613 commandments

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The tradition that 613 commandments (Hebrew: תרי"ג מצוות‎: taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.[1]

These principles of Biblical law are sometimes called connections or commandments (mitzvot) and referred to collectively as the "Law of Moses" (Torat Moshe, תורת משה), "Mosaic Law", "Sinaitic Law", or simply "the Law". The word mitzvot is plural; singular is mitzvah.

Although there have been many attempts to codify and enumerate the commandments contained in the Torah, the traditional view is based on Maimonides' enumeration. The 613 commandments include "positive commandments", to perform an act (mitzvot aseh), and "negative commandments", to abstain from certain acts (mitzvot lo taaseh). The negative commandments number 365, which coincides with the number of days in the solar year, and the positive commandments number 248, a number ascribed to the number of bones and main organs in the human body (Babylonian Talmud, Makkot 23b-24a).[2] Though the number 613 is mentioned in the Talmud, its real significance increased in later medieval rabbinic literature, including many works listing or arranged by the mitzvot. Three types of negative commandments fall under the self-sacrificial principle yehareg ve'al ya'avor, meaning "One should let oneself be killed rather than violate it". These are murder, idolatry, and forbidden sexual relations.[3]

The 613 mitzvot have been divided also into three general categories: mishpatim; edot; and chukim. Mishpatim ("laws") include commandments that are deemed to be self-evident, such as not to murder and not to steal. Edot ("testimonies") commemorate important events in Jewish history. For example, the Shabbat is said to testify to the story that Hashem created the world in six days and rested on the seventh day and declared it holy. Chukim ("decrees") are commandments with no known rationale, and are perceived as pure manifestations of the Divine will.[4]

Many of the mitzvot cannot be observed now, following the destruction of the Second Temple, although they still retain religious significance. According to one standard reckoning,[5] there are 77 positive and 194 negative commandments that can be observed today, of which there are 26 commands that apply only within the Land of Israel.[6] Furthermore, there are some time-related commandments from which women are exempt (examples include shofar, sukkah, lulav, tzitzit and tefillin).[7] Some depend on the special status of a person in Judaism (such as kohanim), while others apply only to men or only to women.

Significance of 613

[De Rouwdagen] De treurdagen (The mourning days) by nl (Jan Voerman), ca 1884

According to the Talmud (tractate Makkoth 23b), Deut. 33:04 is to be interpreted to mean that Moses transmitted the "Torah" from God to the Israelites: "Moses commanded us the Torah as an inheritance for the community of Jacob".

The Talmud notes that the Hebrew numerical value (gematria) of the word "Torah" is 611, and combining Moses's 611 commandments with the first two of the Ten Commandments which were the only ones heard directly from God, adds up to 613.[8] The Talmud attributes the number 613 to Rabbi Simlai, but other classical sages who hold this view include Rabbi Simeon ben Azzai (Sifre, Deuteronomy 76) and Rabbi Eleazar ben Yose the Galilean (Midrash Aggadah to Genesis 15:1). It is quoted in Midrash Shemot Rabbah 33:7, Bamidbar Rabbah 13:15–16; 18:21 and Talmud Yevamot 47b.

Many Jewish philosophical and mystical works (e.g. by Baal ha-Turim, the Maharal of Prague and leaders of Hasidic Judaism) find allusions and inspirational calculations relating to the number of commandments.

The tzitzit ("knotted fringes") of the tallit ("[prayer] shawl") are connected to the 613 commandments by interpretation: principal Torah commentator Rashi bases the number of knots on a gematria: the word tzitzit (Hebrew: ציצת (Biblical), ציצית, in its Mishnaic spelling) has the value 600. Each tassel has eight threads (when doubled over) and five sets of knots, totalling 13. The sum of all numbers is 613. This reflects the concept that donning a garment with tzitzit reminds its wearer of all Torah commandments.[9]

Dissent and difficulties

Rabbinic support for the number of commandments being 613 is not without dissent and, even as the number gained acceptance, difficulties arose in elucidating the list. Some rabbis declared that this count was not an authentic tradition, or that it was not logically possible to come up with a systematic count. No early work of Jewish law or Biblical commentary depended on the 613 system, and no early systems of Jewish principles of faith made acceptance of this Aggadah (non-legal Talmudic statement) normative. The classical Biblical commentator and grammarian Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra denied that this was an authentic rabbinic tradition. Ibn Ezra writes "Some sages enumerate 613 mitzvot in many diverse ways [...] but in truth there is no end to the number of mitzvot [...] and if we were to count only the root principles [...] the number of mitzvot would not reach 613" (Yesod Mora, Chapter 2).

Nahmanides held that this particular counting was a matter of rabbinic controversy, and that rabbinic opinion on this is not unanimous. Nonetheless, he concedes that "this total has proliferated throughout the aggadic literature... we ought to say that it was a tradition from Moses at Mount Sinai" (Nahmanides, Commentary to Maimonides' Sefer Hamitzvot'', Root Principle 1).

Rabbi Simeon ben Zemah Duran likewise rejected the dogma of the 613 as being the sum of the Law, saying that "perhaps the agreement that the number of mitzvot is 613... is just Rabbi Simlai's opinion, following his own explication of the mitzvot. And we need not rely on his explication when we come to determine [and affect] the Law, but rather on the Talmudic discussions" (Zohar Harakia, Lviv, 1858, p. 99).

Even when rabbis attempted to compile a list of the 613 commandments, they were faced with a number of difficulties:

  • Which statements were to be included amongst the 613 commandments? Every one of God's commands to any individual or to the entire people of Israel?
  • Would an order from God be counted as a commandment, for the purposes of such a list, if it could only be complied with in one place and time? Else, would such an order only count as a commandment if it could be followed at all times? (The latter is the view of Maimonides.)
  • Does counting a single commandment depend on whether it falls within one verse, even though it may contain multiple prohibitions, or should each prohibition count as a single commandment?

Ultimately, though, the concept of 613 commandments has become accepted as normative amongst practicing Jews and today it is still common practice to refer to the total system of commandments within the Torah as the "613 commandments", even among those who do not literally accept this count as accurate.

However, the 613 mitzvot do not constitute a formal code of present-day halakha. (See Halakha: Codes of Jewish law.) The most widely recognized code is the Shulkhan Arukh, written by Rabbi Yosef Karo (Safed, Israel, 1550). For Sephardic Jewry, this is generally the accepted code. Ashkenazim, however, customarily follow the glosses appended to the Shulchan Arukh by Rabbi Moses Isserles. The Kitzur Shulkhan Arukh of Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried (Hungary 1804 -1886) is also popular among Ashkenazic Jews. Although it is often criticized, it contains an overview of the rules of Ashkenazi Jewish life according to the minhagim followed by Hungarian Jewry. This is why it is not accepted by all Ashkenazic rabbinic authorities. However, Maimonides did write his Mishneh Torah while keeping in mind all of the 613 mitzvot.

