sanguszko that after the fall of the uprising, he settled in Tarnów, rebuilt the palace in Gumniska permanent seat on the ancestral (built onto the western part). Władysław and Izabella Sanguszko hosted in among others Aleksander Fredro, Zygmunt Krasinski, Napoleon Orda, Wincenty Pol and many other well-known cultural figures Polish annexation
In 1831. Fr. Wincenty Balicki published the book "City Tarnów in terms of historical, statistical, topographic and science” (Miasto Tarnów pod względem historycznym, statystycznym, topograficznym i naukowym). It was the first monograph Tarnów. In 1835. bishop of Tarnów Franciszek de Paula Pisztek bought the brewery building and garden on the outskirts of Pogwizdów in order to adapt it to "the house to protect the poor and the sick". Recruited in the regular doctor Ordinary Wilhelm Koch (probably the first honorary citizen of Tarnów). In 1842. also in suburban Pogwizdów opened a Jewish hospital was founded at the initiative of Jewish charitable societies, and above all Tarnów philanthropist Debora Menkes-Weksler (currently street Matki Bożej Fatimskiej 25).
The largest building, which at that time was established in Tarnów Seminary building (façade at 100 m long), built between 1835-1838. The second largest broad-storey building was a military hospital built in 1833 (now the headquarters of PWSZ - state school higher education non-university). At that time they arose in residential buildings in the style of Rundbogenstil , among others Targowa and Bernardyńska streets and square Burek (cuurently Bem Square). In the years 1823-1825 was rebuilt from the former Bernardine. The building of the church, which have been preserved outer walls, placed seat of the Court of Nobility (today Bernardyńska 24), and the only remaining southern wing of the monastery - prison (today Bernardyńska 19). Also was filled underground monastery (including underground corridor leading from the bell tower just south of the church to the crypt under the choir brothers and corridors leading to the casemates in bastions), which - as people thought - had to have a connection with the castle. In 1828. It was rebuilt in the classical style ducal inn on the Kraków suburb (later Hotel Krakowski). Scandal, probably ending the dismissal of the mayor Franz Baldini, was the sale of Władysław Sanguszko by the magistrate on the very unfavorable for the city under the former grange hospital St. Spirit in Zabłocie. In 1844 in Tarnów revolutionary committee started its activities associated with the Polish Democratic Society, whose representative in Tarnów was Jan Józef Tyssowski, former secretary of duke Władysław Sanguszko. The following year he founded Rifle Association as heir to the tradition of the old civilian archers’ fraternity. The official his goal was to be entertainment in the form of a shooting at a target, unofficial. The official his goal was to be entertainment in the form of a shooting at a target, unofficial - to prepare for the struggle for independence. In the spring of 1845. in Tarnów it was a meeting of the conspirators, during which was responsible for Edward Dembowski and Franciszek Wiesiołowski preparation western Galicia to the uprising. The Austrians were well informed about the activities of the conspirators, and the Kreishauptmann Tarnów Breinl sent to the villages commissioners who, under various pretenses met with the peasants and dissolved rumors that nobility prepares the massacre of peasants. Underground National Government in Kraków, composed by Jan Józef Tyssowski, as a representative of the Austrian partition, appointed uprising at night on 21/22 February 1846. After numerous arrests uprising had been canceled but Major Leon Czechowski arbitrarily hastened term attack on Tarnów on night 18/19 February and sent instructions to the main assembly points. Uprising ended the slaughter nobles and court officials called "Galician slaughter". On the square in front of Office of district Kreishauptmann (today Sobieski Square) brought the peasants dead bodies of about 150 victims. They bring in as many captives, often severely wounded, to give them over to the authorities. The wounded, escaped from the hands of peasants, consists in makeshift military hospitals were appointed by Kamienobrodzki family in their building (Katedralna 5 Street) and the palace of Władysław Sanguszko in Gumniska.
April 7, 1846. emperor approved a contract concluded between a municipality and Władysław Sanguszko. According to it, the city bought from him and future heirs monopoly and sell alcoholic beverages suburban areas Strusina, Grabówka, Zabłocie, Terlikówka and Kantoria, and because it was able to pay only half the duke agreed sum pledged to annually pay Sanguszko family half of the income from the sell alcoholic beverages. Sanguszko stopped in a distillery, brewery and liquor factory as private property. According to the agreement the jurisdiction of the city returned aforementioned suburban villages. The magnified seven times Tarnów had 8 459 inhabitants. In 1846. Henryk Szancer launched by the river Wątok modern steam mill, the largest industrial plant in the eastern part of the city.
Spring of Nations began in Tarnów on 19 March 1848. of meetings of representatives of the city, villages and students in the Hotel Krakowski. They established the National Committee and organized a branch of the National Guard, civic volunteer military formation. The city was quiet, apart from breaking windows in the apartments of Izaak Luxenberg (tenant of propination who encouraged the innkeepers to rebel peasants against the nobility) and officials hated because of the slaughter in 1846. April 1 appeared in the first loft secular magazine under the title "Consent", which is the unofficial organ of the National Committee. Władysław Sanguszko abolished serfdom in his estate. In Gymnasium been learning Polish. On the ruins of the castle of Tarnów Polish and Jewish residents of the city with the help of several hundred Austrian soldiers began pouring mound in honor of the victims of massacre in 1846. Autumn hopes for major political changes and the creation of Polish autonomy quickly extinguished. In November 1848. Austrian soldiers occupied part of the building Seminary and stayed there for about one year. Authorities ordered dissolve into homes first two vintages of the students and threatened closure of the Seminary. At the turn of 1848 and 1849 in Tarnów reached epidemic of cholera. 10 January 1849 r. Martial law throughout Galicia. Authorities ordered inter alia, solution paramilitary and stop pouring mound on the ruins of the castle. Ban newspapers “Consent”. In 1850. pope accepted the imperial government forced the resignation of Bishop Józef Wojtarowicz targeting Tarnów diocese. With features rector of the Seminary resigned Fr. Michał Król. He was pastor of the cathedral. In this role he carried out maintenance work at the cathedral (including new side altars, wall paintings and floor), he saved wooden church of the Virgin Mary on Burek from falling into the river Wątok (postponed by nearly 6 meters to the east) and the wooden church St. Trinity on Terlikówka. In 1855. it was liquidated Court Nobility in Tarnów. In his place was appointed Circuit Court, which are subject to district courts in Dabrowa, Dębica, Mielec, Pilzno, Ropczyce, Radomyśl, Tuchów and Żabno. On 16–17 June 1855. Tarnów visited by Emperor Franz Joseph. The monarch watched the military maneuvers, took a parade and visited the offices. He visited a new military hospital (now the seat of PWSZ) and the newly built up a military education establishment, or school cadets (today Palace of Youth, Piłsudski Street 24). In October this year held the first technical drive train by Tarnów. Also completed construction of the first railway station. February 20, 1856 on. Officially opened traffic on the Karl Ludwig railway line connecting Kraków, Bochnia, Tarnów and Dębica. To 1861. line extended to Lvov. They completed the construction of new roads to Ciężkowice, Dąbrowa and Żabno that allowed access from the village to the railway station in Tarnów. In 1859. Viennese Johann Breitseer founded in Tarnów first coffee (today Coffee Tatrzańska). The next year Rajzla Rubin opened a manufacturing plant and a leading wholesale readymade garments, ushering strong after the clothing industry in Tarnów. In 1860. installed oil lamps on the streets of Tarnów. An important institution for the city was the Savings Bank city of Tarnów. It was established in 1861. With the initiative group of citizens Tarnów with Adam Morawski at the helm, as the second in Galicia after Lvov. This institution was to ensure continuity in financing of municipal investments, offer local residents cheap credit instead of the usual usurious loans and allow the placement of savings. The first urban investment financed by Savings Bank was the new building of the city hospital . In 1864. created Department pawn for the impoverished townspeople. Adam Morawski, the mayor of Tarnów in the years 1856-1857, was a lawyer, like all mayors and presidents Tarnów until 1939. 