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Bar, Vinnytsia Oblast

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Bar
Бар
City
General view of Bar.
General view of Bar.
Flag of Bar
Flag
Coat of arms of Bar
Coat of arms
Bar is located in Vinnytsia Oblast
Bar
Bar
Bar is located in Ukraine
Bar
Bar
Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Country  Ukraine
Oblast Flag of Vinnytsia Oblast.svg Vinnytsia Oblast
Raion Bar Raion
First mentioned 1401 (as Rov castle)
Magdeburg law 1540
City rights 1938
Named for Bari in Italy
Government
 • City Head Artur Anatoliyovych Tsitsyurs'ky
Area
 • Total 5.95 km2 (2.30 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total 16,442
 • Density 2,890/km2 (7,500/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 23000-23005
Area code(s) +380-4341
Sister cities Kwidzyn in Poland, Bari in Italy
Website http://www.bar-city.com.ua/

Bar (Ukrainian: Бар; Polish: Bar) is a small city located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Bar Raion (district), and is part of the historic region of Podolia. The population is 16,442 (2013 est.)[1] people.

Engraving of Bona Sforza in 1517

History

Historical affiliations
File:Костел св. Анны (г.Бар).JPG
Roman Catholic Church, 1811 and Orthodox Church, 1719 in Bar

The city was a small trade outpost Rov (Duchy of Podolia) on the Riv River from the 13th to 15th centuries, and it was described as Rov for the first time in 1401 (from other information sources in 1425[2]). In 1537 the Polish Queen Bona Sforza renamed the settlement to Bar in 1537,[2] after her hometown of Bari in Italy and in 1630s Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan built a fortress there.[2]

File:Old Picture of Town of Bar.jpg
Old Picture of the Old Fortress, St. Pokrovsky Monastery and St. Anna Catholic Cathedral

In 1540 the Polish King Sigismund I the Old granted the nearby town city rights. The fortress was besieged several times in its history and resisted all assaults. But during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648 it was captured by the Cossacks led by Maxym Kryvonis and severely damaged. The town was depopulated soon afterwards.

In 1672 the Town of Bar was captured by the Ottoman Empire and became a seat of the local administration. On November 12, 1674, the town and the fortress were recaptured by the forces of John III of Poland after four days of siege. But the Ottomans recaptured the city in 1675 and retained it until 1686 (nominally until 1699). It was constantly ravaged by Turks and Poles in turn between 1686 and 1699.

On February 29, 1768, the Bar Confederation was started in the fortress. After the Second Partition of Poland, the town fell under Russian Empire rule and was part of Podolia Governorate.

After 1922, the Town of Bar was part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1991, following the fall of the Soviet Union, it has been part of independent Ukraine.

The city of Bar was comprehensively described in the doctorate thesis by Mykhailo Hrushevsky: Bar Community: Historical Outlines in the 15th to 18th centuries. The international conference on the Town of Bar history will be held in Bar on September 26, 2014,.[3] There is a monument of Mykhailo Hrushevsky in Bar city.

File:Bar-podole 01.jpg
Old picture with a general view onto the city of Bar
File:Barkostel.jpg
Old picture of the St. Anna Catholic Cathedral in Bar

Main dates in Bar history

City museum of history

All the historical facts and findings are collected and archived in the history museum in Bar, Ukraine.[4]

Evidences of Chernyakhov culture were found at the western part of Bar city; evidences of Trypillian culture existed at the eastern part of Bar city; evidences of Scythian culture were found at the western part of Bar city.

Thus,[clarification needed] the very old Chernyakhivs'ka culture is a predecessor of the Ukrainian culture,[citation needed] hence the exhibition about the Chernyakhivs'ka culture, including a number of valuable historical things,[clarification needed] is so popular[citation needed] among the Ukrainians.

The interesting exposition about the Polish Queen Bona Sforza and the Bar's city history attracts number of domestic and foreign visitors.

