# Łukasiewicz logic

In mathematics, **Łukasiewicz logic** (/luːkəˈʃɛvɪtʃ/; Polish pronunciation: [wukaˈɕɛvʲitʂ]) is a non-classical, many valued logic. It was originally defined in the early 20th-century by Jan Łukasiewicz as a three-valued logic;^{[1]} it was later generalized to *n*-valued (for all finite *n*) as well as infinitely-many-valued (ℵ_{0}-valued) variants, both propositional and first-order.^{[2]} The ℵ_{0}-valued version was published in 1930 by Łukasiewicz and Alfred Tarski; consequently it is sometimes called the **Łukasiewicz-Tarski logic**.^{[3]} It belongs to the classes of t-norm fuzzy logics^{[4]} and substructural logics.^{[5]}

This article presents the Łukasiewicz[-Tarski] logic in its full generality, i.e. as an infinite-valued logic. For an elementary introduction to the three-valued instantiation Ł_{3}, see three-valued logic.

## Contents

## Language

The propositional connectives of Łukasiewicz logic are *implication* , *negation* , *equivalence* , *weak conjunction* , *strong conjunction* , *weak disjunction* , *strong disjunction* , and propositional constants and . The presence of conjunction and disjunction is a common feature of substructural logics without the rule of contraction, to which Łukasiewicz logic belongs.

## Axioms

This section requires expansion with: additional axioms for finite-valued logics.
(August 2014) |

The original system of axioms for propositional infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic used implication and negation as the primitive connectives:

Propositional infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic can also be axiomatized by adding the following axioms to the axiomatic system of monoidal t-norm logic:

*Divisibility:**Double negation:*

That is, infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic arises by adding the axiom of double negation to basic t-norm logic BL, or by adding the axiom of divisibility to the logic IMTL.

Finite-valued Łukasiewicz logics require additional axioms.

## Real-valued semantics

Infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic is a real-valued logic in which sentences from sentential calculus may be assigned a truth value of not only zero or one but also any real number in between (e.g. 0.25). Valuations have a recursive definition where:

- for a binary connective
- and

and where the definitions of the operations hold as follows:

**Implication:****Equivalence:****Negation:****Weak Conjunction:****Weak Disjunction:****Strong Conjunction:****Strong Disjunction:**

The truth function of strong conjunction is the Łukasiewicz t-norm and the truth function of strong disjunction is its dual t-conorm. The truth function is the residuum of the Łukasiewicz t-norm. All truth functions of the basic connectives are continuous.

By definition, a formula is a tautology of infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic if it evaluates to 1 under any valuation of propositional variables by real numbers in the interval [0, 1].

## Finite-valued and countable-valued semantics

Using exactly the same valuation formulas as for real-valued semantics Łukasiewicz (1922) also defined (up to isomorphism) semantics over

- any finite set of cardinality
*n*≥ 2 by choosing the domain as { 0, 1/(*n*− 1), 2/(*n*− 1), ..., 1 } - any countable set by choosing the domain as {
*p*/*q*| 0 ≤*p*≤*q*where*p*is a non-negative integer and*q*is a positive integer }.

## General algebraic semantics

The standard real-valued semantics determined by the Łukasiewicz t-norm is not the only possible semantics of Łukasiewicz logic. General algebraic semantics of propositional infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic is formed by the class of all MV-algebras. The standard real-valued semantics is a special MV-algebra, called the *standard MV-algebra*.

Like other t-norm fuzzy logics, propositional infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic enjoys completeness with respect to the class of all algebras for which the logic is sound (that is, MV-algebras) as well as with respect to only linear ones. This is expressed by the general, linear, and standard completeness theorems:^{[4]}

- The following conditions are equivalent:
- is provable in propositional infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic
- is valid in all MV-algebras (
*general completeness*) - is valid in all linearly ordered MV-algebras (
*linear completeness*) - is valid in the standard MV-algebra (
*standard completeness*).

