Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant
ɕ
IPA number 182
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɕ
Unicode (hex) U+0255
X-SAMPA s\
Kirshenbaum S;
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
Sound

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɕ⟩ ("c", plus the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ⟨ʑ⟩).

Features

alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives [ɕ, ʑ]

Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe щы About this sound [ɕə]  'three'
Catalan Eastern and Majorcan[1] caixa [ˈkaɕə] 'box' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin 西安/Xī'ān About this sound [ɕí.án]  'Xi'an' Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/. See Mandarin phonology
Chuvash çиçĕм [ˈɕiɕ̬əm] 'lightning' Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/.
Danish sjæl [ɕeˀl] 'soul' See Danish phonology
Dutch Some speakers sjabloon [ɕäˈbloːn] 'template' May be [ʃ] or [sʲ] instead. See Dutch phonology
Guarani Paraguayan che [ɕɛ] 'I'
Japanese[2] /shio [ɕi.o] 'salt' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian щэ About this sound [ɕa]  'hundred'
Korean /si [ɕi] 'poem' See Korean phonology
Lower Sorbian[3] pśijaśel [ˈpɕijäɕɛl] 'friend'
Luxembourgish[4] liicht [liːɕt] 'light' Allophone of /χ/ after phonologically front vowels; some speakers merge it with [ʃ].[4] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian sjel [ɕe:l] 'soul' See Norwegian phonology
Pashto Wazirwola dialect لښکي‎ [ˈləɕki] 'little, slight'
Polish[5] śruba About this sound [ˈɕrubä]  'screw' Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[6] Brazilian mexendo [me̞ˈɕẽ̞du] 'moving' Allophonic variation of /ʃ/. Contrasts with other sibilants only in onset. Argued both to be laminal [ʃ],[7] and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate",[6] same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ],[8] and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars.[9] Found in coda mainly before fricative, coronal and palatalized consonants in Brazil.[10][11] See Portuguese phonology
European (?) mesclas [ˈmɛɕklɐɕ] 'mixtures'
Carioca
Many Brazilian dialects estatísticas [i̥ɕtɐˈtɕiɕtɕikɐs] 'statistics'
Some speakers [i̥stɐˈtɕiɕːikɐs]
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[12] ce [ɕɛ] 'what' Realized as [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian счастье About this sound [ˈɕːæsʲtʲjə]  'happiness' Also represented by ⟨щ⟩. Contrasts with /ʂ/, /s/, and /sʲ/. See Russian phonology
Sema[13][14] ashi [à̠ɕì] 'meat' Possible allophone of /ʃ/ before /i, e/.[13][14]
Serbo-Croatian Croatian[15] miš će [mîɕ t͡ɕe̞] 'the mouse will' Allophone of /ʃ/ before /t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ/.[15] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Some speakers of Montenegrin śutra [ɕutra][stress?] 'tomorrow' Phonemically /sj/ or, in some cases, /s/.
Swedish Finland sjok [ɕuːk] 'chunk' Allophone of /ɧ/.
Sweden kjol About this sound [ɕuːl]  'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Tibetan Lhasa dialect བཞི་ [ɕi˨˧] 'four' Contrasts with /ʂ/.
Uzbek[16] [example needed]
Yi /xi [ɕi˧] 'thread'

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007), "An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (2): 143–172, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Teo, Amos B. (2012), "Sumi (Sema)", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (03): 365–373, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000254<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics, 3: 175–213<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>