There is the Ukrainian culture exhibit, including the Ukrainian clothes, ceramics, coins and iron made old things. The old metal coins exhibition (excavated near Bar) attracts a lot of interest.

The museum has a big collection of the old icons and ancient artifacts, related to the various religions in Bar, Ukraine, which is quite popular among the tourists.

There is a well made exposition about the World War II and related historical events.[4][5]

World War II

The World War II exposition is presented at the History museum in Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine, including the historical facts description, the local people life stories and the military equipment exhibition in 1941-1945.

The life of people in Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine before the World War II is uncovered, including the various collected artifacts, paintings, photographs. In addition, the military equipment findings, related to the war period, are also presented at the World War II Exhibition at History Museum in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine (see the photographs).

The military uniform and medals were presented by the veterans, who also shared their memories with the historians at at History Museum in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine.

The German fascists occupied the Town of Bar and killed many thousands of the Ukrainian, Russian and Jewish people in Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine in 1941-1943. The German fascists met the strong resistance from the side of local population and Soviet army in Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine in 1941-1943.[citation needed]

The grim historical fact is that the Jewish community was around the ten thousands people in Bar before the World War II. There were many old synagogues in Bar before the World War II. The five thousands people were killed by the German fascists during the period of occupation in Bar, Ukraine in 1941-1942. [6]

There are the two big memorials, situated at the central square and at the central park, which are devoted to the World War II in Town of Bar, Vinnytsia Region, State of Ukraine.

Climate

Bar has a soft continental European climate. The winter is relatively cold and it is usually full of snow; the early spring is warm and it is most beautiful time of year; the summer is sunny and it is characterized by the sufficient humidity levels; the autumn is cloudy and it is full of rain, coming with Atlantic cyclones.

Climate data for Bar, Ukraine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
17.3
(63.1)
22.3
(72.1)
29.4
(84.9)
32.2
(90)
35.0
(95)
37.8
(100)
36.5
(97.7)
31.5
(88.7)
28.6
(83.5)
19.9
(67.8)
15.4
(59.7)
37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
5.2
(41.4)
13.4
(56.1)
20.1
(68.2)
22.7
(72.9)
24.8
(76.6)
24.3
(75.7)
18.7
(65.7)
12.4
(54.3)
4.7
(40.5)
−0.4
(31.3)
12.0
(53.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.1
(22.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.2
(34.2)
8.3
(46.9)
14.5
(58.1)
17.4
(63.3)
19.2
(66.6)
18.6
(65.5)
13.4
(56.1)
7.8
(46)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.8
(27)
7.7
(45.9)
Average low °C (°F) −6.7
(19.9)
−6.1
(21)
−2.2
(28)
3.7
(38.7)
9.1
(48.4)
12.3
(54.1)
14.1
(57.4)
13.4
(56.1)
8.9
(48)
4.0
(39.2)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.2
(22.6)
3.7
(38.7)
Record low °C (°F) −35.5
(−31.9)
−33.6
(−28.5)
−24.2
(−11.6)
−12.7
(9.1)
−2.8
(27)
2.5
(36.5)
5.2
(41.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−4.5
(23.9)
−11.4
(11.5)
−24.6
(−12.3)
−27.2
(−17)
−35.5
(−31.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.14)
28
(1.1)
30
(1.18)
45
(1.77)
50
(1.97)
94
(3.7)
83
(3.27)
66
(2.6)
64
(2.52)
30
(1.18)
37
(1.46)
35
(1.38)
591
(23.27)
Average rainy days 7 6 9 13 14 15 15 11 12 11 12 9 134
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.9 70.6 114.7 171.0 248.0 255.0 266.6 260.4 195.0 133.3 57.0 40.3 1,870.8
Source #1: Gismeteo.[7]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory.[8]

Cityscape

The central part of the city has a number of the historical cathedrals and the modern architecture buildings. [9] There is a nice central square with beautiful fountain, which is surrounded by the history museum, cinema, culture palace, trade center, modern hotel, city library, employment center building and some other governmental buildings in the downtown.

