Wadham Creek

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Wadham Creek
File:Wadham Creek.jpg
Wadham Creek looking upstream
Other name Wadham's Creek
Origin base of a mountain in Plymouth Township, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania
Mouth Susquehanna River in Plymouth, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania
Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Progression Susquehanna River → Chesapeake Bay
Length 1.1 mi (1.8 km)
Source elevation between 740 and 760 feet (230 and 230 m)
Mouth elevation 515 ft (157 m)
Avg. discharge often dry
Basin area 1.28 sq mi (3.3 km2)

Wadham Creek (also known as Wadham's Creek[1]) is a tributary of the Susquehanna River in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is approximately 1.1 miles (1.8 km) long and flows through Plymouth Township and Plymouth.[2] The creek's watershed has an area of 1.28 square miles (3.3 km2). It has one dam. The drainage basin of Wadham Creek is designated as a Coldwater Fishery and a Migratory Fishery.

Course

Wadham Creek begins on the base of a mountain in Plymouth Township. It flows south for a short distance before entering the community of Plymouth. In Plymouth, the creek continues to flow south for several tenths of a mile before turning southwest. After several hundred, feet, it turns southeast and crosses US Route 11. A short distance further downstream, it reaches its confluence with the Susquehanna River.[2]

Wadham Creek joins the Susquehanna River 185.43 miles (298.42 km) upstream of its mouth.[3]

Hydrology, geography and geology

The elevation near the mouth of Wadham Creek is 515 feet (157 m) above sea level.[4] The elevation of the creek's source is between 740 and 760 feet (230 and 230 m) above sea level.[2]

There are a number of diversions and debris structures on Wadham Creek upstream of Plymouth. In Plymouth, the creek flows through both open channels and culverts.[5]

The surficial geology in the vicinity of the lower reaches of Wadham Creek consists largely of alluvium, with some fill. The surficial geology near the creek's middle reaches consists mainly of alluvial fan and Wisconsinan Ice-Contact Stratified Drift. The surficial geology in the creek's upper reaches features land where coal was once surface mined, with large pits and piles of rock waste.[6]

Wadham Creek is typically dry. However, it can experience short, high-rate floods on occasion.[5]

Watershed

The watershed of Wadham Creek has an area of 1.28 square miles (3.3 km2).[3] The creek's mouth is in the United States Geological Survey quadrangle of Wilkes-Barre West. However, its source is in the quadrangle of Kingston.[4]

According to the 1915 book Reminiscences of Plymouth, Luzerne County, Penna, portions of Wadham Creek were navigable by certain boats during times of high water in the spring and fall.[1] Although the nearby Coal Creek (less than a mile away) flooded severely in 2011, with 4 inches (10 cm) of rain falling in less than 45 minutes, Wadham Creek was did not overflow its banks or cause any erosion.[7]

Wadham Creek has a dam near where it crosses Shawnee Avenue.[8] The dam is 32 feet (9.8 m) high.[9] Mine subsidience affects the dam, but a plan to remedy this is considered to be low-priority.[8]

History

Wadham Creek was entered into the Geographic Names Information System on August 2, 1979. Its identifier in the Geographic Names Information System is 1190462.[4] Wadham Creek was historically known as Whittlesey Creek.[1]

Historically, arks and flat-bottomed boats used to transport coal to the market were constructed in the vicinity of Wadham Creek. They were constructed in a natural formation known as the "basin". A blacksmith shop also historically operated near the creek. A mill also used to operate on the creek, but it did relatively little business.[1]

An earth-fill dam was constructed on Wadham Creek in 1959 for a cost of $123,000.[8] In 2000 and 2001, Wadham Creek was the subject of a restoration project costing $1.3 million after 30 years of political wrangling. The restoration included giving the creek a concrete streambed and walls. Had the restoration not been done, the creek could have eventually flooded and caused severe damage like the nearby Coal Creek, according to Clif Madrack, a former borough administrator.[7]

Biology

The entire drainage basin of Wadham Creek is designated as a Coldwater Fishery and a Migratory Fishery.[10]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Samuel Livingston French (1915), Reminiscences of Plymouth, Luzerne County, Penna: A Pen Picture of the Old Landmarks of the Town; the Names of Old Residents; the Manners, Customs and Descriptive Scenes, and Incidents of Its Early History, Lotus Press, pp. 20, 52, 53<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 United States Geological Survey, The National Map Viewer, retrieved February 13, 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 Pennsylvania Gazetteer of Streams (PDF), November 2, 2001, p. 146, retrieved February 13, 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Geographic Names Information System, Feature Detail Report for: Wadham Creek, retrieved February 13, 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wyoming Valley Local Flood Protection: Environmental Impact Statement, 1983<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Duane D. Braun (2008), Surficial geology of the Wilkes-Barre West 7.5-minute quadrangle, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, p. 14, retrieved February 14, 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Wadham Creek project, dams' removal reduced damage", The Times Leader, July 6, 2011, retrieved February 13, 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 McCormick/Taylor, Borton-Lawson, Vision Planning and Consulting, Inc. (October 2009), Bi-County Hazard Mitigation Plan for Lackawanna & Luzerne Counties, PA (PDF), pp. 66, 185, retrieved February 14, 2015 <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Wednesday, July 16, 1958 Gettysburg Times", Gettysburg Times, July 16, 1958, retrieved February 14, 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "§ 93.9k. Drainage List K. Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania Susquehanna River", Pennsylvania Code, retrieved February 13, 2015<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links