15th anniversary of "Galician slaughter" in Tarnów coincided with bloodily suppressed patriotic demonstrations in Warsaw in February 1861. During this and subsequent months of this year, Bernardine Church and the Cathedral celebrated many celebrations related to national anniversaries. Crowds drew particular sermon of Bernardine monk Bernard Bulsiewicz. He began a habit of gathering at the chapel of St. Valentine at the railroad tracks to sing forbidden patriotic and religious songs. In November, 1862. Tarnów was established clandestine organization she led propaganda activity and collect funds for future uprising. Guided her Józef Dąbrowski and Antoni Uhma. After the start of the January Uprising against Russia in the Congress Poland in the factory Eliasiewicz began in the conspiracy to form a branch of "Company of shooters Tarnów" (67 volunteers) under the command of Captain Antoni Uhma, which mostly armed with scythes took part in the defeat by insurgents battle for Miechów (February 17). Losses her were 6 killed and 7 wounded. Residents Tarnów also fought in the battles of Chrobrze and Grochów (March 17–18). The wounded insurgents were treated, among others, in Tarnów municipal hospital, a Jewish hospital, infirmary organized in palace Sanguszkos and ambulance at Franciszek Eliasiewicz. The dead were buried in the cemetery in Zabłocie. Tarnów was at that time one of the main centers of collection and transport of weapons from Galicia to the Congress Poland. Committee Polish Women in Tarnów organized the supply of food, medicines and bandages for the insurgents. 20 March 1863 r. To Tarnów reached arrested dictator uprising Gen. Marian Langiewicz, was greeted enthusiastically by residents of the city. Langiewicz was held for two days at Hotel Krakowski with its adjutant Anna Henryka Pustowojtówna. Here, too, he has put his power in the hands of the representatives of the National Government. Insurgent power passed into the hands of the Committee of Western Galicia, whose main representative in Tarnów was a lawyer Karol Kaczkowski. In the April to June 1863. In "Galician battalion" under the command Squadron-leader Andrzej Łopacki fought successive volunteers from Tarnów. Among them, the future mayor Jan Witold Rogoyski. June 3, 1863 on. The Austrians made house searches Tarnów lawyers Rutowski, Jarocki, Stojałowski doctor Józef Starkel, the mayor Józef Pędracki and the baker Walenty Stepkiewicz, in whose house there was a secret recruiting office. They revised the offices of the Municipality. However, not found any evidence of clandestine activity. The introduction of the state of siege in Galicia on 28 February 1864. stopped initiatives to support the uprising. It is estimated that in the fighting insurgents in total attended by about 250 residents of Tarnów, mainly Gymnasium students and young craftsmen. Since March 1864. until mid-1865. court-martialed in Tarnów stood a thousand people who participated in the uprising or aided them in a different way. In 1865. They began work on the rearrangement of the city. Was laid walkways Street and Cathedral Square, at the Lvov and Kraków. They hung signs with street names. Part of today's street Piłsudski was formed as a promenade at which planted chestnut trees and benches. It would lead to the city park (Park Strzelecki), which was built in neo-gothic seat of the shooting reactivated the Rifle Association (now the headquarters of the Bureau of Art Exhibitions). In the same year, it was established in Tarnów Association of Volunteer Fire Brigade. The first head of the firefighters was the recent insurgent Antoni Uhma. The cholera epidemic which lasted from August to October 1866. Tarnów resulted in the death of 1,700 people.
In the period of Galician Autonomy 1867-1918
The biggest changes in Tarnów under Austrian rule occurred in 1867. After granting autonomy to municipalities. The new self-governing, the City Council chose the mayor Wojciech Bandrowski (by this time the mayor was appointed by the government) and his deputy Klemens Rutowski. For the first time councilors they were also Jews. At the main town builder establishment of an office whose responsibilities was the design and implementation of municipal investments and approving private investment. The first municipal architect was Karol Polityński Junior. In secondary schools throughout Galicia was introduced into the Polish language as the instruction. In 1869. Tarnów had 21 779 inhabitants and was the third most populous city in Galicia Lvov (87 159) and Kraków (49 835). In the 12 years (since 1857), the number of inhabitants of Tarnów increased by more than 13 thousand. residents. In 1869. Created Circle of Friends of Music (from 1901. Music Society). It advocated secular music, organized concerts, evenings on the occasion of national holidays, free courses singing, and sometimes the forces of its own members successfully exhibited operas. It was one of the most active associations in Tarnów.
15 August 1870 r. there were riots because of bickering between Catholic and Jew. The group, composed mostly of peasants from the surrounding villages attacked Jews, robbed Jewish shops and homes. Riots those constituting an exception in the life of the city failed to quell the next day. There were also attacks carried out by the Jewish Orthodox for converts from Judaism. In 1872. The City Council decided to take under its own management publicans urban or alcohol monopoly (it was previously cast in the lease). It was the main source of city revenue. The Board entrusted with former Mayor Józef Pędracki. This resulted in a 10 year-sharp conflict in the City Council between supporters and opponents of its urban Alcohol Monopoly (propination) board. Peasant Józef Pędracki felt the city should exercise the management of Alcohol Monopoly directly faction headed by Karol Kaczkowski gathered supporters continue to lease of Alcohol Monopoly. The most important investment in infrastructure in Tarnów in this period was the Tarnów railway line - Nowy Sacz - Leluchow (1876). In this way Tarnów received a railway connection with Hungary. In 1875. Street leading to the storage of this railway was named Wojciech Bandrowski, who died in 1870., the first “autonomous” mayor of Tarnów, thanks to the personal treatment two railroads merged in Tarnów. The largest structures arising in the 70s nineteenth century in Tarnów were Men's faculty school (built 1874) at the newly demarcated Street M. Kopernik, designed by Karol Polityński Junior and Gymnasium at the Seminaryjska Street (today Secondary School at the Street Piłsudski 4) designed by Józef Sarre. In 1878. on the streets of Tarnów was introduced gas lighting. In 1877. Tarnów took Ursulines expelled from Gniezno by the Prussians. This led the high school female with guest house at ul. Ogrodowa (now J. Bem). When the monastery was built neo-Romanesque chapel (non-existent), designed by Karol Polityński Junior. The following year in Tarnów settled priests Oratory of Saint Philip Neri (Filipini), banished from Wielkopolska because the Prussian Kulturkampf. They also built a chapel Street Seminaryjska (today Piłsudski Street) designed by Karol Polityński Junior. In 1879. the first in Tarnów glassworks founded by Bernard Kropf. It was built near the Droga do Huty Street and employed about 300 workers. In 1880. Tarnów had almost 25 thousand. residents (according to denomination counted 12 954 Roman Catholics, Greek Catholics 193, 131 Protestants and 11 349 Jews).
