Voiceless labiodental fricative

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Voiceless labiodental fricative
f
IPA number 128
Encoding
Entity (decimal) f
Unicode (hex) U+0066
X-SAMPA f
Kirshenbaum f
Braille ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
Sound

The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨f⟩.

Features

Features of the voiceless labiodental fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz фы [fə] 'lightning' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe тфы About this sound [tfə]  'five' Corresponds to [xʷ] in Kabardian and Proto-Circassian
Albanian faqe [facɛ] 'cheek'
Arabic Standard[1] ظرف [ðˤɑrf] 'envelope' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ֆուտբոլ About this sound [fut̪bol]  'football'
Basque fin [fin] 'thin'
Catalan[3] fase [ˈfazə] 'phase' See Catalan phonology
Chechen факс / faks [faks] 'fax'
Chinese Cantonese /fat6 [fɐt˨] 'Buddha' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin fēi [feɪ̯˥] 'to fly' See Mandarin phonology
Coptic ϥⲧⲟⲟⲩ [ftow] 'four'
Czech foukat [ˈfoʊ̯kat] 'to blow' See Czech phonology
Dutch[4] fiets [fits] 'bike' See Dutch phonology
English All dialects fill [fɪl] 'fill' See English phonology
Cockney[5] think [fɪŋk] 'think' Socially marked,[6] with speakers exhibiting some free variation with [θ] (with which it corresponds to in other dialects).[7] See th-fronting.
Many British urban dialects[8]
Some younger New Zealanders[9][10]
Broad South African[11] More common word-finally.
Ewe[12] eflen [éflé̃] 'he spit off'
French[13] fabuleuse [fäbyˈløːz̪] 'fabulous' See French phonology
Galician faísca [faˈiska] 'spark'
German fade [ˈfaːdə] 'insipid' See German phonology
Goemai [fat] 'to blow'
Greek φύση fysī [ˈfisi] 'nature' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati /faļ [fəɭ] 'fruit' See Gujarati phonology
Hebrew סופר [so̞fe̞ʁ] 'writer' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi साफ़ [sɑːf] 'clean' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian figyel [fiɟɛl] 'he/she pays attention' See Hungarian phonology
Italian fantasma [fän̪ˈt̪äzmä] 'ghost' See Italian phonology
Kabardian фыз [fəz] 'woman' Corresponds to [ʂʷ] in Adyghe and Proto-Circassian
Kabyle afus [afus] 'hand'
Macedonian фонетика [fɔnetika] 'phonetics' See Macedonian phonology
Malay feri [feri] 'ferry'
Maltese fenek [fenek] 'rabbit'
Norwegian filter [filtɛɾ] 'filter' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[14] futro About this sound [ˈfut̪rɔ]  'fur' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[15] fogo [ˈfoɡʊ] 'fire' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਫ਼ੌਜੀ [fɔːd͡ʒi] 'soldier'
Romanian[16] foc [fo̞k] 'fire' See Romanian phonology
Russian[17] орфография [ɐrfɐˈɡrafʲɪjə] 'orthography' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Slovak fúkať [ˈfuːkac] 'to blow'
Somali feex [fɛħ] 'wart' See Somali phonology
Spanish[18] fantasma [fã̈n̪ˈt̪äzmä] 'ghost' See Spanish phonology
Swedish fisk [ˈfɪsk] 'fish' See Swedish phonology
Turkish saf [säf] 'pure' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian Фастів [ˈfɑsʲtʲiw] 'Fastiv' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu صاف [sɑːf] 'clean' See Hindustani phonology
Vietnamese[19] pháo [faːw˧ˀ˥] 'firecracker' See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh ffon [fɔn] 'stick' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian fol [foɫ] 'full'
Yi /fu [fu˧] 'roast'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[20] cafe [kafɘ] 'coffee' Used primarily in loanwords from Spanish

See also

References

Bibliography

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  • Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931–942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Britain, David (2005), "Innovation diffusion: "Estuary English" and local dialect differentiation: The survival of Fenland Englishes", Linguistics, 43 (5): 995–1022<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24224-X<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Wood, Elizabeth (2003), "TH-fronting: The substitution of f/v for θ/ð in New Zealand English", New Zealand English Journal, 17: 50–56<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>