2S4 Tyulpan

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2S4 Tyulpan
2S4 Tyulpan.jpg
Type Self-propelled mortar
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1972 – present
Production history
Produced 1969 – 1978
Weight 30 tons
Length 8.5 m (27 ft 11 in)
Width 3.2 m (10 ft 6 in)
Height 3.2 m (10 ft 6 in)
Crew 9

Armor 20mm max.
240 mm (9.4 in) mortar
7.62 mm PKT machine gun
Engine V59 V-12 liquid-cooled diesel
520 hp (387.76 kW)
Power/weight 17 hp/tonne
Suspension Torsion bar
420 km (260 mi) on road
Speed 62 km/h (39 mph)

The 2S4 Tyulpan (often spelled Tulpan, Russian: 2С4 «Тюльпан»; English: tulip) is a Soviet self-propelled mortar. "2S4" is its GRAU designation.


It was identified for the first time in 1975 in the Soviet army and so was called M-1975 by NATO (the 2S7 Pion also received the M-1975 designation), whereas its official designation is SM-240(2S4). Its design is based on the GMZ tracked minelaying vehicle carrying an externally mounted M-240 240 mm breech-loading mortar on the rear of the hull.

Deployed position.

The crew consists of four men, but an extra five are required to operate the mortar. This has a range of 9,650 m but an extended range munition exists with a possible range of 20,000 m. Due to the large size of the weapon and the weight of the ammunition (130 kg for a standard projectile) it has a slow rate of fire: one round per minute. In addition to the high explosive bombs, it can fire armour-piercing, chemical and nuclear rounds. It can also fire the "Smel'chak" ("Daredevil"), a laser-guided round.

The Tyulpan is currently the heaviest mortar in deployment among any country.

It saw action during the conflicts in Afghanistan[1] and Chechnya.[2] In both conflicts, the Smel'chak projectile consistently destroyed targets quickly, precisely, and with only a few rounds. The extreme firepower per round compensates for the Tyulpan's slow rate of fire.

There were reports of the Tyulpan being used by the Syrian Army during the 2012 bombardment of Homs.[3]

OSCE observers, monitoring movements of equipment in the War in Donbass with an UAV, spotted a 2S4 on territory under control of the Donetsk People's Republic on 4 July 2015.[4]


Map with 2S4 operators in blue and former operators in red

Current operators

  •  Russia - 10 in active service. 410 in storage [5]
  •  Syria - 24 vehicles in active service with the 3rd, 4th (passed on from the Defense Companies ) and 10th Armoured Divisions, and the 14th Special Forces Airborne Division.

Former Operators


  1. 2S4 M-1975 Tyulpan 240-mm self-propelled mortar
  2. War in Chechnya
  3. Murphy, Dan (21 February 2012). "Syria's Assad is hitting Homs with the heaviest mortars in the world". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 21 February 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Latest from OSCE Special Monitoring Mission (SMM) to Ukraine based on information received as of 19:30 (Kyiv time), 5 July 2015" OSCE 2015-07-06
  5. The Military Balance 2013. — P. 226.
  6. Jane's Armour and Artillery 1997-98 ISBN 0-7106-1542-6

External links