Since the 80s the nineteenth century. Until 1914. in Tarnów last great building boom. They erected numerous public and private buildings, and some elderly is extended or beautification according to the tastes of the era. Initially dominated by historical styles, then eclecticism, and the early twentieth century. There is Art Nouveau, and later modernist architecture. One of the most impressive building was the seat Savings Bank, built to a design in Neo-Renaissance style by Karol Polityński Junior (Street Wałowa 10). Ground floor occupied Savings and floor with a beautiful mirror room rented Society Casino and Circle of Friends of Music. There were many concerts there. Currently, it serves, among others, as a place for meetings of the City Council. Among the architects addition to the above-mentioned Polityńskiego stand out Szczęsny Zaremba, Janusz Rypuszyński and Adolf Juliusz Stapf. Since the beginning of the twentieth century. In a landscape dominated Tarnów rebuilt in neo-Gothic style cathedral (project J. Zachariewicz), also neo-Gothic church of the Holy Family (project J. Sas Zubrzycki) for the Congregation of the Mission and the Great Synagogue called "Jubilee" (project W. Ekielski). Parts of the city between today's streets Wałowa E. Goldhammer, A. Mickiewicz, Matki Bożej Fatimskiej (formerly Nowodąbrowska), Bóżnic and square Pod Dębem, cut through the streets Kupiecka, Nowa and L. Waryńskiego (formerly Folwarczna) created a "new Jewish quarter", where Jewish life concentrated part of the community of the town of Tarnów. The building at street Nowa 10 (in a place where stands the present building of the City Hall) housed the head office of Tarnów Jewish community. When these streets were religious schools and synagogues. The period of Galician Autonomy was a period of great social activity of the inhabitants of Tarnów. They formed numerous associations. Among them were the craftsmen association of self-help and self-education, Gymnastic Society “Sokół” ("Falcon") (an organization of socio-educational, sports and paramilitary). Among young Jews gained increasing influence of Zionism, in environments of workers showed up early followers of socialism. Life residents described the weekly "Pogoń" edited by Józef Pisz. In 1888. bishop Ignacy Łobos opened a school for organists formed thanks to the efforts of the Society St. Adalbert of Church Music. In the same year at the Major Seminary, Fr. Józef Bąba first opened on Polish soil Diocesan Museum. Existing still collects museum of sacred art monuments, mostly medieval, from the area of the Diocese of Tarnow. According to a 31 December 1900 year. Tarnów census has a population of 31 691 people. In terms of religious affiliation in Tarnów 18 960 people were Roman Catholics, 12 586 Mosaic 110 persons Greek Catholic, 33 Protestants, 2 persons professing Orthodoxy.
After building the schools of the female name of Emperor Franz Joseph (1892–present post at ul. Mickiewicz) and a male named Kazimierz Brodziński (1896–present III Secondary School) at the beginning of the twentieth century began construction traffic in the northern part Zawale. Approximately 1907. Ustronna Street (now St. K. Brodziński) over the entire length of the existing today, has been incorporated into urban street network. Until then, already established by the dozen tenement houses and several villas. At the same time the northern Strusina began to develop a residential area without outlets. The first villas start from the streets of J. Matejko, T. Tertil (now al. Solidarności) and Zielona (now the Powstańców Warszawy). Typical of the new district buildings preserved streets A. Grottger, J. Wojtarowicz, T. Rejtan and M. Zyblikiewicz (currently St. PCK). In 1901. bishop of Tarnów Leon Wałęga founded Lower seminary at his own residence in the building market 4. It had a character boarding school, whose inhabitants receive any education at Gymnasium. In 1911. bishop Wałęga allocated for this purpose bought by curia tenement house at ul. Chyszowska (today St. I. Mościcki 9). This institution was of great importance to increase the number of priests from the diocese of Tarnów. Was closed by the communist authorities in 1963., but still leads the diocese of Tarnów today in the amount of priestly vocations. In 1903. with subsidiaries Gymnasium created the II Gymnasium as classical philology. The first director was historian, educator and social activist Jan Leniek. The following year, in its own building at St. Nowy Świat 30, began studying opened in 1897. Realschule. In 1905. in offices it installed the first telephones connected to the network the government. October 15, 1906. opened railway line Tarnów - Szczucin (49 km), with stations in Żabno, Dąbrowa, Olesno, Mędrzechów and Szczucin. Unfortunately, it was never connected with the railway line behind the Vistula, which would provide a direct connection Tarnow, among others, with Warsaw. The functioning of the railway line Tarnów - Szczucin was suspended in 2000 In 1906. there have been significant changes in the City Council. This year, after the death of the deputy mayor Stanisław Stojałowski City Council has chosen to take his place Eliasz Goldhammer, lawyer and philanthropist. Since this nomination until World War II, Deputy Mayor of Tarnów remained a person of Jewish origin. In 1906. resigned due to ill health mayor Witold Rogoyski, exercising this office for almost 23 years. In its place, the City Council chose Tadeusz Tertil, Doctor of Law and president of Gymnastic Society “Sokół” in Tarnów. In the same 1906. (January 3) in the family of a Jewish merchant, was born Roman Brandstaetter writer, poet, playwright, translator (d. 1987). In 1907. was the beginning of football in Tarnów. In 1907. it was the beginning of football in Tarnów. There were two first football matches meadows by the river Biała between teams from Tarnów and Kraków. In 1908. opened the City Public Library named Juliusz Słowacki. In 1911 in Tarnów opened the first permanent cinema.
In 1910 saw the finalization of Tarnów three major investments deciding on the modern face of the city. These were: building a new grand train station designed by Edmund Baudisch; City power plant was designed by Adolf W. Schleyen (today the street Jan Studniarski, who was its first director) and Municipal Waterworks designed by Maximilian Matakiewicz (10 km long). The next year started electric tram line with a length of 2,580 meters (abolished 1942). Waterworks and tram line proved to investments needed, but unfortunately scarce and next to the backlog of loan repayments by the city have caused demonstrate to the town of budgetary imbalances by the National Control Commission just before the outbreak of the World War I. The problem for Tarnów began to become too unemployment. In connection with this matter by the end of 1912. the City Council appointed a committee dealing mainly collecting contributions to help the unemployed. Later, they also hired to work in the repair of the streets. In November, 1912. with the permission of the authorities was established in Tarnów Riflemen's Association "Rifleman" a Polish paramilitary cultural and educational organization. The following year, on the basis of the Boy Scouts created in Tarnów squad of Polish Rifle Squads. It was the largest paramilitary organization in Tarnów on the eve of World War I.