The Bar city library is a well known modern library in Ukraine, because it has the digital library with Internet

There is a big sport stadium to play football, basketball, volleyball in the center of the city. There is a new swimming pool building not far away from the stadium. The students from the Humanitarian - Pedagogical College like to make the sport exercises and play the sport games during their lessons at the stadium. The local football team plays the football games at the stadium regularly. The pop music performances by various artists from Ukraine take place at the stadium from time to time.

The Bar city area is around 1387 hectares. The Bar district area is around 1102 square kilometers. The maximum altitude above the sea level is 368,8 meters.[citation needed]

The main educational institutions, including the Humanitarian-Pedagogical College and the Automobiles and Roads College are situated in close proximity to the downtown, hence it is possible to see many students and professors around. Also, there are many secondary schools in the central district in the city.

The local market at Sobornaya Street is located on a walking distance from the downtown. Many local people and tourists from Ukraine and abroad like to visit the local market and buy some products on Saturday and Sunday mornings.

There are the green trees park and the Riv river with many white and yellow lilies near the central district in Bar. The green trees park is very popular among the tourists from Poland, Italy and Ukraine.

Religion

Bar has a lot of religious traditions. It is a center of Ukrainian culture[10] and an attractive tourist destination with a large number of old Ukrainian cathedrals and the new churches such as:

1. The Assumption Orthodox Church, built by Tymofiy Matkovsky in 1755–1757 at the same place, where the Holy Trinity Orthodox Church was founded in 1700.[11][12][13][14]

The Assumption Orthodox Cathedral is considered as one of the most remarkable architectural achievements and one of the oldest buildings in Bar, Ukraine, which has changed, reflecting the historical developments in Ukraine over the centuries.

The Holy Trinity Orthodox Church was founded in the early 17th century. The first written memories about the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church, which was created at the Trinity Orthodox Church place, are related to 1719.[citation needed] The interesting fact is that the new architectural design of the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral was developed, and then, the actual cathedral was constructed, using the stone, in 1755 – 1757. As it is described in the historical documents in 1771 and 1783, the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral had a high altar with the Savior icon and the two other altars.

Vasyl Matkovsky was a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar on that time. In 1795–1809, Ioan Sinitsky became a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar. At the same time, Fedir Batulinsky, priest (1800–1802) and Stefan Batulinsky, priest (1804– - 1820) conducted their religious missions at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar. Pavlo Batulinsky (1838–1844) served as a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar, and then he became a key owner and a cathedral bishop in Kamyanets soon after that. Vasyl Kuzminsky, as a priest in 1844–1849 and Simeon Karchevsky, as a priest in 1849–1861 worked to continue the religious missions at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar. In addition, Simeon Karchevsky was a head of the Bar Orthodox Religion School at the same time. Hryhoriy Yankovsky, as a priest in 1861–1881, Ivan Korchynsky, as a priest (1881–1892), Pavlo Savluchynsky, as a priest (1892), Afanasiy Dvernytsky, as a priest (1892–) were recognized for their outstanding religious mission services at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar.

It is necessary to note that the Assumption Orthodox Church was closed for the renovation in 1838–1851. The full restoration of the Assumption Cathedral was also done in 1975. The “gold plated” domes were installed and the façade renovation works were completed at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in 2013.[citation needed]

At present time, there are the two old icons at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Bar, Ukraine: 1. The St. Michael Myrlikiys’ky Miracle Man icon, created in Bari, Italy in the 16th century and presented by Bona Sforza; and 2. The God’s Mother icon with the silver frame, created in the 17th century, which saved the cathedral from the fire in 1737 and 1760.