Font, Rodriguez and Torrens introduced in 1984 the Wajsberg algebra as an alternative model for the infinite-valued Łukasiewicz logic.^{[6]}

A 1940s attempt by Grigore Moisil to provide algebraic semantics for the *n*-valued Łukasiewicz logic by means of his Łukasiewicz–Moisil (LM) algebra (which Moisil called *Łukasiewicz algebras*) turned out to be an incorrect model for *n* ≥ 5. This issue was made public by Alan Rose in 1956. C. C. Chang's MV-algebra, which is a model for the ℵ_{0}-valued (infinitely-many-valued) Łukasiewicz-Tarski logic, was published in 1958. For the axiomatically more complicated (finite) *n*-valued Łukasiewicz logics, suitable algebras were published in 1977 by Revaz Grigolia and called MV_{n}-algebras.^{[7]} MV_{n}-algebras are a subclass of LM_{n}-algebras, and the inclusion is strict for *n* ≥ 5.^{[8]} In 1982 Roberto Cignoli published some additional constraints that added to LM_{n}-algebras produce proper models for *n*-valued Łukasiewicz logic; Cignoli called his discovery *proper Łukasiewicz algebras*.^{[9]}

## References

- ↑ Łukasiewicz J., 1920, O logice trójwartościowej (in Polish). Ruch filozoficzny
**5**:170–171. English translation: On three-valued logic, in L. Borkowski (ed.),*Selected works by Jan Łukasiewicz*, North–Holland, Amsterdam, 1970, pp. 87–88. ISBN 0-7204-2252-3 - ↑ Hay, L.S., 1963, Axiomatization of the infinite-valued predicate calculus.
*Journal of Symbolic Logic***28**:77–86. - ↑ Lavinia Corina Ciungu (2013).
*Non-commutative Multiple-Valued Logic Algebras*. Springer. p. vii. ISBN 978-3-319-01589-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> citing Łukasiewicz, J., Tarski, A.: Untersuchungen über den Aussagenkalkül. Comp. Rend. Soc. Sci. et Lettres Varsovie Cl. III 23, 30–50 (1930). - ↑
^{4.0}^{4.1}Hájek P., 1998,*Metamathematics of Fuzzy Logic*. Dordrecht: Kluwer. - ↑ Ono, H., 2003, "Substructural logics and residuated lattices — an introduction". In F.V. Hendricks, J. Malinowski (eds.): Trends in Logic: 50 Years of Studia Logica,
*Trends in Logic***20**: 177–212. - ↑ http://journal.univagora.ro/download/pdf/28.pdf citing J. M. Font, A. J. Rodriguez, A. Torrens, Wajsberg Algebras, Stochastica, VIII, 1, 5-31, 1984
- ↑ Lavinia Corina Ciungu (2013).
*Non-commutative Multiple-Valued Logic Algebras*. Springer. pp. vii–viii. ISBN 978-3-319-01589-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> citing Grigolia, R.S.: "Algebraic analysis of Lukasiewicz-Tarski’s n-valued logical systems". In: Wójcicki, R., Malinkowski, G. (eds.) Selected Papers on Lukasiewicz Sentential Calculi, pp. 81–92. Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclav (1977) - ↑ Iorgulescu, A.: Connections between MV
_{n}-algebras and*n*-valued Łukasiewicz–Moisil algebras—I. Discrete Math. 181, 155–177 (1998) doi:10.1016/S0012-365X(97)00052-6 - ↑ R. Cignoli, Proper n-Valued Łukasiewicz Algebras as S-Algebras of Łukasiewicz n-Valued Propositional Calculi, Studia Logica, 41, 1982, 3-16, doi:10.1007/BF00373490

## Further reading

- Rose, A.: 1956, Formalisation du Calcul Propositionnel Implicatif ℵ
_{0}Valeurs de Łukasiewicz, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 243, 1183–1185. - Rose, A.: 1978, Formalisations of Further ℵ
_{0}-Valued Łukasiewicz Propositional Calculi, Journal of Symbolic Logic 43(2), 207–210. doi:10.2307/2272818 - Cignoli, R., “The algebras of Lukasiewicz many-valued logic - A historical overview,” in S. Aguzzoli et al.(Eds.), Algebraic and Proof-theoretic Aspects of Non-classical Logics, LNAI 4460, Springer, 2007, 69-83. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-75939-3_5