Baldus de Ubaldis

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Baldus de Ubaldis

Baldus de Ubaldis (Latin: Baldus Perusinus; Italian: Baldo degli Ubaldi; 1327 – 28 April 1400) was an Italian jurist, and a leading figure in Medieval Roman Law.


A member of the noble family of the Ubaldi (Baldeschi), Baldus was born at Perugia in 1327, and studied civil law there under Bartolus de Saxoferrato, being admitted to the degree of doctor of civil law at the early age of seventeen. Federico Petrucci of Siena is said to have been the master under whom he studied canon law.

Lectura feudorum, 15th-century manuscript (Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek, Collectie Willem Matthias D'Ablaing).
Consiliorum, sive responsorum, 1575.

On his promotion to the doctorate he went to Bologna, where he taught law for three years, after which he was advanced to a professorship at Perugia, where he remained for thirty-three years, and he had among his students Francesco Albergotti.[1] He subsequently taught law at Pisa, Florence, Padua and Pavia, the rivals to Bologna. During his period at Pavia he sometimes also taught at Piacenza. He died at Pavia on 28 April 1400.

Baldus was the master of Pierre Roger de Beaufort, who became pope under the title of Gregory XI, and whose immediate successor, Urban VI, summoned Baldus to Rome to assist him by his consultations in 1380 against the anti-pope Clement VII. Baldus' view on the legal issues relating to the schism are laid down in the so-called Questio de schismate. Cardinal Francesco Zabarella and Paulus Castrensis were also among his pupils.


In usus feudorum commentaria, 1580
Baldus de Ubaldis at the right on the title page of Benvenutus Straccha (Benvenuto Stracca): De mercatura decisiones, 1671.

Many of Baldus' works are incomplete. He left voluminous commentaries on the Pandects and on the Codex Justinianus. His Commentary on the Libri Feudorum, a twelfth-century compilation of feudal law provisions, is considered to be one of his best works. He also commented on the canon law compilations of decretals, the Liber Extra and the Liber Sextus. In addition to these commentaries, Baldus wrote a number of treatises on specialised legal topics. His major effort, however, went into the writing of some 3,000 consilia (legal opinions). No other medieval lawyer has so many consilia preserved.

Baldus's work on the law of evidence and the gradations of proof was a high point of medieval thought in the discipline and remained the standard treatment of the subject for centuries.


  • De syndicatu officialium
  • De duobus fratribus
  • De significatione verborum
  • De pace Constantiae
  • De feudis
  • Summula respiciens facta mercatorum.
  • Commentaria in digestum vetus, 1549.
  • Consiliorum sive responsorum, 1575.
  • In usus feudorum commentaria (in Latina). 1580.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


Baldus had two brothers, Angelus (1328–1400) and Petrus (1335–1400). It is probably due to confusion between Baldus and his brother Petrus that the famous jurist's name is sometimes given as Petrus Baldus de Ubaldis.




  1. "ALBERGOTTI, Francesco in "Enciclopedia Italiana"". (in italiano). Retrieved 2021-03-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


Black, Antony (1970). Monarchy and Community: Political Ideas in the Later Conciliar Controversy 1430-1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Canning, Joseph (1987). The Political Thought of Baldus de Ubaldis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Cavallar, Osvaldo; Kirshner, Julius (2020). Jurists and Jurisprudence in Medieval Italy: Texts and Contexts. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Fedele, Dante (2021). The Medieval Foundations of International Law: Baldus de Ubaldis (1327–1400), Doctrine and Practice of the Ius Gentium. Leiden and Boston: Brill.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Figgis, John Neville (1914). "Bartolus and the Development of European Political Ideas". The Divine Right of Kings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 343–72.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Franklin, James (2015). The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Fredona, Robert (2011). "Baldus De Ubaldis on Conspiracy and Laesa Maiestas in Late Trecento Florence". In Armstrong, Lawrin; Kirshner, Julius (eds.). The Politics of Law in Late Medieval and Renaissance Italy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 141–60.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Kantorowicz, Hermann (1934). "Baldus de Ubaldis and the Subjective Theory of Guilt". Social Research. I (3): 358–75. JSTOR 40981386.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Pennington, Kenneth (1997). "Baldus de Ubaldis". Rivista Internazionale di Diritto Comune (8): 35–61.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Pennington, Kenneth (2004). "Was Baldus an Absolutist? The Evidence of his Consilia". In Kaufhold, Martin (ed.). Politische Reflexion in der Welt des späten Mittelalters/Political Thought in the Age of Scholasticism. Essays in Honour of Jürgen Miethke. Leiden and Boston: Brill. pp. 305–21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Pluss, Jacques Anthony (1986). "Reading Case Law Historically: A Consilium of Baldus de Ubaldis on Widows and Dowries". The American Journal of Legal History. XXX (3): 241–65. JSTOR 845727.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

  • Gabor Hamza, "Entstehung und Entwicklung der modernen Privatrechtsordnungen und die römischrechtliche Tradition" (Eotvos Universitätsverlag, Budapest, 2009) pp. 78–89.
  • Gabor Hamza, "Origine e sviluppo degli ordinamenti giusprivatistici moderni in base alla tradizione del diritto romano" (Andavira Editora, Santiago de Compostela, 2013) pp. 79–86.
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). [ "Baldus de Ubaldis, Petrus" ] Check |ws link in chapter= value (help). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links