2. The Rome Catholic St. Michael Cathedral, built in 1550 (the soft wood); and then, it was renamed as the St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral, re-built in 1811 (the stone); it was renovated by Y. Tamanchuk, architector in 1900 – July 26, 1906 (the red bricks)[15][16]

The Dekanat of Bar includes the following Roman Catholic Churches: Bar - parish of St. Anna; Berezivka - Parish of St. Józef; Brahyliv - parish St. Most Holy Trinity; Chemeryshke - parish St. Jan Chrzciciel; Czerniowce- Parafia St. Mikołaja B. M.; Jałtuszków- Parafia St. Matki Bożej Szkaplerznej; Kopajgród- Parafia Zesłania Ducha Świętego; Koziarówka - Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusowego; Kuryłowce- Parafia St. Matki Bożej Nieustającej Pomocy; Łuczyniec - Parafia Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Malczowce - Parafia Trójcy Przenajświętszej; Meżyrów - Parafia Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Mohylów Podolski - Parafia Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Mołczany- Parafia St. Wojciecha; Mytky- Parafia St. Józefa; Ozarzyńce - Parafia Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Sokół- Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa; Śnitków - Parafia Niepokalanego Poczęcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny; Tarasówka- Parafia St. Jana Nepomucena; Wendyczany - Parafia Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa; Wierzbowiec - Parafia St.Michała Archanioła; Wilchowiec- Parafia Matki Bożej Nieustającej Pomocy; Wyszczeolczydajew - Parafia Miłosierdzia Bożego; Zatoki - parish St. Antoniego Padewskiego; Zhmerynka - parish of St. Aleksego.

3. The former St. Pokrovsky Monastery, which is now known as the Benedictine Sisters-Missioners Monastery. In the beginning, the first monastery was founded by Knight Vereshagin in the woods near Semenivky not so far away from Bar. Then, the monastery was built, using the stone, in Bar in 1551. It was re-built in 1701–1781. The history of old monastery has the three periods: 1) the Orthodox period, 2) the Catholic period, 3) the Basilian period. During the newest historical period, Cyril Podolsky initiated the foundation of the St. Pokrovsky orthodox monastery for males in 1837. The monastery was re-organized for females and chaired by Sister Melitina on July 20, 1881. The red bricks cathedral with the bells was built in 1908. The monastery was closed in 1959-1995. The Benedictine Sisters-Missioners of Bar re-opened the monastery in 1996.[17]

4. The Old Bar Fortress, built in 1537,[18][19]

5. The Greek-Catholic church, opened in 1996.

6. The Holy Trinity Brailiv Monastery, made of red bricks, is in the process of construction under the management by Viktor Terletsky, priest and under the patronage by Simeon, Archbishop of Vinnytsia and Mohyliv-Podilsky at Harmaky near Bar since December 10, 2002. The St. Trinity Brailiv Monastery is intended for the females.

7. The St. Michael Orthodox Church in the beginning of vulytsia Bunyakovska is being re-built. The idea is to re-create the old St. Michael church, which was built at this place a few hundreds years ago. Mr. Pogrebnyak, businessman is a main sponsor of construction works.

The old historical castles in Bar require more investments.[20]

In agreement with the Enciclopaedia Vocabulary by Andreevsky I E (editor) published in St. Petersburg, Russia in 1891,[21] the total population was 13761 people, and the Jewish population was 51% of total population in 1891 in Bar. In 1900 in Bar, the total population included: 7865 Jewish people, 2803 Orthodox people, 765 Catholic people. The historical fact is that the Jewish community was around the ten thousands people in Bar before the World War II. There were many old synagogues in Bar before the World War II. The five thousands people were killed by the fascists during the period of occupation in Bar, Ukraine in 1941-1942.[22] Of course, the old synagogues were fully destroyed during the World War II, hence they could be rebuilt in the case of funds availability from the Ukrainian, American and Israel Jewish communities in the future. The re-building of synagogues is one of the important tasks for the city authorities.[23][24][25][26]

Religion in Bar (2014),[23][27][28][29]
Christianity
  
97%
No Religion
  
1.5%
Judaism
  
1%
Islam
  
0.1%
Others/unspecified
  
0.4%

Recreation

There is a green trees park at the old fortress on the Riv river banks in the center of Bar, Ukraine. It is possible to find the numerous acacias, pines, maples and some other sorts of trees.[19][citation needed]

There is a stadium, where a local football (soccer) team plays games.

