Thawri

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The Thawri (Arabic:الثوري) Madhab was a short lived school of Islamic Jurisprudence. Its founder was Sufyan Al-Thawri, a great 8th Century scholar, jurist and hadith compiler.[1]

After Ath-Thawri's move to Basra later in his life, his jurisprudential thought (usul) became more closely aligned to that of the Umayyads and of Al-Azwa'i.[1] He is reported to have regarded the physical jihad as an obligation only as a defensive war.[2][3]

He spent the last year of his life hiding after a dispute between him and the Abbasid Caliph Muhammad Ibn Mansur Al-Mahdi. After his death, the Thawri Madhhab was taken up by his students, including notably Yahya al-Qattan.[1] However, his school did not survive, but his jurisprudential thought and especially hadith transmission are highly regarded in Islam, and have influenced all the major schools.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Steven C. Judd, “Competitive hagiography in biographies of al-Awzaʿi and Sufyan al-Thawri”, Journal of the American Oriental Society 122:1 (Jan–March, 2002).
  2. Angeliki E. Laiou, et al. (2001). The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World. p. 23.
  3. Afsaruddin, A. (2007), Views of Jihad Throughout History. Religion Compass, 1: 166. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-8171.2006.00015.x Quote: "Jurists from the Hijaz, like Sufyan al-Thawri (d. 778), were of the opinion that jihad was primarily defensive, and that only the defensive jihad may be considered obligatory on the individual."