World War I
The Russian occupation of the city began on November 10, 1915. Public buildings and schools were turned into barracks and warehouses. Some commanders of the city have used repressive measures against Jewish residents of Tarnów. The front line for a long time remained on the river Dunajec. On January 14 - April 7 and 1–4 May 1914 Tarnów was shelled by heavy artillery of the Austro-Hungarian troops from positions in Biadoliny Radłowskie. A total of 48 missiles fell Tarnow, robbing life of 150 people, mostly Russian soldiers. It was severely damaged several buildings. May 6, 1915 Russian troops withdrew from Tarnów due to massive offensive Austrian and Prussian troops (Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive). Returning Austrians falsely accused of treason and espionage many people in Tarnow, including Professor Bolesław Łazarski and artist stonemason Paweł Musiał, which made the death penalty. The investigation was also carried out against Tadeusz Tertil and Wincenty Witos. Austrian repression accelerated mental shift the orientation of the majority of Tarnów residents from pro-Austrian orientation to purely independence for Poland. In the years 1915-1917 the Austrian Branch War Graves (Kriegsgräber-Abteilung K.u.K. Militär-Kommando Krakau) founded within the current boundaries of Tarnów five war cemeteries: No. 199 Street Krakowska No. 200 Street Chyszowska, No. 201 as headquarters for the Jewish cemetery, No. 202, at Street Matki Bożej Fatimskiej, No. 203 in the Krzyż. February 18, 1918 to the news of the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by Tarnów went demonstration against it of about 25,000 people. On the walls there were anti-Austrian subtitles. In the spring of 1918. Group of Polish officers stationed in Tarnów reserve battalion 20th Infantry Regiment began a conspiracy independence in the local garrison. During the summer near Tarnów deployed troops brigade of the Austrian national defense exerciser suppression of rebellions and riots. They were joined by a battalion of assault 4th Infantry Regiment "Hoch- und Deutschmeister", consisting almost exclusively of Austrian Germans. From time to time soldiers marched through the streets of Tarnów in battle gear. In autumn 1918 years commander of the district scouting Adam Ciołkosz created in the older scouts secret armed National Emergency, cooperating with Polish Military Organization composed of former legionnaires, laborers and students in Tarnów led by Jan Styliński. It is also assumed Self-Defense Committee, whose aim was to seize power in the city and stop the export of foodstuffs to Vienna. October 14, 1918. was held a big demonstration combined with a solemn meeting of the City Council, during which the mayor Tadeusz Tertil announced that the manifest of the Regency Council of 7 October 1918 year, means the actual establishment of an independent Poland. In the last days of October in the building of the Rifle Association in the city park (Park Strzelecki) discreetly billeted almost two hundred young people trained military of various Polish organizations. October 30, 1918 at 18.00 the year by the City Council at the request of the mayor, Tadeusz Tertil decided to surrender to the city government, which was set up in Warsaw Regency Council. On the night of 30 on October 31 Polish soldiers of the 20th Infantry Regiment, members of the Polish Military Organisation and scouts from the National Emergency disarmed Austrian soldiers, seized the railway station, the building of the Bank of the Austro-Hungarian, post office and official buildings. To 7.30 Tarnów was the first Polish city was free of the armed forces belonging to the state-partitioner.
Second Polish Republic
In 1918, officially began operations Sport Club "Tarnovia" as a section football Gymnastic Society "Sokół". In 1918-1920, in the Polish-Ukrainian War and Lithuanian-Belarusian front of the Polish-Soviet War he fought 16th Infantry Regiment stationed in Tarnów. The economic situation of the city at the beginning of the Second Republic was very difficult. They lacked food and fuel. In July 1920 in Tarnów they stopped authorities evacuated Ukrainian People's Republic, headed by Symon Petlura, president and supreme commander of the army. Petlura left Tarnów after two months, but in Tarnów other officials, administrative staff and refugees. In the years 1921-1923 worked private gymnasium Ukrainian, and other cultural and charitable institutions Ukrainian, they appeared in a magazine in Ukrainian. In 1920. Was completed Rolling Stock Repair Workshop (now Mechanical Plant Tarnow). In 1920. was completed Railway Plants (now Zakłady Mechaniczne “Tarnów” S.A). In the vicinity they were formed workers' estate with wooden and brick houses of the workers. In 1921. the population number was 35 347 people, including 15 608 people of the Jewish faith, of which 10 223 were thought to be Jews also in terms of nationality. 27 residents of Tarnów admitted to the German nationality. They registered a 440 Ukrainians. In the area of Tarnów resides 1731 soldiers stationed here, the 16th Infantry Regiment and the 5th Regiment of Mounted Rifles. November 5, 1923. started proclaimed by the Polish Socialist Party general strike. A ban on gatherings in the city. Three days later there was a clash of workers returning from a rally at the House of the Workers Street E. Goldhammer with the police and the army. From volleys devoted crowd killed seven workers and more than 30 others were injured. At the funeral, which took place at the expense of the city, was attended by delegations from all over Polish workers. In 1924 was opened a new building movie theater Folk School Society "Marzenie" (project Edward Okoń) (Street S. Staszic 4). In Tarnów they were not born, but are related to Tarnów: Henryk Sucharski, Mieczysław Jastrun, Tadeusz Kantor i Jan Szczepanik. The first one, later an officer of the Polish Army, commander of the defense of Westerplatte in 1939 he studied at the II Gymnasium, another - poet, essayist and translator taught in the I Gymnasium in 1921-1923, the third - director, creator of happenings, painter, designer, writer, art theorist attended the same school in the years 1925-1933. Third - teacher and inventor called Polish Edison married in Tarnów. During stays in the city working on inventions in the field of color photography and film. He died in Tarnów in 1926 and is buried here. In 1926, the prison was opened on the street S. Konarski 2, consisting of five buildings and two wings. It was the most modern in Poland. The next year from Tarnów began to run bus transport to the neighboring district towns. At the end of the year in Tarnów it focused for 13 bus lines. In 1927 he also established one of the most important cultural institutions of the city. On the initiative of Józef Jakubowski, a lawyer, social worker and traveler, was opened for the Museum of Tarnów. Heir of the museum is present Regional Museum in Tarnów (Muzeum Okręgowe).