Education

There is a modern city library in Bar. Margaret Hankamp, JD, New York Law School, New York University, USA worked on the Bibliomist program[30] to modernize the city library. The Bibliomist is a part of Global Libraries initiative of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). The Bar city library was extensively renovated due to the financial support by KfW bank in Germany in June, 2015.

There are a few educational institutions in the Bar city, for example: Hrushevsky Humanitarian Pedagogical College where the students can study English language and other subjects;,[31][32] the Automobiles and Roads College, founded by Tunik;[33][34] the Buildings Construction College;[35] the specialized music school,[36] a cinema and a contemporary art gallery.

Economy

The economy includes the three main sectors such as the agriculture, industry and tourism sectors.[37]

There are several industrial companies in the Town of Bar, for instance, the Bar Industrial Machinery Plant.[38]

On the relatively short distance from Bar, there is a big natural gas compressor station, which pumps the natural gas over the transcontinental Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline and the Union pipeline to the Polish, German and other European customers,.[39][40]

There is a modern Air Traffic Control Center with the beyond-visual-range-radar nearby, which provides air traffic control services in the English language for aircraft in the Vinnytsia region of Ukraine.[41] There is also an airport, which helicopters and light airplanes can use.

File:Panoramic View on Bar, Ukraine Made from Aircraft.jpg
Panoramic view of Bar made from an aircraft

Healthcare

The Jewish community hospital for 10 patient places, headed by Dr. Mareinis, licensed medical doctor, was in operation in Bar, Ukraine before 1920. Also, there were the three small medical hospitals for 15-20 patient places in Yaltushkov, Man'kovka and Kopaigorod villages in Bar's district before 1920. [42]

The medical hospital with 25 patient places was functional in Bar, Ukraine before 1940, but it is necessary to note a grim historical fact that Dr. Shamis, licensed medical doctor and Dr. Burstein, licensed medical doctor, including their Jewish families, were killed by German fascists in Bar, Ukraine at an occupation period during the World War II in 1940-1945. [42]

On August 1, 1945, the medical hospital of 70 patient places and with 72 medical workers was re-opened in Bar, Ukraine. The therapeutic, infectious, maternity, gynecologic, surgical, children's and x-ray diagnostic departments operated at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine on that time.[42]

Presently, the medical clinic and hospital provide a wide range of medical services to the patients in Bar.[42][43]

The ambulance department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was opened on February 1, 1955. The tuberculosis treatment department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was established on November 30, 1970. The blood transfusion department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was in operation since October 1, 1973. The medical clinics was opened in Bar, Ukraine on April 7, 1986. The psychoneurological department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was founded on April 4, 1989. The children's, therapeutic, neurologic, resuscitation departments at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine are situated in a new building, which was built in 1992.[42]

Around ten thosands patients undergo the medical treatments at the medical hospital, and around two hudreds ten thousands patients visit the medical clinic in Bar, Ukraine every year.[42]

The local doctors respect the well established medical treatment approaches and traditions within the medical school established by Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov.[44][45][46][47]

The complex medical treatments are done in collaboration with the doctors from the medical clinics, universities and institutions in Vinnytsia, Kyiv and other places.[48]

The medical qualifications by the doctors are constantly monitored and improved during the courses, seminars and consultations with the professors from the Vinnytsia National Medical University named after the Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov in Vinnytsia, Ukraine.[48][49]

Ethnic groups

According to the Statistics Department, there are the following ethnic groups in the city (see the diagram). [50]





Circle frame.svg

Ethnic groups in 2005[51]

  White (94%)
  Asian (1%)
  Black (1%)
  Mixed (2%)
  Arab (1%)
  Other (1%)

Transport

There is a railway station nearby. The distance from the center of Bar to the Bar railway station is 7 km (4.3 mi).[52][53]

There is an inter-city bus station in the center of Bar. The distance from the city of Bar to Vinnytsia is 68 km (42 mi).

