Annotated bibliography

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An annotated bibliography is a bibliography that gives a summary of each of the entries.[1] The purpose of annotations is to provide the reader with a summary and an evaluation of the source. Each summary should be a concise exposition of the source's central idea(s) and give the reader a general idea of the source's content.[2][3]

Types of annotations

Annotations may be written with different goals in mind.

Informative annotations

This type of annotation is a summary of the source. An informative annotation should include the thesis of the work, arguments or hypothesis, proofs and a conclusion.[4]

Evaluative annotations

This type of annotation assesses the source's strengths and weaknesses, in terms of usefulness and quality.[4]

Combination annotations

Most annotated bibliographies contain combination annotations. This type of annotation will summarize or describe the topic, and then evaluate the source's usefulness and a summary. Usually also includes a detailed analysis on the reason the article was written.[4]


Sample entry of an APA style annotated bibliography:

Murray, S. (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. Chicago: ALA Editions.

Murray's book offers an in-depth look at the history of libraries since ancient times. He
incorporates beautiful illustrations, quotations, and descriptions of numerous libraries
worldwide. This book states the history of the evolution of the book from era to era.
It also serves as a primary source of information for research in library history. This
is a good book that should be of interest to book lovers and librarians.



  1. What is an Annotated Bibliography? by the University of New South Wales The Learning Centre
  2. "Bibliographies". KU Writing Center. Retrieved 27 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Geoff Stacks, Erin Karper (2001). "Annotated Bibliographies". Purdue University. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-06. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Annotated Bibliographies: Content". Writer's Handbook. University of Wisconsin at Madison: The Writing Center. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-02. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Purdue OWL". OWL. 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-24.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>