Works enumerating the commandments

There is no single definitive list that explicates the 613 commandments. Lists differ, for example, in how they interpret passages in the Torah that may be read as dealing with several cases under a single law or several separate laws. Other "commandments" in the Torah are restricted as one-time acts, and would not be considered as "mitzvot" binding on other persons. In rabbinic literature, Rishonim and later scholars composed to articulate and justify their enumeration of the commandments:

  • Sefer ha-Mitzvoth ("Book of Commandments") by Rabbi Saadia Gaon is the earliest extant enumeration of the 613 mitzvot. Written during the period of the Geonim, Saadia's work is a simple list (though it was later expanded by Rabbi Yerucham Fishel Perlow.)
  • Sefer Hamitzvot ("Book of Commandments") by Maimonides, with a commentary by Nachmanides.[citation needed] Maimonides employs a set of fourteen rules (shorashim) which determine inclusion into the list. In this work, he supports his specification of each mitzvah through quotations from the midrash halakha and the Gemara. Nachmanides makes a number of critical points and replaces some items of the list with others.[citation needed]
  • Sefer ha-Chinnuch ("Book of Education"). This work generally follows Maimonides' reckoning of the 613 commandments. It is written in the order in which the commandments appear in the Torah rather than an arrangement by category (as in Maimonides' work.) In addition to enumerating the commandments and giving a brief overview of relevant laws, the Sefer ha-Chinuch also tries to explain the philosophical reasons behind the mitzvot. It has been attributed to various authors, most commonly Rabbi Aaron ha-Levi of Barcelona (the Ra'ah), though its true authorship is unknown.
  • Sefer ha-Mitzvoth ha-Gadol or SMaG ("Large book of Commandments") by Rabbi Moses ben Jacob of Coucy.
  • Sefer ha-Mitzvoth ha-Katan or SMaK ("Small book of Commandments") by Rabbi Isaac of Corbeil. This work was written in the form of a poem, divided into seven sections and intended to be read each week. While Isaac's work is fairly short, most editions contain lengthy commentaries. Like the Chafetz Chaim's enumeration, the SMaK deals only with those mitzvot applicable today.
  • Sefer Yere'im ("Book of the [God-]fearing") by Rabbi Eliezer of Metz (not a clear enumeration.)
  • Sefer ha-Mitzvoth by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (the "Chafetz Chaim"). The Chafetz Chaim's work follows the reckoning of Maimonides but gives only the commandments relevant today. Notably, this listing omits commandments regarding temple service, ritual purity, sacrifices, and so on. Though the original work included only those commandments relevant in all places and at all times, later editions include agricultural laws relevant today only in the Land of Israel.

Maimonides' list

The following are the 613 commandments and the source of their derivation from the Hebrew Bible as enumerated by Maimonides:

  1. To know there is a GodEx. 20:2
  2. Not to even think that there are other gods besides Him — Standard->Ex. 20:3 Yemenite->Ex. 20:2
  3. To know that He is OneDeut. 6:4
  4. To love HimDeut. 6:5
  5. To fear HimDeut. 10:20
  6. To sanctify His NameLev. 22:32
  7. Not to profane His NameLev. 22:32
  8. Not to destroy objects associated with His NameDeut. 12:4
  9. To listen to the prophet speaking in His Name — Deut. 18:15
  10. Not to try the LORD unduly — Deut. 6:16
  11. To emulate His waysDeut. 28:9
  12. To cleave to those who know HimDeut. 10:20
  13. To love other JewsLev. 19:18
  14. To love convertsDeut. 10:19
  15. Not to hate fellow Jews — Lev. 19:17
  16. To reprove a sinner — Lev. 19:17
  17. Not to embarrass othersLev. 19:17
  18. Not to oppress the weak — Ex. 22:21
  19. Not to speak derogatorily of othersLev. 19:16
  20. Not to take revengeLev. 19:18
  21. Not to bear a grudge — Lev. 19:18
  22. To learn TorahDeut. 6:7
  23. To honor those who teach and know TorahLev. 19:32
  24. Not to inquire into idolatryLev. 19:4
  25. Not to follow the whims of your heart or what your eyes see — Num. 15:39
  26. Not to blasphemeEx. 22:27
  27. Not to worship idols in the manner they are worshiped — Standard->Ex. 20:6 Yemenite->Ex. 20:5
  28. Not to worship idols in the four ways we worship God — Standard->Ex. 20:6 Yemenite->Ex. 20:5
  29. Not to make an idol for yourself — Standard->Ex. 20:5 Yemenite->Ex. 20:4
  30. Not to make an idol for othersLev. 19:4
  31. Not to make human forms even for decorative purposes — Standard->Ex. 20:21 Yemenite->Ex. 20:20
  32. Not to turn a city to idolatryDeut. 13:14
  33. To burn a city that has turned to idol worshipDeut. 13:17
  34. Not to rebuild it as a cityDeut. 13:17
  35. Not to derive benefit from itDeut. 13:18
  36. Not to missionize an individual to idol worshipDeut. 13:12
  37. Not to love the idolaterDeut. 13:9
  38. Not to cease hating the idolaterDeut. 13:9
  39. Not to save the idolaterDeut. 13:9
  40. Not to say anything in the idolater's defenseDeut. 13:9
  41. Not to refrain from incriminating the idolaterDeut. 13:9
  42. Not to prophesy in the name of idolatryDeut. 13:14
  43. Not to listen to a false prophetDeut. 13:4
  44. Not to prophesy falsely in the name of God — Deut. 18:20
  45. Not to be afraid of the false prophetDeut. 18:22
  46. Not to swear in the name of an idolEx. 23:13
  47. Not to perform ov (medium) — Lev. 19:31
  48. Not to perform yidoni ("magical seer") — Lev. 19:31
  49. Not to pass your children through the fire to MolechLev. 18:21
  50. Not to erect a pillar in a public place of worship — Deut. 16:22
  51. Not to bow down before a smooth stone — Lev. 26:1
  52. Not to plant a tree in the Temple courtyard — Deut. 16:21
  53. To destroy idols and their accessoriesDeut. 12:2
  54. Not to derive benefit from idols and their accessoriesDeut. 7:26
  55. Not to derive benefit from ornaments of idolsDeut. 7:25
  56. Not to make a covenant with idolaters —Deut. 7:2
  57. Not to show favor to them — Deut. 7:2
  58. Not to let them dwell in the Land of IsraelEx. 23:33
  59. Not to imitate them in customs and clothing — Lev. 20:23
  60. Not to be superstitiousLev. 19:26
  61. Not to go into a trance to foresee events, etc. — Deut. 18:10
  62. Not to engage in divination or soothsaying — Lev. 19:26
  63. Not to mutter incantationsDeut. 18:11
  64. Not to attempt to contact the dead — Deut. 18:11
  65. Not to consult the ovDeut. 18:11
  66. Not to consult the yidoniDeut. 18:11
  67. Not to perform acts of magicDeut. 18:10
  68. Men must not shave the hair off the sides of their headLev. 19:27
  69. Men must not shave their beards with a razorLev. 19:27
  70. Men must not wear women's clothing — Deut. 22:5
  71. Women must not wear men's clothing — Deut. 22:5
  72. Not to tattoo the skinLev. 19:28
  73. Not to tear the skin in mourningDeut. 14:1
  74. Not to make a bald spot in mourningDeut. 14:1
  75. To repent and confess wrongdoingsNum. 5:7
  76. To say the Shema twice daily — Deut. 6:7
  77. To pray every dayEx. 23:25
  78. The Kohanim must bless the Jewish nation dailyNum. 6:23
  79. To wear tefillin (phylacteries) on the headDeut. 6:8
  80. To bind tefillin on the armDeut. 6:8
  81. To put a mezuzah on the door postDeut. 6:9
  82. Each male must write a Torah scrollDeut. 31:19
  83. The king must have a separate Torah scroll for himself — Deut. 17:18
  84. To have tzitzit on four-cornered garmentsNum. 15:38
  85. To bless the Almighty after eatingDeut. 8:10
  86. To circumcise all males on the eighth day after their birthGen. 17:10
  87. To rest on the seventh dayEx. 23:12
  88. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day — Standard->Ex. 20:11 Yemenite->Ex. 20:10
  89. The court must not inflict punishment on ShabbatEx. 35:3
  90. Not to walk outside the city boundary on ShabbatEx. 16:29
  91. To sanctify Shabbat with Kiddush and Havdalah — Standard->Ex. 20:9 Yemenite->Ex. 20:8
  92. To rest from prohibited labor on Yom KippurLev. 23:32
  93. Not to do prohibited labor on Yom KippurLev. 23:32
  94. To afflict oneself on Yom KippurLev. 16:29
  95. Not to eat or drink on Yom KippurLev. 23:29
  96. To rest on the first day of PassoverLev. 23:7
  97. Not to do prohibited labor on the first day of PassoverLev. 23:8
  98. To rest on the seventh day of PassoverLev. 23:8
  99. Not to do prohibited labor on the seventh day of PassoverLev. 23:8
  100. To rest on ShavuotLev. 23:21
  101. Not to do prohibited labor on ShavuotLev. 23:21
  102. To rest on Rosh HashanahLev. 23:24
  103. Not to do prohibited labor on Rosh HashanahLev. 23:25
  104. To rest on SukkotLev. 23:35
  105. Not to do prohibited labor on SukkotLev. 23:35
  106. To rest on Shemini AtzeretLev. 23:36
  107. Not to do prohibited labor on Shemini AtzeretLev. 23:36
  108. Not to eat chametz on the afternoon of the 14th day of NisanDeut. 16:3
  109. To destroy all chametz on 14th day of NisanEx. 12:15
  110. Not to eat chametz all seven days of PassoverEx. 13:3
  111. Not to eat mixtures containing chametz all seven days of PassoverEx. 12:20
  112. Not to see chametz in your domain seven daysEx. 13:7
  113. Not to find chametz in your domain seven daysEx. 12:19
  114. To eat matzah on the first night of PassoverEx. 12:18
  115. To relate the Exodus from Egypt on that nightEx. 13:8
  116. To hear the Shofar on the first day of Tishrei (Rosh Hashanah)Num. 9:1
  117. To dwell in a Sukkah for the seven days of SukkotLev. 23:42
  118. To take up a Lulav and Etrog all seven daysLev. 23:40
  119. Each man must give a half shekel annually — Ex. 30:13
  120. Courts must calculate to determine when a new month beginsEx. 12:2
  121. To afflict oneself and cry out before God in times of calamityNum. 10:9
  122. To marry a wife by means of ketubah and kiddushinDeut. 22:13
  123. Not to have sexual relations with women not thus marriedDeut. 23:18
  124. Not to withhold food, clothing, and sexual relations from your wifeEx. 21:10
  125. To have children with one's wife — Gen. 1:28
  126. To issue a divorce by means of a Get documentDeut. 24:1
  127. A man must not remarry his ex-wife after she has married someone else — Deut. 24:4
  128. To perform yibbum (marry the widow of one's childless brother) — Deut. 25:5
  129. To perform halizah (free the widow of one's childless brother from yibbum) — Deut. 25:9
  130. The widow must not remarry until the ties with her brother-in-law are removed (by halizah) — Deut. 25:5
  131. The court must fine one who sexually seduces a maiden — Ex. 22:15-16
  132. The rapist must marry his victim if she is unwed — Deut. 22:29
  133. He is never allowed to divorce her — Deut. 22:29
  134. The slanderer must remain married to his wife — Deut. 22:19
  135. He must not divorce her — Deut. 22:19
  136. To fulfill the laws of the SotahNum. 5:30
  137. Not to put oil on her meal offering (as usual) — Num. 5:15
  138. Not to put frankincense on her meal offering (as usual) — Num. 5:15
  139. Not to have sexual relations with your motherLev. 18:7
  140. Not to have sexual relations with your father's wifeLev. 18:8
  141. Not to have sexual relations with your sisterLev. 18:9
  142. Not to have sexual relations with your father's wife's daughterLev. 18:11
  143. Not to have sexual relations with your son's daughterLev. 18:10
  144. Not to have sexual relations with your daughterLev. 18:10