March 12, 1927, at the initiative of the Polish president Ignacy Mościcki, the Polish Government decided on the biggest investment in the near Tarnów, which was the construction of the State Nitrogen Compounds Factory (PFZA) in areas Świerczków and Dąbrówka Infułacka (now Grupa Azoty in Tarnów-Mościce included in the city limits in 1951.) 3 km from Tarnów. In the same year, the construction of residential complex designed for engineers and workers (northern settlement). These were the assumptions of regular composition blended in the areas of greenery (garden-city). 28 May 1927 r. The president Mościcki, visited Tarnów. It was the first visit of the Polish President in Tarnow. While it handed the banner of the 16th Infantry Regiment and toured the construction of a housing Staff PFZA. Tarnów City Council has given honorary citizenship Ignacy Mościcki, and his name Chyszowska street leading towards a new factory. PFZA construction was completed in 1930. In the years 1931-1935 the chief executive officer PFZA was Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, formerly minister of industry and trade, and later Minister of State Treasury and the Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Polish. W 1928 r. powstał Tarno-Azot (od 1952 Zakładowy Klub Sportowy Unia Tarnów) klub sportowy pracowników Państwowej Fabryki Związków Azotowych.
One of the most important places of national remembrance in Tarnów is the mausoleum of General Józef Bem Park Strzelecki. The ashes of the hero brought solemnly to Tarnów from Aleppo in Syria on 30 June 1929. Mausoleum was designed by Adolf Szyszko-Bohusz. It stood in the center of the pond in the park. The sarcophagus was made in addition to the coffin four urns with soil from the places associated with Bem.
In May 1930,. The initiative of the district physician Maciej Waręda launched in Tarnów as one of the first in Poland District Health Centre. He was appointed primarily to the prevention and eradication of social importance (mainly tuberculosis and venereal diseases).
In construction Tarnów had most of the modern architecture of the interwar period. The most valuable modernist projects in Tarnów are located in the district Mościce. In 1931. It was built tenement house at street Krakowska 25, designed by Franciszek Mączyński, which is one of the most interesting buildings 30s of the twentieth century in Tarnów. At the corner of streets Mościcki and Starowolski 2 was established in 1932. highest in house Stefański about six floors. A new phenomenon in Tarnów were multi-apartment houses (blocks) built by the company and companionship. The first three were opened in 1920 at the Warzywna Street on the initiative of the City Council. In 1930, rent town houses built with the participation of the Society of Settlement Workers at the Dwernicki street (project Witold Giżbert-Studnicki), and 1936-1938 multi-apartment houses Settlements Workers Association. The largest building inter-Tarnów was the parish church of the Grabówka (now Church Sacred Heart of Jesus), designed by Konstantin Jakimowicz. The construction started in 1935. Until 1939. they built the walls and vaulted ceiling covered with them. The church was completed in 1952.
On 8–9 August 1931 years Tarnów was the site of the National Tenth Congress of Polish Legionnaires of the First World War. It arrived about 10 thousand people, including the key Polish political figures and the chief commander of the Polish Army, among others, Polish President Ignacy Mościcki, Prime Minister Aleksander Prystor, Marshal of the Polish Sejm Kazimierz Świtalski and Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły. On the second day congress was held a ceremony of submission to the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier earth from the graves of soldiers. In 1931, Tarnów had 44 927 inhabitants. Of that number, 19 330 (43 percent.) Residents were Jewish faith. 1 345 Tarnów Jews reported Polish language as their mother tongue, others have used on a daily Yiddish or Hebrew. In Tarnów also lived 200 people of Ukrainian origin.
July 13, 1933, in accordance with the new law on local self-government city of Tarnów was excluded from the county and transferred under the direct supervision of the governor. The municipal board was to consist henceforth of the president, two vice presidents, four jurors and forty councilors. The president was government commissioner Adam Marszałkowicz. In 1933, Tarnów hit harder by the global Great Depression. In 1933, the number of unemployed in Tarnów was approximately 2,000 people (every fifth inhabitant capable of running the city). The biggest bankruptcy of Polish companies in the interwar period in Tarnów touched Władysław Brach, the owner of, among others, ceramics plants. In 1933 there was betting all of his property worth several million.
July 17, 1934 until Tarnów and Mościce reached the culmination wave largest recorded flood in the history of Lesser Poland. Was flooded drinking water intake for the city. Wątok creek water level rose 5.5 meters. The army rescued flood victims. Were broken road and rail connections with neighboring towns.
March 12, 1936 in Tarnów was born Michael Heller, priest, philosopher, cosmologist, winner of the Templeton Prize in 2008 and an honorary citizen of Tarnów.
In 1937, Tarnów become an arena for fierce political struggle between the socialists and the Camp of National Unity. There were demonstrations and rallies. The parade on May 1 of this year was attended by 15,000 people. The following year Tarnów arrived more than a thousand Jewish exiles from the German Third Reich. Jewish community in Tarnów took it upon himself to maintain the poorest of them. Wealthier of refugees founded a new pavilion at a Jewish hospital. In 1938, Tarnów had 55 642 inhabitants of which about 25 thousand. (45%) were of Jewish origin, of which about ¼ admitted to Polish nationality.
24 August 1939 r. Ordered a secret mobilization of alarm for the 16th Infantry Regiment. Also announced the mobilization of reservists to 40 years of age. Two days later, President of Tarnów Mieczysław Brodziński called to dig defensive trenches. August 28, 1939 r. Late on luggage baggage train station exploded bomb. The explosion killed 20 people, 35 were injured. Destroyed part of the station building. The bomb was planted Anton Guzy, a German saboteur.
World War II
From the first days of the war by Tarnów passed crowds of civilian refugees from the war. The first bombs fell on September 3. On the night of 5 to 6 September took place the heaviest raid on Tarnów. Bombs fell among others on general hospital and a home for the terminally ill at the Starodąbrowska. Polish soldiers burned the post office building at Urszulańska Street to destroy stored in its books and records ciphers. Hospitals were evacuated, along with patients able to transport. President Mieczysław Brodziński the part of officials left the city. At the command of General Kazimierz Fabrycy 24th Infantry Division troops left the positions on the Dunajec and 7 September, German troops occupied Tarnów. The prison buildings, several schools and placed factory storehouses 7-8 thousand. Polish prisoners of war detained there until the turn of October and November when they were taken to POW camps in Germany. September 25, 1939, the German authorities liquidated the Polish Provisional Municipal Council and all committees of the city. Commissioner civilian cities (Stadtkommissar) was Ernst Kundt. In October 1939, the Germans destroyed the monuments of Kazimierz Brodziński and Józef Szujski facing the entrance to I Gymnasium. Closed majority of Polish institutions banned social and political organizations. Food rationing was introduced. They began arrests and executions of Poles. Jews were forced to mark the Star of David all the shops, restaurants and cafes representing at least 50% of their property. On 4 October 1939 ordered Jews to wear armbands with the Star of David. Also ordered the release of all Jewish “Aryan” employed in restaurants, cafes, shops and warehouses. 9 November 1939 year on the anniversary “Crystal Night" Germans devastated and burnt Tarnów synagogue, prayer rooms, as well as the head office of the Jewish community at Nowa Street. Polish fire brigade was not allowed to extinguish burning buildings. A large group imported by the German population (mainly civil servants and their families) took all the streets in the north-western part of the city built villas (around the street Slovak) after being fired from their homes Polish residents. From 26 October 1939. Tarnów was incorporated into the Kraków district of the General Government as the capital of "Kreishauptmanschaft Tarnow" (eng. The main circuit Tarnów), which includes three pre-war districts of Brzesko, Dąbrowa, Tarnów. Policing and also the spread of terror against the population of the conquered dealt with the Security Police, which included Criminal Police, known in short as the Kripo, and the Secret State Police, or Gestapo. German Security Police in January 1940 he officiated the street Urszulańska 18 and 20. Since December 1939 the company was operating a Polish State Police completely subordinated to the German authorities. Prisoners held in Tarnów prison. Only in May 1940 they brought him 911 prisoners arrested under special letter, during raids or while trying to cross the border Slovakian or Hungarian. A total of Tarnów prison during the German occupation over about 25 thousand people. In the courtyard of the prison were shot during the occupation of about 100 prisoners. The majority of those sentenced to death were taken to places of execution for the city, to the forests near Tarnów. Before the starvation of prisoners rescued the help of church charity "Caritas". June 14, 1940 was formed the first transport of 728 Polish political prisoners from Tarnów prison to Konzentrationslager Auschwitz. Most of them were young people involved in underground activities and captured while trying to cross the border on their way to the Polish Army in France, some were representatives of Tarnów intelligence arrested in AB-Aktion. Until 2 October 1943 year (the last transport) to Auschwitz were sent from the prison in Tarnów about 7,000 Poles. Smaller groups went to Ravensbrück KL Gross Rosen, a prison in Kraków (Montelupi Street), heavy jail in Nowy Wiśnicz, labor camp in Płaszów, Pustków near Dębica and Szebnie near Jasło.
