Aleksander Laak

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Aleksander (Alexander) Laak
100px
Born 1907
Pöide Parish, Estonia
Died 6 September 1960
Winnipeg, Canada
Cause of death Hanging
Occupation Concentration camp commander
Killings
Date World War II
Killed 2,000 – 10,000

Aleksander (Alexander) Laak (1907, Pöide Parish, Estonia – 6 September 1960, Winnipeg, Canada)[1] was a lieutenant and the commander of the Jägala concentration camp during the German occupation of Estonia.[2]

The estimates for the number of killed at Jägala concentration camp vary widely. The Soviet investigators reached the conclusion that 2,000–3,000 were killed in Jägala and Kalevi-Liiva taken together, but the number 5,000 (as determined by the Extraordinary State Commission in 1944) was written into the verdict[3][4]

In modern sources, the number 10,000 occurs.[5][6][7] Some commentators have also given figures ranging from 100,000 (Michael Elkins,[8] Jonathan Freedland[9]) to 125,000 to 300,000 (Warren Kinsella), however, such figures contradict the findings of the Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity and also the estimates of scholars who place the number of total Jewish victims for the Estonia of 1941–1944 at 8,500.[10]

Aleksander Laak was also known to have arranged drunken orgies with inmates.[11][12][13]

He emigrated to Canada after World War II,[11] in 1948.[14][15] In 1960 he was implicated in the Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia,[16][17] and exposed as living as a naturalized Canadian citizen under the name of Alex Laak in suburban Winnipeg, Canada by the Soviet news agency TASS and Canadian journalists.[14][15][18][19]

Thereafter, after reading of the arrests of Jaan Viik and Ralf Gerrets for mass killings of mostly Jewish East Europeans while under Nazi occupation, and being himself identified as a mass murderer, he apparently committed suicide by hanging himself in the garage of his home at the age of 53, on 6 September 1960.[9][11][14][15][16][20][21][22][23][24][25] There is still the possibility that Israel Mossad killed him.[26]

Israeli journalist Michael Elkins claimed that Laak was in fact confronted one day after his wife had left their house to go to the movies, by a Jewish Avenger squad that clandestinely murdered Nazis. He was according to Elkins confronted with his crimes, and their intended punishment, and he accepted their offer of instead killing himself.[9][13][15][27] An investigation of the death was reopened in 1991.[15][25]

See also

References

  1. "Okupatsioonide muuseum". Museum of Occupations. Retrieved 13 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Laak Identified As Camp Chief". Montreal Gazette. Montreal. 12 September 1960. p. 3. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Hiio, Toomas; Meelis Maripuu. "Ülevaade juutide tapmisest Eesti territooriumil asunud laagrites" (in Estonian). Estonian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 13 August 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Juudid pidasid Kalevi-Liiva koonduslaagri komandandi üle omakohut". Eesti Ekspress. 29 July 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "PHASE II : THE GERMAN OCCUPATION OF ESTONIA IN 1941–1944" (PDF). Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. Retrieved 13 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Kaasik, Peeter (28 May 2010). "Holocaust in Estonia". Estonica. Retrieved 13 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Komisjon: 20.000 juudi hukkamine Eestis pole tõendatud". Virumaa Nädalaleht (in Estonian). 20 September 2004. Retrieved 13 August 2010.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Elkins, Michael (1981). Forged in fury. Piatkus. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-86188-098-0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Freedland, Jonathan (26 July 2008). "Revenge". The Guardian. London.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. e.g. Wolfgang Benz Handbuch des Antisemitismus: Judenfeindschaft in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Volume 1
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Girls Forced Into Orgies – Then Slain, Court Told". The Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa. 8 March 1961. p. 7. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Joint Committee on Slavic Studies, American Council of Learned Societies, Social Science Research Council (U.S.), American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (1960). The Current digest of the Soviet press. 12. American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. Retrieved 17 August 2010.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 Jonathan Freedland (26 July 2008). "The Jewish avengers who survived the death camps and tracked down their tormentors | World news". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 "Canada Checks On Immigrant Who Took Life". The Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa. Canadian Press. 7 September 1960. p. 1. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 "Suspected Nazi's Death Re-examined". The Jewish Post & News. Winnipeg: 34. 28 August 1991.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Man Soviet Accused Found Dead". The New York Times. 8 September 1960.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. The Canadian Jewish Studies Reader. Google Books. 24 September 2008. ISBN 978-0-88995-295-9. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Family Tells Of Struggle". The Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa. Canadian Press. 31 August 1960. p. 7. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Warren Kinsella (1995). Web of hate: inside Canada's far right network. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-638051-4. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Pat Nagle (8 September 1960). "Laak Widow Suspects 'Outsiders'". Montreal Gazette. p. 4. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "War Policeman Tells Of Deaths". The Spartanburg Herald. Spartanburg. AP. 7 March 1961. p. 1. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Estonians Here Fear Red "Hate" Campaign". The Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa. CP. 10 September 1960. p. 10. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Joseph Berger (27 March 2010). "Survival Tales Told in Snapshots: Czech Jews Enduring the Holocaust". The New York Times: C1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Jews and the Jewish people: Evrei i ... Google Books. 1960. Retrieved 17 August 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. 25.0 25.1 Myrone Love (20 February 1991). "Manitoba RCMP looking into 30-year-old suicide of alleged Nazi". The Jewish Post & News. Winnipeg: 2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. http://www.ekspress.ee/news/paevauudised/valisuudised/juudid-pidasid-kalevi-liiva-koonduslaagri-komandandi-ule-omakohut.d?id=27679795
  27. Michael Elkins (1971). Forged In Fury. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-02162-2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>