Aaron Klug

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Sir Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug 1979.jpg
Aaron Klug in 1979
Born (1926-08-11) 11 August 1926 (age 96)[1]
Zel’va, Białystok Voivodeship (1919–39), Republic of Poland
Nationality British
Alma mater
Thesis The kinetics of phase changes in solids (1953)
Doctoral advisor Douglas Hartree[2]
Known for Crystallographic electron microscopy[3]
Notable awards
Spouse Liebe Bobrow (m. 1948)[1]
Children Two[1]

Sir Aaron Klug OM FRS [4] (born 11 August 1926) is a Lithuanian-born[5] British chemist and biophysicist, and winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes.[6][7][8][9][10][1][11]

Education and early life

From right to left: Prince Claus of the Netherlands, Aaron Klug and his wife (Liebe Bobrow), 1979

Klug was born in Zel’va, Białystok Voivodeship (1919–39) to Jewish parents Lazar, a cattleman, and Bella (née Silin) Klug with whom he moved to South Africa at the age of two.[12] He was educated at Durban High School.[1] He later graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree at the University of the Witwatersrand and studied for his Master of Science degree at the University of Cape Town[1] before he was awarded an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851,[13] which enabled him to move to England, completing his PhD at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1953.

Career and research

Following his PhD, Klug moved to Birkbeck College in the University of London in late 1953, and started working with Rosalind Franklin in John Bernal's lab. This experience aroused a lifelong interest in the study of viruses, and during his time there he made discoveries in the structure[14] of the tobacco mosaic virus. In 1962 he moved to the newly built Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) in Cambridge. Over the following decade Klug used methods from X-ray diffraction, microscopy and structural modelling to develop crystallographic electron microscopy in which a sequence of two-dimensional images of crystals taken from different angles are combined to produce three-dimensional images of the target. In 1962 Klug was offered a teaching Fellowship at Peterhouse, Cambridge. He went on teaching after his Nobel Prize because he found the courses interesting and was later made an Honorary Fellow at the College.[1][15]

He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Campaign for Science and Engineering.[16]

He is also a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute.[citation needed]

Awards and honours

Klug was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University in 1981. Between 1986 and 1996 he was director of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, and was knighted by Elizabeth II in 1988.[5] He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1969[4] and served as President from 1995–2000. He was appointed Order of Merit in 1995 – as is customary for Presidents of the Royal Society. His certificate of election to the Royal Society reads:

In 2005 he was awarded South Africa's Order of Mapungubwe (gold) for exceptional achievements in medical science.[18]

Personal life

Klug married Liebe Bobrow in 1948.[1] Though Klug had faced discrimination in South Africa, he remained religious and according to Sydney Brenner, he's become more religious in his older age.[19]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 KLUG, Sir Aaron. Who's Who. 2015 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (subscription required)
  2. Aaron Klug at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  3. Shafrir, E. (1994). "Aaron Klug--a pioneer of crystallographic electron microscopy". Israel journal of medical sciences. 30 (9): 734. PMID 8088991.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Sir Aaron Klug OM FRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 7 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Aaron Klug (1926–)". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 7 November 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Nobel Foundation (18 October 1982). "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982" (Press release). The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 13 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Wakabayashi, K. (1983). "Accomplishment of Dr. Aaron Klug, winner of Nobel prize in chemistry, 1982". Tanpakushitsu kakusan koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme. 28 (2): 156–157. PMID 6342048.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Shampo, M. A.; Kyle, R. A. (1994). "Sir Aaron Klug--Nobel Prize winner for chemistry". Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic. 69 (6): 556. doi:10.1016/S0025-6196(12)62247-2. PMID 8189761.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Aaron Klug biography at the Nobel Foundation
  10. Finch, John (2008). A Nobel Fellow On Every Floor. Medical Research Council. ISBN 978-1-84046-940-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> this book is all about the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge.
  11. Aaron Klug archive collection - Churchill Archives Centre finding aid.
  12. "Desert Island Discs – Castaway : Sir Aaron Klug first broadcast 2002-05-12". BBC.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 1851 Royal Commission Archives
  14. Amos, L.; Finch, J. T. (2004). "Aaron Klug and the revolution in biomolecular structure determination". Trends in Cell Biology. 14 (3): 148–152. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2004.01.002. PMID 15003624.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Eminent Petreans". University of Cambridge. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Advisory Council of the Campaign for Science and Engineering". Sciencecampaign.org.uk. Retrieved 11 February 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Certificate of Election EC/1969/19: Aaron Klug". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 8 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "National Orders awards 27 September 2005". State of South Africa. 29 September 2005. Retrieved 13 September 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Hargittai, Istva'n & Magdolna. 2006. Candid Science VI: More Conversations with Famous Scientists. Imperial College Press, p. 33

Further reading