  145. Not to have sexual relations with your daughter's daughterLev. 18:10
  146. Not to have sexual relations with a woman and her daughterLev. 18:17
  147. Not to have sexual relations with a woman and her son's daughterLev. 18:17
  148. Not to have sexual relations with a woman and her daughter's daughterLev. 18:17
  149. Not to have sexual relations with your father's sisterLev. 18:12
  150. Not to have sexual relations with your mother's sisterLev. 18:13
  151. Not to have sexual relations with your father's brother's wifeLev. 18:14
  152. Not to have sexual relations with your son's wifeLev. 18:15
  153. Not to have sexual relations with your brother's wifeLev. 18:16
  154. Not to have sexual relations with your wife's sisterLev. 18:18
  155. A man must not have sexual relations with an animalLev. 18:23
  156. A woman must not have sexual relations with an animalLev. 18:23
  157. A man must not have sexual relations with a manLev. 18:22
  158. Not to have sexual relations with your fatherLev. 18:7
  159. Not to have sexual relations with your father's brotherLev. 18:14
  160. Not to have sexual relations with someone else's wifeLev. 18:20
  161. Not to have sexual relations with a menstrually impure womanLev. 18:19
  162. Not to marry non-JewsDeut. 7:3
  163. Not to let Moabite and Ammonite males marry into the Jewish peopleDeut. 23:4
  164. Not to refrain from letting a third-generation Egyptian convert enter the Assembly — Deut. 23:8-9
  165. Not to refrain from letting a third-generation Edomite convert enter the Assembly — Deut. 23:8-9
  166. Not to let a mamzer (a child born due to an illegal relationship) marry into the Jewish people — Deut. 23:3
  167. Not to let a eunuch marry into the Jewish people — Deut. 23:2
  168. Not to offer to God any castrated male animals — Lev. 22:24
  169. The High Priest must not marry a widow — Lev. 21:14
  170. The High Priest must not have sexual relations with a widow even outside of marriage — Lev. 21:15
  171. The High Priest must marry a virgin maiden — Lev. 21:13
  172. A Kohen (priest) must not marry a divorcee — Lev. 21:7
  173. A Kohen must not marry a zonah (a woman who has had a forbidden sexual relationship) — Lev. 21:7
  174. A Kohen must not marry a chalalah ("a desecrated person") (party to or product of 169-172) — Lev. 21:7
  175. Not to make pleasurable (sexual) contact with any forbidden womanLev. 18:6
  176. To examine the signs of animals to distinguish between kosher and non-kosherLev. 11:2
  177. To examine the signs of fowl to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher — Deut. 14:11
  178. To examine the signs of fish to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher — Lev. 11:9
  179. To examine the signs of locusts to distinguish between kosher and non-kosher — Lev. 11:21
  180. Not to eat non-kosher animalsLev. 11:4
  181. Not to eat non-kosher fowlLev. 11:13
  182. Not to eat non-kosher fishLev. 11:11
  183. Not to eat non-kosher flying insectsDeut. 14:19
  184. Not to eat non-kosher creatures that crawl on landLev. 11:41
  185. Not to eat non-kosher maggotsLev. 11:44
  186. Not to eat worms found in fruit on the groundLev. 11:42
  187. Not to eat creatures that live in water other than (kosher) fishLev. 11:43
  188. Not to eat the meat of an animal that died without ritual slaughterDeut. 14:21
  189. Not to benefit from an ox condemned to be stoned — Ex. 21:2
  190. Not to eat meat of an animal that was mortally wounded — Ex. 22:30
  191. Not to eat a limb torn off a living creature — Deut. 12:23
  192. Not to eat blood —Lev. 3:17
  193. Not to eat certain fats of clean animals — Lev. 3:17
  194. Not to eat the sinew of the thighGen. 32:33
  195. Not to eat mixtures of milk and meat cooked together — Ex. 23:19
  196. Not to cook meat and milk togetherEx. 34:26
  197. Not to eat bread from new grain before the OmerLev. 23:14
  198. Not to eat parched grains from new grain before the OmerLev. 23:14
  199. Not to eat ripened grains from new grain before the Omer — Lev. 23:14
  200. Not to eat fruit of a tree during its first three yearsLev. 19:23
  201. Not to eat diverse seeds planted in a vineyardDeut. 22:9
  202. Not to eat untithed fruits — Lev. 22:15
  203. Not to drink wine poured in service to idolsDeut. 32:38
  204. To ritually slaughter an animal before eating itDeut. 12:21
  205. Not to slaughter an animal and its offspring on the same day — Lev. 22:28
  206. To cover the blood (of a slaughtered beast or fowl) with earth — Lev. 17:13
  207. To send away the mother bird before taking its children — Deut. 22:6
  208. To release the mother bird if she was taken from the nest — Deut. 22:7
  209. Not to swear falsely in God's Name — Lev. 19:12
  210. Not to take God's Name in vain — Standard->Ex. 20:7 Yemenite->Ex. 20:6
  211. Not to deny possession of something entrusted to you — Lev. 19:11
  212. Not to swear in denial of a monetary claim — Lev. 19:11
  213. To swear in God's Name to confirm the truth when deemed necessary by court — Deut. 10:20
  214. To fulfill what was uttered and to do what was avowed — Deut. 23:24
  215. Not to break oaths or vowsNum. 30:3
  216. For oaths and vows annulled, there are the laws of annulling vows explicit in the Torah — Num. 30:3
  217. The Nazirite must let his hair growNum. 6:5
  218. He must not cut his hairNum. 6:5
  219. He must not drink wine, wine mixtures, or wine vinegarNum. 6:3
  220. He must not eat fresh grapesNum. 6:3
  221. He must not eat raisinsNum. 6:3
  222. He must not eat grape seedsNum. 6:4
  223. He must not eat grape skinsNum. 6:4
  224. He must not be under the same roof as a corpseNum. 6:6
  225. He must not come into contact with the deadNum. 6:7
  226. He must shave his head after bringing sacrifices upon completion of his Nazirite periodNum. 6:9
  227. To estimate the value of people as determined by the Torah —Lev. 27:2
  228. To estimate the value of consecrated animals — Lev. 27:12-13
  229. To estimate the value of consecrated houses — Lev. 27:14
  230. To estimate the value of consecrated fields — Lev. 27:16
  231. Carry out the laws of interdicting possessions (cherem) — Lev. 27:28
  232. Not to sell the cheremLev. 27:28
  233. Not to redeem the cheremLev. 27:28
  234. Not to plant diverse seeds togetherLev. 19:19
  235. Not to plant grains or greens in a vineyard — Deut. 22:9
  236. Not to crossbreed animals — Lev. 19:19
  237. Not to work different animals together — Deut. 22:10
  238. Not to wear shaatnez, a cloth woven of wool and linen — Deut. 22:11
  239. To leave a corner of the field uncut for the poorLev. 19:10
  240. Not to reap that corner — Lev. 19:9
  241. To leave gleaningsLev. 19:9
  242. Not to gather the gleaningsLev. 19:9
  243. To leave the unformed clusters of grapes — Lev. 19:10
  244. Not to pick the unformed clusters of grapes — Lev. 19:10
  245. To leave the gleanings of a vineyard — Lev. 19:10
  246. Not to gather the gleanings of a vineyard — Lev. 19:10
  247. To leave the forgotten sheaves in the field — Deut. 24:19
  248. Not to retrieve them — Deut. 24:19
  249. To separate the "tithe for the poor" — Deut. 14:28
  250. To give charityDeut. 15:8
  251. Not to withhold charity from the poor — Deut. 15:7
  252. To set aside Terumah (heave offering) Gedolah (gift for the Kohen) — Deut. 18:4
  253. The Levite must set aside a tenth of his tithe — Num. 18:26
  254. Not to preface one tithe to the next, but separate them in their proper order — Ex. 22:28
  255. A non-Kohen must not eat TerumahLev. 22:10
  256. A hired worker or a Jewish bondsman of a Kohen must not eat TerumahLev. 22:10
  257. An uncircumcised Kohen must not eat TerumahEx. 12:48
  258. An impure Kohen must not eat TerumahLev. 22:4
  259. A chalalah (party to #s 169-172 above) must not eat TerumahLev. 22:12
  260. To set aside Ma'aser (tithe) each planting year and give it to a Levite — Num. 18:24
  261. To set aside the second tithe (Ma'aser Sheni) — Deut. 14:22
  262. Not to spend its redemption money on anything but food, drink, or ointment — Deut. 26:14
  263. Not to eat Ma'aser Sheni while impure — Deut. 26:14
  264. A mourner on the first day after death must not eat Ma'aser SheniDeut. 26:14
  265. Not to eat Ma'aser Sheni grains outside Jerusalem — Deut. 12:17
  266. Not to eat Ma'aser Sheni wine products outside Jerusalem — Deut. 12:17
  267. Not to eat Ma'aser Sheni oil outside Jerusalem — Deut. 12:17