In March 1941, the Jews living in the streets Krakowska and Wałowa were ordered to leave their homes within 12 hours and move to the Jewish district in the eastern part of the city. It had yet open. In September this year on the orders of the German authorities Jewish population living in villages, "Kreishauptmannschaft Tarnow" section was moved to Tarnow. Therefore, the number of Jews in Tarnów increased from 25 thousand in August 1939., to almost 40 thousand. December 8, 1941 the year there was the first mass murder of the Jews of Tarnów. He was arrested more than a hundred people, seventy were killed by German policemen. Because of typhus epidemic, which in Tarnów prison get into the city died 70 people. Referring to the threat of epidemic from 1 January to 30 March, the German authorities ordered the closure of churches.
On 11–18 June 1942 was held the first "deportation" the Jews. The first day for "deportation" with the letter K nailed in the worksheet (mainly the elderly, sick and children) were gathered in the Market (Rynek). Specially German troops police and SS also the Ukrainian auxiliary police troops killed off the Market Square and in the streets coming to him three thousand Jews. About fifteen hundred were executed at the Jewish cemetery. Six thousand people over 60 years of age and children under the age of 13 were murdered in the forests Zbylitowska Góra and Skrzyszów. Three and a half thousand people were sent to the German extermination camp Bełżec. A small group of handicapped were gassed or strangled in the basement of the school T. Czacki. After the "deportation" of Jews survivors were placed in a closed Jewish quarter (getto).
The main square closed Jewish quarter was square Magdeburg (before the war square Freedom, today street J. Goslar). There were also the seat of the Judenrat (Jewish authorities dependent on the Germans) and the Jewish Order Service at the Judenrat (Ordnungsdienst beim Judenrat in Tarnow) in the number of 300 officers. Ghetto gates guarded by inside Jewish Order Service, and from outside the Polish police. Outside the ghetto was a Jewish hospital. Some Poles from the “Aryan Side” for a fee or gratuitously supplied the inhabitants of the ghetto rigged metrics, food, baptismal certificates or even suggested hiding at home. Several people were shot when trying to deliver food. In the mashing of Semitic origin of Jewish children helped diocesan Catholic organization "Caritas". Regardless of intent for hiding or helping Jews was punishable by death. On 16–17 September 1942, it carried out a second: "deportation". Many people remained in the previously prepared hiding places, so-called “bunkers”. When German captors realized that the number spent is too small, they announced that anyone who will give information about the "bunkers" will be spared with his family. Many has been the proposal, especially among officers JOS. Within two days the gas chambers at extermination camp Bełżec were sent about 6 500 people. Elderly they led out to the cemetery and shot. November 15, 1942 was held the third: "deportation". When he was sent to the death camp in Bełżec or murdered on the spot 1,600 people. Liquidation of the ghetto in Tarnów on 2–4 September 1943 he led the SS-Hauptsturmführer Amon Goeth. All its inhabitants were gathered in the Magdeburg Square. During the day-long selection Goeth chose three hundred young people to a group that store their belongings when exported and clean up the ghetto. About 8,000 remaining divided into two transports: the larger of the elderly and children intended for immediate extermination were sent to Auschwitz, the smaller of the people stronger physically to the camp in Płaszów. Over the next two weeks, yet we found about 700 people hidden in different places, which were transported to the camp in Szebnie. They died too Judenrat members and officers JOS families. In February 1944, a group dedicated to cleaning up the ghetto was deported to the camp in Płaszów. Thanks to the efforts of town builder Witold Giżbert-Studnicki, who was able to persuade the occupation authorities of "Germanness" of historic architecture Tarnów there was no way for the creation of military transports passing through the old town. In 1942, only they demolished a corner portion of the hotel Lwowski in the streets of Lwowska and Wałowa and rebuilt the intersection of Piłsudski and Mickiewicz by the demolition of the two buildings. In the place of one of them they created a square with a fountain (now Square O. Kokociński). As part of restoring the "German" look Tarnów restored Gothic form of the choir of the former Bernardine Church. Also renovated tenement Market (Rynek) 20, which received the decoration painting by painter Alojzy Majcher, was shot in 1943. for taking part in the resistance movement. In 1940, it completed the construction villa of Karol Hülle (Street Willowa 3 in Mościce), designed by Andrew Frydecki and which is one of the best examples of modernist architecture in Poland.
With the approach of Tarnów front lines increased activity Home Army. Fuel depot (now the bus station) was secretive headquarters of the inspectorate Home Army "Tama", and District Branch of the Polish Government in Exile. There also were hidden fragments of the German V-2 rocket with the technical documentation, that on July 26 as part of the "Third Bridge" went to the Allies. On the same day the order was given to commence the operation "Storm" for Tarnów inspectorate Home Army, which was sworn in 4209 soldiers. 4 August 1944 r. issued the order to mobilize the largest branch, which I Battalion "Barbara" 16th Army Infantry Regiment. Battalion formed and commanded by Captain Eugeniusz Borowski had about 600 soldiers. Battalion joined 96 Azerbaijanis of the German army who escaped from a military transport to the Italian front, 47 Soviet soldiers, mostly prisoners who managed to escape from captivity and the entire composition of the Ukrainian branch of the past transformer station in Mościce. 25/26 September 1944 Battalion "Barbara" in the vicinity of Jamna fought the biggest in the history of the branch regular battle with motorized divisions of German troops. In October Tarnów reached Warsaw residents displaced after the fall of the Warsaw Uprising. The administrator of the diocese, Fr. Stanisław Bulanda lent 1.5 million zlotys in order to come to their aid, by pledging the entire property of the diocesan curia.
