Aleksandr Martynov (politician)

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File:Martynov AS.jpg
As seen in 1906

Alexandr Martynov (Alexandr Martinov; also, Aleksandr Samoilovich Pikker;[1][note 1]) (1865 – 1935) was a Menshevik before the Russian revolutions of 1917, and for a few years after the revolution a critic of the Soviet government's theory of permanent revolution (1923).[note 2]

In 1884, he was a member of The People’s Will. During 1901-2 Martinov was active on the journal of the Economist faction of the RSDLP, Rabocheye Dyelo, publishing articles strongly criticised by Lenin in What Is to Be Done?

He joined the Communist Party in 1923 as an opponent of the "Left Opposition." He was a chief architect of the "bloc of four classes."[2][note 3]

Martinov was an advocate of the two stage theory, that a fully capitalist government was needed to run well into its course before socialism and thereafter communism could be possible.

See also

Class conflict
proletariat, bourgeoisie, bourgeois democracy, socialist mode of production
Vladimir Lenin
Lenin's atheism, One Step Forward, Two Steps Back
Collectivization in the Soviet Union

Further reading

  • Sotsial'demokraticheskiia pobiedy i burzhuezno-demokraticheskie.[note 4] (pseud. [Aleksandr Samoilovich Pikker.]) 1904
  • Передовые И Отсталые.[note 5] (pseud. [Aleksandr Samoilovich Pikker.]) 1905.
  • Peredovye i otstalye.[note 6] (pseud. [Aleksandr Samoilovich Pikker.]) 1905.
  • Мы И Они Лицом К Деревне.[note 7] (pseud. [Aleksandr Samoilovich Pikker.]) 1925


  1. The Making of Three Russian Revolutionaries. Edited by Leopold H. Haimson, Ziva Galili y Garcia, Richard Wortman p480
  2. Glossary of Terms: Bl: Bloc of Four Classes.
  1. Russian: Александр Самойлович Мартынов - Пиккер
  2. According to Leon Trotsky
  3. See also: New Democracy
  4. Tr. Social democratic party struggles to exchange degrees of democracy
  5. Tr. Strictures on the policies of Ilyich Lenin.
  6. Tr. Forward and backward
  7. Tr. We and they are facing the countryside