  268. The fourth year crops must be totally for holy purposes like Ma'aser SheniLev. 19:24
  269. To read the confession of tithes every fourth and seventh year — Deut. 26:13
  270. To set aside the first fruits and bring them to the Temple — Ex. 23:19
  271. The Kohanim must not eat the first fruits outside JerusalemDeut. 12:17
  272. To read the Torah portion pertaining to their presentation — Deut. 26:5
  273. To set aside a portion of dough for a KohenNum. 15:20
  274. To give the foreleg, two cheeks, and abomasum of slaughtered animals to a KohenDeut. 18:3
  275. To give the first shearing of sheep to a KohenDeut. 18:4
  276. To redeem firstborn sons and give the money to a KohenNum. 18:15
  277. To redeem the firstborn donkey by giving a lamb to a KohenEx. 13:13
  278. To break the neck of the donkey if the owner does not intend to redeem it — Ex. 13:13
  279. To rest the land during the seventh year by not doing any work which enhances growth — Ex. 34:21
  280. Not to work the land during the seventh year — Lev. 25:4
  281. Not to work with trees to produce fruit during that year — Lev. 25:4
  282. Not to reap crops that grow wild that year in the normal manner — Lev. 25:5
  283. Not to gather grapes which grow wild that year in the normal way — Lev. 25:5
  284. To leave free all produce which grew in that year — Ex. 23:11
  285. To release all loans during the seventh year — Deut. 15:2
  286. Not to pressure or claim from the borrower — Deut. 15:2
  287. Not to refrain from lending immediately before the release of the loans for fear of monetary loss —Deut. 15:9
  288. The Sanhedrin must count seven groups of seven years — Lev. 25:8
  289. The Sanhedrin must sanctify the fiftieth year — Lev. 25:10
  290. To blow the Shofar on the tenth of Tishrei to free the slavesLev. 25:9
  291. Not to work the soil during the fiftieth year (Jubilee) — Lev. 25:11
  292. Not to reap in the normal manner that which grows wild in the fiftieth year — Lev. 25:11
  293. Not to pick grapes which grew wild in the normal manner in the fiftieth year — Lev. 25:11
  294. Carry out the laws of sold family properties — Lev. 25:24
  295. Not to sell the land in Israel indefinitely — Lev. 25:23
  296. Carry out the laws of houses in walled cities — Lev. 25:29
  297. The Tribe of Levi must not be given a portion of the land in Israel, rather they are given cities to dwell in — Deut. 18:1
  298. The Levites must not take a share in the spoils of war — Deut. 18:1
  299. To give the Levites cities to inhabit and their surrounding fields — Num. 35:2
  300. Not to sell the fields but they shall remain the Levites' before and after the Jubilee year — Lev. 25:34
  301. To build a TempleEx. 25:8
  302. Not to build the altar with stones hewn by metal — Standard->Ex. 20:24 Yemenite->Ex. 20:23
  303. Not to climb steps to the altar — Standard->Ex. 20:27 Yemenite->Ex. 20:26
  304. To show reverence to the Temple — Lev. 19:30
  305. To guard the Temple area — Num. 18:2
  306. Not to leave the Temple unguarded — Num. 18:5
  307. To prepare the anointing oil — Ex. 30:31
  308. Not to reproduce the anointing oil — Ex. 30:32
  309. Not to anoint with anointing oil — Ex. 30:32
  310. Not to reproduce the incense formula — Ex. 30:37
  311. Not to burn anything on the Golden Altar besides incenseEx. 30:9
  312. The Levites must transport the ark on their shoulders — Num. 7:9
  313. Not to remove the staves from the ark — Ex. 25:15
  314. The Levites must work in the Temple — Num. 18:23
  315. No Levite must do another's work of either a Kohen or a Levite — Num. 18:3
  316. To dedicate the Kohen for service — Lev. 21:8
  317. The work of the Kohanim's shifts must be equal during holidays — Deut. 18:6-8
  318. The Kohanim must wear their priestly garments during service — Ex. 28:2
  319. Not to tear the priestly garments — Ex. 28:32
  320. The Kohen Gadol 's (High Priest) breastplate must not be loosened from the EfodEx. 28:28
  321. A Kohen must not enter the Temple intoxicated — Lev. 10:9
  322. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with his head uncovered — Lev. 10:6
  323. A Kohen must not enter the Temple with torn clothes — Lev. 10:6
  324. A Kohen must not enter the Temple indiscriminately — Lev. 16:2
  325. A Kohen must not leave the Temple during service — Lev. 10:7
  326. To send the impure from the Temple — Num. 5:2
  327. Impure people must not enter the Temple — Num. 5:3
  328. Impure people must not enter the Temple Mount area — Deut. 23:11
  329. Impure Kohanim must not do service in the temple — Lev. 22:2
  330. An impure Kohen, following immersion, must wait until after sundown before returning to service — Lev. 22:7
  331. A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service — Ex. 30:19
  332. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not enter the sanctuary or approach the altar — Lev. 21:23
  333. A Kohen with a physical blemish must not serve — Lev. 21:17
  334. A Kohen with a temporary blemish must not serve — Lev. 21:17
  335. One who is not a Kohen must not serve — Num. 18:4
  336. To offer only unblemished animals — Lev. 22:21
  337. Not to dedicate a blemished animal for the altar — Lev. 22:20
  338. Not to slaughter it — Lev. 22:22
  339. Not to sprinkle its blood — Lev. 22:24
  340. Not to burn its fat — Lev. 22:22
  341. Not to offer a temporarily blemished animal — Deut. 17:1
  342. Not to sacrifice blemished animals even if offered by non-Jews — Lev. 22:25
  343. Not to inflict wounds upon dedicated animals — Lev. 22:21
  344. To redeem dedicated animals which have become disqualified — Deut. 12:15
  345. To offer only animals which are at least eight days old — Lev. 22:27
  346. Not to offer animals bought with the wages of a harlot or the animal exchanged for a dog. Some interpret "exchange for a dog" as referring to wage of a male prostitute.[10][11]Deut. 23:19
  347. Not to burn honey or yeast on the altar — Lev. 2:11
  348. To salt all sacrifices — Lev. 2:13
  349. Not to omit the salt from sacrifices — Lev. 2:13
  350. Carry out the procedure of the burnt offering as prescribed in the Torah — Lev. 1:3
  351. Not to eat its meat — Deut. 12:17
  352. Carry out the procedure of the sin offering — Lev. 6:18
  353. Not to eat the meat of the inner sin offering — Lev. 6:23
  354. Not to decapitate a fowl brought as a sin offering — Lev. 5:8
  355. Carry out the procedure of the guilt offering — Lev. 7:1
  356. The Kohanim must eat the sacrificial meat in the Temple — Ex. 29:33
  357. The Kohanim must not eat the meat outside the Temple courtyard — Deut. 12:17
  358. A non-Kohen must not eat sacrificial meat — Ex. 29:33
  359. To follow the procedure of the peace offering — Lev. 7:11
  360. Not to eat the meat of minor sacrifices before sprinkling the blood — Deut. 12:17
  361. To bring meal offerings as prescribed in the Torah — Lev. 2:1
  362. Not to put oil on the meal offerings of wrongdoers — Lev. 5:11
  363. Not to put frankincense on the meal offerings of wrongdoers — Lev. 3:11
  364. Not to eat the meal offering of the High Priest — Lev. 6:16
  365. Not to bake a meal offering as leavened bread — Lev. 6:10
  366. The Kohanim must eat the remains of the meal offerings — Lev. 6:9
  367. To bring all avowed and freewill offerings to the Temple on the first subsequent festival — Deut. 12:5-6
  368. Not to withhold payment incurred by any vow — Deut. 23:22
  369. To offer all sacrifices in the Temple — Deut. 12:11
  370. To bring all sacrifices from outside Israel to the Temple — Deut. 12:26
  371. Not to slaughter sacrifices outside the courtyard — Lev. 17:4
  372. Not to offer any sacrifices outside the courtyard — Deut. 12:13
  373. To offer two lambs every day — Num. 28:3
  374. To light a fire on the altar every day — Lev. 6:6
  375. Not to extinguish this fire — Lev. 6:6
  376. To remove the ashes from the altar every day — Lev. 6:3
  377. To burn incense every day — Ex. 30:7
  378. To light the Menorah every day — Ex. 27:21
  379. The Kohen Gadol must bring a meal offering every day — Lev. 6:13
  380. To bring two additional lambs as burnt offerings on ShabbatNum. 28:9
  381. To make the show bread — Ex. 25:30
  382. To bring additional offerings on Rosh Chodesh (" The New Month") — Num. 28:11
  383. To bring additional offerings on PassoverNum. 28:19
  384. To offer the wave offering from the meal of the new wheat — Lev. 23:10