At the end of 1944, the Germans began dismantling and looting of equipment in the Nitrogen Plant, the Railway Plants, brewery Sanguszko’s and others. 17/18 January 1945. last German troops withdrew from Tarnów. Blown up bridges, road and railway goods station was set on fire, railway station and mills. The whole town about 50 per cent. the buildings were devastated by the Germans or the local vandals. Thanks to the Civil Guard, under the command of dentistry Józef Bossowski not plundered food stocks remain uninterrupted supply of water, gas and electricity.
January 18, 1945 morning Soviet army patrols appeared on the streets abandoned by the Germans Tarnów. On the same day came an 8-seater "initiative group" to take power on behalf of the communist Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland. At the head of the group was Stanisław Kroch, graduate school NKVD in Kuibyshev, the organizer and the first head of the District Office of Public Security. They were there as well: Józef Lib first post-war Starosta (in fact concealed Home Army soldier), Ludwik Mysak, the first post-war mayor of the city. On the same day appointed District Office, District Headquarters of the Civic Militia and the County Office of Public Safety.
Power in December 1945 years held the Soviet command of the war. Tarnów was inhabited at that time around 30 thousand. people, or about 25 thousand. less than before the war. Most damaged was part of the city representing formed in 1942 by German Jewish ghetto. The process of destroying the buildings did not end with their departure. Deserted buildings were demolished and devastated by treasure hunters hidden by Jews. Abandoned houses of the Old Town, which had belonged to Jews occupied the poor residents of suburban barracks, as well as displaced persons from the area at the front of the war. During the German occupation in 1942 Tarnów was put into operation a dairy plant, whose construction started in the spring of 1939 years launched a swimming pool (today in this place Aqua Park at the Street Piłsudski), whose construction started before the war.
The history of post-war
Since 1945 in Tarnów came Poles expelled from the eastern provinces received Poland, as well as the residents of Warsaw and Poznan. On the other hand, some residents of Tarnów traveled to the formerly German territories awarded to Poland. Some people hoping for a better life, others with fear of persecution for activity in the Home Army and other armed underground organizations. In 1945 in Tarnów they began returning Jewish survivors. Most of them survived the war on the territory of the Soviet Union. In June 1946 in Tarnów inhabited by 1,221 people of Jewish origin. The main problems of the Jewish community in Tarnów were lack of jobs and housing. That is why many came and went either to Lower Silesia or encouraged by Zionist organizations in Israel. After 1956. Tarnów have been only individuals of Jewish origin. In June 1945 he was elected Municipal Government. Tarnów elected president of Eugeniusz Sit pre-war councilor, socialist reluctant to cooperate with the communists. From the first years of post-war reconstruction of the city it lasted. After regaining machine parts stolen by the Germans started the production of Nitrogen Plant. Plants railway in 1951 transformed into Mechanical Plant (Zakłady Mechaniczne) producing weapons, refrigeration equipment and machine tools. In 1949. factory built electric motors (later “Tamel”), created a large ceramic plants glassworks next to the old mills and brickyards. Developed large plants Confectioner, leather, fruit and vegetable processing (based on the old brewery Sanguszkos) and industry ("Tarnokop"), expanded the old sanguszkos sawmills (Rudy and Roman). Was built the factory washing machines "Pralfa" and many other workplaces. However, the communist government gradually liquidated private trade and craft. In September 1945 it was established City Theatre named Ludwik Solski. In the same year on the initiative of Józef Edward Dutkiewicz was opened Regional Museum and the School of Arts and Crafts (now the Art School in Tarnów). At the same time attempts to return to normality took ruthless fight given by the Communist Polish patriots and organizations independence. From October 1945 to mid-1948 in Tarnów prison, 15 people were executed for political affairs. 1/2 July 1945 members of the anti-communist organization freed from Tarnów prison 35 people. in most Home Army soldiers. The preparation and organization also helped some escape prison staff. In September 1945 in Tarnów was established inspectorate underground anti-communist organisation Freedom and Independence (FI), which controlled the armed forces remaining after Home Army and made two successful attacks on officers of the Security Service and the NKVD. FI Inspectorate in Tarnów pitched in autumn 1948. He was sentenced 182 people, including 46 sentenced to death (executed 24 people). Forced appeal in 1947. president Eugeniusz Sit ended the normal functioning of the municipal government. From that time until October 1956. On the positions of president of the city, then chairman of the City Council, appeared directed by the Polish United Workers' Party party activists from different parts of the country. The wave of protests against the Communist regime, which began in June 1956 in Poznan, Tarnów reached in October. The Mechanical Plant was formed Provisional Revolutionary Committee, which took over the factory. Director and most hated heads of departments forcibly taken out or transported in a wheelbarrow through the gate. In the Nitrogen Plant Workers Council seized power. In many workplaces Tarnów crew threw directors and managers of personnel known to term and intimidation of workers. It created a revolutionary committee of representatives of the intelligentsia. October 26, 1956 r. In the hall of the theater held a mass rally residents of Tarnów. At a rally sharply criticize local workers Security Office, party secretaries and members of the City Council. They demanded punishment of disposable referees and forcing the statements of the Security Office. At this time, the people of Tarnów support the Hungarian insurgents fighting the Soviet army in Budapest, giving mass blood for the wounded and providing financial assistance. In 1956,. It has increased the number of licenses issued by the Municipal National Council to launch private industrial plants, stores and workshops. Within a few years after the 1956 communist authorities managed to reverse the democratic trend and enter on exposed himself obedient party activists. Subsequent protests in Tarnów against the communist regime took place in 1968. The leaflet action was inspired them made by Jerzy Barczyński. March 20, 1968 on the square Kazimierz Wielki gathered about a thousand people, mainly disciples and workers. They demanded the release of students arrested in Warsaw and burned newspapers and copies of the Constitution. Citizens Militia failed to disperse the gathering. On the streets of Krakowska and Wałowa were clashes. The next day, demonstrates young people reconvened on the square Kazimierz Wielki, where they was forcibly removed. During these events, police arrested a total of 116 people. In 1955 the number of inhabitants returned to the state from 1939, exceeding the number of 58 thousand. Over the next five years it increased by 12 thousand. In 1975 Tarnów became the capital of the province or voivodeship (up to 1998) in 1976. Was born in Tarnów its hundred-thousandth inhabitant. In addition to higher natural growth factor rapid population growth was driven by the influx of population and larger cities with the closest villages. In the 60s 70s and 80s it was built multi-family residential units, also built new schools. At the beginning of the 80s, however, the standard of living began to fall. In July 1980 began mass workers' protests. Mechanical Plant ("Ponar", today Zakłady Mechaniczne “Tarnów” S.A.) was one of the four industrial plants in Poland, where the protest on July 1, 1980 ushered in great social movement "Solidarity". In September Tarnów structure formed of independent self-governing trade unions in most workplaces. After the declaration of martial law on Dec. 13, 1981 Citizens' Militia and Security Service interned dozen people from Tarnów. December 15, 1981. The officers Motorized Reserves of the Citizens' Militia stormed into the building "Ponar", to pacify the strike, which still lasted until 18 December. A special day in the history of Tarnów was 10 June 1987 when Pope John Paul II in the presence of nearly 1 million faithful in the fields beatified Karolina Kózka, a girl who died in 1915 at the hands of Russian soldiers in the defense of virginity. The political changes in 1989 enabled the establishment of municipal self-government in Tarnów. 27 May 1990 took place in Tarnów first since 1945. Free local elections. In the 90 twentieth century. Opened in Tarnów first non-public schools and colleges. It is also developing the sport. In 1992. By a group of enthusiasts at a sports club “Tarnovia” was one of the first in Poland climbing sections. As the first in Poland had a climbing wall in the hall. Currently Tarnów is an important cultural center (including a festival of 1987. Film Award “Tarnowska Nagroda Filmowa” and the 1997 National Festival of Comedy "Talia"), a medium-sized industrial center. Most of the factories after 1990. Restructured or privatized, some of them collapsed. They built the southern and northern ring roads of the city. Over the northern areas of Tarnów motorway A 4. 31 December 1996. Population Tarnów reached the highest number ever - 122 359 people. Since then steadily decreased in relation to the migration of people from the city to the countryside, emigration abroad, and negative birth.