  385. Each man must count the Omer - seven weeks from the day the new wheat offering was brought — Lev. 23:15
  386. To bring additional offerings on ShavuotNum. 28:26
  387. To bring two loaves to accompany the above sacrifice — Lev. 23:17
  388. To bring additional offerings on Rosh HashanaNum. 29:2
  389. To bring additional offerings on Yom KippurNum. 29:8
  390. To bring additional offerings on SukkotNum. 29:13
  391. To bring additional offerings on Shmini AtzeretNum. 29:35
  392. Not to eat sacrifices which have become unfit or blemished — Deut. 14:3
  393. Not to eat from sacrifices offered with improper intentions — Lev. 7:18
  394. Not to leave sacrifices past the time allowed for eating them — Lev. 22:30
  395. Not to eat from that which was left over — Lev. 19:8
  396. Not to eat from sacrifices which became impure — Lev. 7:19
  397. An impure person must not eat from sacrifices — Lev. 7:20
  398. To burn the leftover sacrifices — Lev. 7:17
  399. To burn all impure sacrifices — Lev. 7:19
  400. To follow the procedure of Yom Kippur in the sequence prescribed in Parshah Acharei Mot ("After the death of Aaron's sons...") — Lev. 16:3
  401. One who profaned property must repay what he profaned plus a fifth and bring a sacrifice — Lev. 5:16
  402. Not to work consecrated animals — Deut. 15:19
  403. Not to shear the fleece of consecrated animals — Deut. 15:19
  404. To slaughter the paschal sacrifice at the specified time — Ex. 12:6
  405. Not to slaughter it while in possession of leaven — Ex. 23:18
  406. Not to leave the fat overnight — Ex. 23:18
  407. To slaughter the second Paschal LambNum. 9:11
  408. To eat the Paschal Lamb with matzah and Marror on the night of the fourteenth of NisanEx. 12:8
  409. To eat the second Paschal Lamb on the night of the 15th of IyarNum. 9:11
  410. Not to eat the paschal meat raw or boiled — Ex. 12:9
  411. Not to take the paschal meat from the confines of the group — Ex. 12:46
  412. An apostate must not eat from it — Ex. 12:43
  413. A permanent or temporary hired worker must not eat from it — Ex. 12:45
  414. An uncircumcised male must not eat from it — Ex. 12:48
  415. Not to break any bones from the paschal offering — Ex. 12:46 Ps. 34:20
  416. Not to break any bones from the second paschal offering — Num. 9:12
  417. Not to leave any meat from the paschal offering over until morning — Ex. 12:10
  418. Not to leave the second paschal meat over until morning — Num. 9:12
  419. Not to leave the meat of the holiday offering of the 14th until the 16th — Deut. 16:4
  420. To be seen at the Temple on Passover, Shavuot, and SukkotDeut. 16:16
  421. To celebrate on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) — Ex. 23:14
  422. To rejoice on these three Festivals (bring a peace offering) — Deut. 16:14
  423. Not to appear at the Temple without offerings — Deut. 16:16
  424. Not to refrain from rejoicing with, and giving gifts to, the Levites — Deut. 12:19
  425. To assemble all the people on the Sukkot following the seventh year — Deut. 31:12
  426. To set aside the firstborn animals — Ex. 13:12
  427. The Kohanim must not eat unblemished firstborn animals outside Jerusalem — Deut. 12:17
  428. Not to redeem the firstborn — Num. 18:17
  429. Separate the tithe from animals — Lev. 27:32
  430. Not to redeem the tithe — Lev. 27:33
  431. Every person must bring a sin offering (in the temple) for his transgression — Lev. 4:27
  432. Bring an asham talui (temple offering) when uncertain of guilt — Lev. 5:17-18
  433. Bring an asham vadai (temple offering) when guilt is ascertained — Lev. 5:25
  434. Bring an oleh v'yored (temple offering)(if the person is wealthy, an animal; if poor, a bird or meal offering) — Lev. 5:7-11
  435. The Sanhedrin must bring an offering (in the Temple) when it rules in error — Lev. 4:13
  436. A woman who had a running (vaginal) issue must bring an offering (in the Temple) after she goes to the MikvehLev. 15:28-29
  437. A woman who gave birth must bring an offering (in the Temple) after she goes to the MikvehLev. 12:6
  438. A man who had a running (unnatural urinary) issue must bring an offering (in the Temple) after he goes to the Mikveh — Lev. 15:13-14
  439. A metzora (one having a skin disease) must bring an offering (in the Temple) after going to the MikvehLev. 14:10
  440. Not to substitute another beast for one set apart for sacrifice — Lev. 27:10
  441. The new animal, in addition to the substituted one, retains consecration — Lev. 27:10
  442. Not to change consecrated animals from one type of offering to another — Lev. 27:26
  443. Carry out the laws of impurity of the dead — Num. 19:14
  444. Carry out the procedure of the Red Heifer (Para Aduma) — Num. 19:2
  445. Carry out the laws of the sprinkling water — Num. 19:21
  446. Rule the laws of human tzara'at as prescribed in the Torah — Lev. 13:12
  447. The metzora must not remove his signs of impurity — Deut. 24:8
  448. The metzora must not shave signs of impurity in his hair — Lev. 13:33
  449. The metzora must publicize his condition by tearing his garments, allowing his hair to grow and covering his lips — Lev. 13:45
  450. Carry out the prescribed rules for purifying the metzoraLev. 14:2
  451. The metzora must shave off all his hair prior to purification — Lev. 14:9
  452. Carry out the laws of tzara'at of clothing — Lev. 13:47
  453. Carry out the laws of tzara'at of houses — Lev. 13:34
  454. Observe the laws of menstrual impurityLev. 15:19
  455. Observe the laws of impurity caused by childbirthLev. 12:2
  456. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a woman's running issueLev. 15:25
  457. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a man's running issue (irregular ejaculation of infected semen) — Lev. 15:3
  458. Observe the laws of impurity caused by a dead beast — Lev. 11:39
  459. Observe the laws of impurity caused by the eight shratzim (insects) — Lev. 11:29
  460. Observe the laws of impurity of a seminal emission (regular ejaculation, with normal semen) — Lev. 15:16
  461. Observe the laws of impurity concerning liquid and solid foods — Lev. 11:34
  462. Every impure person must immerse himself in a Mikvah to become pure — Lev. 15:16
  463. The court must judge the damages incurred by a goring ox — Ex. 21:28
  464. The court must judge the damages incurred by an animal eating — Ex. 22:4
  465. The court must judge the damages incurred by a pit — Ex. 21:33
  466. The court must judge the damages incurred by fire — Ex. 22:5
  467. Not to steal money stealthily — Lev. 19:11
  468. The court must implement punitive measures against the thief — Ex. 21:37
  469. Each individual must ensure that his scales and weights are accurate — Lev. 19:36
  470. Not to commit injustice with scales and weightsLev. 19:35
  471. Not to possess inaccurate scales and weights even if they are not for use — Deut. 25:13
  472. Not to move a boundary marker to steal someone's property — Deut. 19:14
  473. Not to kidnap — Standard->Ex. 20:14 Yemenite->Ex. 20:13
  474. Not to rob openly — Lev. 19:13
  475. Not to withhold wages or fail to repay a debt — Lev. 19:13
  476. Not to covet and scheme to acquire another's possession — Standard->Ex. 20:15 Yemenite->Ex. 20:14
  477. Not to desire another's possession — Standard->Deut. 5:19 Yemenite->Deut. 5:18
  478. Return the robbed object or its value — Lev. 5:23
  479. Not to ignore a lost object — Deut. 22:3
  480. Return the lost object — Deut. 22:1
  481. The court must implement laws against the one who assaults another or damages another's property — Ex. 21:18
  482. Not to murder — Standard->Ex. 20:13 Yemenite->Ex. 20:12
  483. Not to accept monetary restitution to atone for the murderer — Num. 35:31
  484. The court must send the accidental murderer to a city of refugeNum. 35:25
  485. Not to accept monetary restitution instead of being sent to a city of refuge — Num. 35:32
  486. Not to kill the murderer before he stands trial — Num. 35:12
  487. Save someone being pursued even by taking the life of the pursuer — Deut. 25:12
  488. Not to pity the pursuer — Num. 35:12
  489. Not to stand idly by if someone's life is in danger — Lev. 19:16
  490. Designate cities of refuge and prepare routes of access — Deut. 19:3
  491. Break the neck of a calf by the river valley following an unsolved murder — Deut. 21:4
  492. Not to work nor plant that river valley — Deut. 21:4