- market place in the Old Town, with medieval urban layout of streets and tenement houses, some from the Renaissance period,
- 14th century Town Hall,
- Mikolajowski House (1524), the oldest tenement house in Tarnow,
- ruins of the Tarnowski family castle,
- remains of the old synagogue,
- remains of the 14th - 16th century defensive wall,
- two fortified towers (16th century),
- complex of a Bernadine Abbey,
- Florecki House (late 16th century),
- 18th and 19th century manor houses in the suburbs,
- Jewish cemetery, founded in 1583,
- Old Cemetery (late 18th century),
- Sanguszko Palace at Gumniska,
- Rail Station (1855),
- City Park (1866),
- Mausoleum of Józef Bem,
- several Roman Catholic churches, such as the Tarnów Cathedral (14th century, renovated in 1889-1900), and Holy Trinity church (16th century.
Tarnów is one of the warmest cities in Poland. The average temperature in January is −0.4 °C (31 °F) and 19.8 °C (68 °F) in July. It is claimed that Tarnów has the longest summer in Poland spreading from mid May to mid September (above 118 days).
|Climate data for Tarnów|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.8
|Average high °C (°F)||2.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−0.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−30.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||32
|Average precipitation days||15||12||13||8||9||11||12||13||10||12||13||13||141|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||84||80||69||64||69||70||71||73||75||79||85||75|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||44||58||112||159||200||216||215||202||155||111||59||39||1,570|
|Source #1: http://www.tutiempo.net/en/Climate/TARNOW/2012/125750.htm|
|Source #2: http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xchg/gus|
- Małopolska Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomiczna
- Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa in Tarnów
- Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu
- John Paul II High School in Tarnów
- Unia Tarnów - speedway team, championship of Poland in 2004, 2005 and 2012. Sponsored by Mościce Nitrate Factory. Also called Jaskółki (Swallows)
- ZKS Unia Tarnów - Zakładowy Klub Sportowy Unia Tarnów (Workplace Sports Club United Tarnów) - Soccer team, currently in the I League in Polska Liga in 2005/2006 season.
- Tarnovia Tarnów - Soccer team, also in II League in Polska Liga in 2005/2006 season.
- Unia Wisła Paged Tarnów - men's basketball team, 6th in Era Basket Liga in 2003/2004 season.
Besides Catholics other Christian denominations are also present in Tarnów including: Baptist Church, Free Brothers Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Methodist Church, Pentecostal Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church and the non-denominational Evangelical Movement "The Lord is my Banner". Before World War II there was a large population of Jews comprising half of the city's population, but now there remain just monuments of their past presence.
- Urszula Augustyn, PO
- Edward Czesak, PiS
- Aleksander Grad, PO
- Barbara Marianowska, PiS
- Józef Rojek, PiS
- Wiesław Woda, PSL
- Michał Wojtkiewicz, PiS
Member of the European Parliament
- Urszula Gacek, PO, EPP-ED
- Józef Bem (1794–1850), Polish general
- Roman Brandstaetter (1906–1987), a Jewish writer
- Józef Cyrankiewicz (1911–1989)
- Charles Denner (1926–1995), French actor
- Jacek Dukaj (b. 1974)
- Ignace J(ay). Gelb (1907–1985), a Jewish American ancient historian, Assyriologist
- Allan Gray (born Josef Żmigród, 1902–1973), composer
- Michał Heller (b. 1936)
- Rabbi Löb Judah ben Isaac
- Jozef Kapustka (b. 1969), pianist
- Naphtali Keller (January 25, 1834 - August 5, 1865, Rožnava, Moravia), Jewish scholar; son of Israel Mendel Keller 
- Leon Kellner (1859 - ?), Jewish scholar
- Tadeusz Klimecki (November 23, 1895 - July 4, 1943, Gibraltar), Chief of Polish General Staff
- José Krakover (November 2, 1883 - April 28, 1957, La Plata, Argentina), Jewish Photographer
- Thomas Bosco-Cwiok (b. 1989), Polish Professional Golfer
- Krystyna Kuperberg (born Trybulec, 1944, Tarnów)
- Siegfried Lipiner (1856, Jarosław - 1911), a Galician-Austrian Jewish poet
- Anny Ondra (1903–1987), Czech movie star
- Joseph Öttinger (May 7, 1818 - October 2, 1895, Kraków), Galician-Jewish physician
- Tony Rickardsson (), motorcycle speedway rider, honorable resident (since June 22, 2006)
- Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko (1842, Tarnów – 1903), a szlachcic, conservative politician
- Wilhelm Sasnal (born 1972, Tarnów), a Polish painter
- Jan Szczepanik (1872, Rudniki - 1926, Tarnów), a Polish inventor
- Jan Tarnowski (means "John of Tarnów", Lithuanian: Jonas Tarnauskis) (1488, Tarnów - 1561), a szlachcic
- Jan of Tarnów (c.1349-1409)
- Jan of Tarnów (1367–1433)
- Rafał z Tarnowa (c. 1330-1373)
- Rabbi Marcus Weissmann-Chajes (1830–1914), Jewish scholar
- Rabbi Salo Wittmayer Baron (1895–1989), Jewish historian
- Franciszek Zachara (1898–1966), composer and pianist
- pl (1911-1993), industrialist and politician
- Agata Mróz-Olszewska (1982-2008), The Polish volleyball Player, The twos Champions Europe in volleyball .
- Mateusz Klich (1990–present), footballer
Twin towns — Sister cities
- This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tarnów.|
- City of Tarnów English version of Tarnów's official webpage.
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Tarnów
- Jewish Community in Tarnów on Virtual Shtetl
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