  493. Not to allow pitfalls and obstacles to remain on your property — Deut. 22:8
  494. Make a guard rail around flat roofs — Deut. 22:8
  495. Not to put a stumbling block before a blind man (nor give harmful advice) — Lev. 19:14
  496. Help another remove the load from a beast which can no longer carry it — Ex. 23:5
  497. Help others load their beast — Deut. 22:4
  498. Not to leave others distraught with their burdens (but to help either load or unload) — Deut. 22:4
  499. Conduct sales according to Torah law — Lev. 25:14
  500. Not to overcharge or underpay for an article — Lev. 25:14
  501. Not to insult or harm anybody with words — Lev. 25:17
  502. Not to cheat a convert monetarily — Ex. 22:20
  503. Not to insult or harm a convert with words — Ex. 22:20
  504. Purchase a Hebrew slave in accordance with the prescribed laws — Ex. 21:2
  505. Not to sell him as a slave is sold — Lev. 25:42
  506. Not to work him oppressively — Lev. 25:43
  507. Not to allow a non-Jew to work him oppressively — Lev. 25:53
  508. Not to have him do menial slave labor — Lev. 25:39
  509. Give him gifts when he goes free — Deut. 15:14
  510. Not to send him away empty-handed — Deut. 15:13
  511. Redeem Jewish maidservants — Ex. 21:8
  512. Betroth the Jewish maidservant — Ex. 21:8
  513. The master must not sell his maidservant — Ex. 21:8
  514. Canaanite slaves must work forever unless injured in one of their limbs — Lev. 25:46
  515. Not to extradite a slave who fled to (Biblical) Israel — Deut. 23:16
  516. Not to wrong a slave who has come to Israel for refuge — Deut. 23:16
  517. The courts must carry out the laws of a hired worker and hired guard — Ex. 22:9
  518. Pay wages on the day they were earned — Deut. 24:15
  519. Not to delay payment of wages past the agreed time — Lev. 19:13
  520. The hired worker may eat from the unharvested crops where he works — Deut. 23:25
  521. The worker must not eat while on hired time — Deut. 23:26
  522. The worker must not take more than he can eat — Deut. 23:25
  523. Not to muzzle an ox while plowing — Deut. 25:4
  524. The courts must carry out the laws of a borrower — Ex. 22:13
  525. The courts must carry out the laws of an unpaid guard — Ex. 22:6
  526. Lend to the poor and destitute — Ex. 22:24
  527. Not to press them for payment if you know they don't have it — Ex. 22:24
  528. Press the idolater for payment — Deut. 15:3
  529. The creditor must not forcibly take collateral — Deut. 24:10
  530. Return the collateral to the debtor when needed — Deut. 24:13
  531. Not to delay its return when needed — Deut. 24:12
  532. Not to demand collateral from a widow — Deut. 24:17
  533. Not to demand as collateral utensils needed for preparing food — Deut. 24:6
  534. Not to lend with interest — Lev. 25:37
  535. Not to borrow with interest — Deut. 23:20
  536. Not to intermediate in an interest loan, guarantee, witness, or write the promissory note — Ex. 22:24
  537. Lend to and borrow from idolaters with interest — Deut. 23:21
  538. The courts must carry out the laws of the plaintiff, admitter, or denier — Ex. 22:8
  539. Carry out the laws of the order of inheritance — Num. 27:8
  540. Appoint judges — Deut. 16:18
  541. Not to appoint judges who are not familiar with judicial procedure — Deut. 1:17
  542. Decide by majority in case of disagreement — Ex. 23:2
  543. The court must not execute through a majority of one; at least a majority of two is required — Ex. 23:2
  544. A judge who presented an acquittal plea must not present an argument for conviction in capital cases — Deut. 23:2
  545. The courts must carry out the death penalty of stoning — Deut. 22:24
  546. The courts must carry out the death penalty of burning — Lev. 20:14
  547. The courts must carry out the death penalty of the sword — Ex. 21:20
  548. The courts must carry out the death penalty of strangulation — Lev. 20:10
  549. The courts must hang those stoned for blasphemy or idolatry — Deut. 21:22
  550. Bury the executed on the day they are killed — Deut. 21:23
  551. Not to delay burial overnight — Deut. 21:23
  552. The court must not let the sorcerer live — Ex. 22:17
  553. The court must give lashes to the wrongdoer — Deut. 25:2
  554. The court must not exceed the prescribed number of lashes — Deut. 25:3
  555. The court must not kill anybody on circumstantial evidence — Ex. 23:7
  556. The court must not punish anybody who was forced to do a crime — Deut. 22:26
  557. A judge must not pity the murderer or assaulter at the trial — Deut. 19:13
  558. A judge must not have mercy on the poor man at the trial — Lev. 19:15
  559. A judge must not respect the great man at the trial — Lev. 19:15
  560. A judge must not decide unjustly the case of the habitual transgressor — Ex. 23:6
  561. A judge must not pervert justice — Lev. 19:15
  562. A judge must not pervert a case involving a convert or orphan — Deut. 24:17
  563. Judge righteously — Lev. 19:15
  564. The judge must not fear a violent man in judgment — Deut. 1:17
  565. Judges must not accept bribes — Ex. 23:8
  566. Judges must not accept testimony unless both parties are present — Ex. 23:1
  567. Not to curse judges — Ex. 22:27
  568. Not to curse the head of state or leader of the Sanhedrin — Ex. 22:27
  569. Not to curse any upstanding Jew — Lev. 19:14
  570. Anybody who knows evidence must testify in court — Lev. 5:1
  571. Carefully interrogate the witness — Deut. 13:15
  572. A witness must not serve as a judge in capital crimes — Deut. 19:17
  573. Not to accept testimony from a lone witness — Deut. 19:15
  574. Transgressors must not testify — Ex. 23:1
  575. Relatives of the litigants must not testify — Deut. 24:16
  576. Not to testify falsely — Standard->Ex. 20:14 Yemenite->Ex. 20:13
  577. Punish the false witnesses as they tried to punish the defendant — Deut. 19:19
  578. Act according to the ruling of the SanhedrinDeut. 17:11
  579. Not to deviate from the word of the Sanhedrin — Deut. 17:11
  580. Not to add to the Torah commandments or their oral explanations — Deut. 13:1
  581. Not to diminish from the Torah any commandments, in whole or in part — Deut. 13:1
  582. Not to curse your father and mother — Ex. 21:17
  583. Not to strike your father and mother — Ex. 21:15
  584. Respect your father or mother — Standard->Ex. 20:13 Yemenite->Ex. 20:12
  585. Fear your mother or fatherLev. 19:3
  586. Not to be a rebellious son — Deut. 21:18
  587. Mourn for relativesLev. 10:19
  588. The High Priest must not defile himself for any relative — Lev. 21:11
  589. The High Priest must not enter under the same roof as a corpse — Lev. 21:11
  590. A Kohen must not defile himself (by going to funerals or cemeteries) for anyone except relatives — Lev. 21:1
  591. Appoint a king from Israel — Deut. 17:15
  592. Not to appoint a foreigner — Deut. 17:15
  593. The king must not have too many wives — Deut. 17:17
  594. The king must not have too many horses — Deut. 17:16
  595. The king must not have too much silver and gold — Deut. 17:17
  596. Destroy the seven Canaanite nations — Deut. 20:17
  597. Not to let any of them remain alive — Deut. 20:16
  598. Wipe out the descendants of AmalekDeut. 25:19
  599. Remember what Amalek did to the Jewish people — Deut. 25:17
  600. Not to forget Amalek's atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt in the desert — Deut. 25:19
  601. Not to dwell permanently in Egypt — Deut. 17:16
  602. Offer peace terms to the inhabitants of a city while holding siege, and treat them according to the Torah if they accept the terms — Deut. 20:10
  603. Not to offer peace to Ammon and Moab while besieging them — Deut. 23:7
  604. Not to destroy food trees even during the siege — Deut. 20:19
  605. Prepare latrines outside the camps — Deut. 23:13
  606. Prepare a shovel for each soldier to dig with — Deut. 23:14
  607. Appoint a priest to speak with the soldiers during the war — Deut. 20:2
  608. He who has taken a wife, built a new home, or planted a vineyard is given a year to rejoice with his possessions — Deut. 24:5
  609. Not to demand from the above any involvement, communal or military — Deut. 24:5
  610. Not to panic and retreat during battle — Deut. 20:3
  611. Keep the laws of the captive woman — Deut. 21:11
  612. Not to sell her into slavery — Deut. 21:14
  613. Not to retain her for servitude after having sexual relations with her — Deut. 21:14

See also


  1. Israel Drazi (2009). Maimonides and the Biblical Prophets. Gefen Publishing House Ltd. p. 209.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. As stated by the Jewish Virtual Library: "There is also complete agreement that these 613 mitzvot can be broken down into 248 positive mitzvot (one for each bone and organ of the male body) and 365 negative mitzvot (one for each day of the solar year)."
  3. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 74a
  4. "Mitzvot". NSW Board of Jewish Education. New South Wales Board of Jewish Education. Retrieved 29 September 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Chofetz Chaim (1990). Sefer HaMitzvot HaKatzar (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: Feldheim. pp. 9, 16, 17.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. HaCohen, Yisrael Meir. The Concise Book of Mitzvoth: The Commandments which can be Observed Today, Trans., Charles Wengrov. Feldheim, 1990.
  7. Talmud Kiddushin 29a
  8. Makkoth 24a
  9. Rashi's commentary on Numbers 15:39 (from Numbers Rabbah 18)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Footnote to Deut. 23:19, Tanakh The Holy Scriptures, The Jewish Publication Society, 1985, ISBN 978-0-8276-0252-6
  11. 11.0 11.1 Footnote to Deut. 23:19, The Catholic Study Bible, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2011


  • Eisenberg, Ronald L. The 613 Mitzvot: A Contemporary Guide to the Commandments of Judaism Schreiber Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-88400-303-5
  • Moses Maimonides, translation by Charles Ber Chavel and Moses ibn Tibbon. The book of divine commandments (the Sefer Ha-mitzvoth of Moses Maimonides) London: Soncino Press, 1940.

External links