Media

The main local newspaper is Barchany (name for the city residents),[54] which discusses local news mostly. The other newspaper is Podolsky Krai,[55][56] which provides information on local news and developments.

Cuisine

Bar's cuisine has formed and evolved in the historical process of the food selection and preparation through many centuries. Presently, Bar is a most important cultural and gastronomical center in Ukraine. Bar offers its own peculiar cuisine, including the Ukrainian red soup; the Ukrainian varennyky with the meet, potato, cheese; the Ukrainian Shashlyk with the pork and beef meet prepared at open fire. Bar's Jews have their own cuisine, based on the fish, chicken and vegetables products mainly.

Notable people

Twin towns — Sister cities

Bar is twinned with:

Gallery

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Hrushevsky, M., Etnographic data about Bar's population until XVIII century, Readings of Nestora-Letopistsa Historical Society, Kyiv, Ukraine, vol. VI, 1892.
  • Hrushevsky, M., Organization of management in Bar Starostvo, Readings of Nestora-Letopistsa Historical Society, Kyiv, Ukraine, vol. IX, 1895.
  • Hrushevsky, M., Bar Starostvo: Historical Notes: XV-XVIII, St. Vladimir University Publishing House, Bol'shaya-Vasil'kovskaya, Building no. 29-31, Kiev, Ukraine, 1894; Lviv, Ukraine, ISBN 5-12-004335-6, pp. 1 – 623, 1996.
  • Podolynnyi A., Town of Bar, Mayak Publishing House, Odessa, Ukraine, 1990, pp. 1 – 62.
  • Kozak O., Jaltuchowski M., Mesnyankin E., Bakalets' O., Nawrocki S., Petrina M., Neptunsky B., Sharovatova L., Lozinsky I. (editors), Bar: Key to Eastern Podillya, AMJ Marketing, Uslugi reklamowo-marketingowe, Marcin Jadach, 82-200 Malbork, ul. Jagiellonska 2/27, Poland, ISBN 978-83-927080-8-7, pp. 1 – 71, 2009.
  • Bondarczuk I., Nawrocki S., Jaltuchowski M., Telega J., Czornyj A., Bodnarczuck S., Mejdbrajer S. (editors), Bar, Wykonawca: Max, Joanna Moroczek, 86-200 Stronno, ul. Topolowa 9, Poland, pp. 1 – 91, 2001.
  • Storozhuk A., Podil's'ky Bar and its Suburbs: History and Present (Events. Features. Facts), Humanitarian - Pedagogical College, Bar, Ukraine, UDK 94 (477.44), pp. 1 – 282, 2010.
  • Jaltuchowski M. P., Lozinsky I., Lozinsky O., Siroklin O., Perun I., Bitko N., Welcome to Town of Bar at Podill'ya Region, "Papirus" Publishing House, 2005.
  • Jaltuchowski M. P., Magdeburg Right and Self - Administration in Bar and its Surrounding Districts in XVI - Beginning of XX Centuries, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 8 – 11, 2011.
  • Mesnyankin E. I., Role of Bona Sforza and Bernard Pretvich in Adaptation of Magdeburg Right in Town of Bar, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 15 – 19, 2011.
  • Batih M. I., Bar Monastery of Fathers Vasyliyan and Bar Vasyliyan School, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 93 – 97, 2011.
  • Kharitonova I. V., Historical Centers of Spiritual Life in Town of Bar, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 104 – 115, 2011.
  • Khilins'ka L. V., Regional Humanitarian College in History of Town of Bar, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 116 – 122, 2011.
  • Filipova S. M., History of Development of Bar District Library, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 138 – 142, 2011.
  • Savchuk P. N., History and Present of Bar Humanitarian - Pedagogical College named after M. Grushevsky, Grigorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 149 – 151, 2011.
  • Kryzhanivsky O. A., Matyushenko O. M., Rehabilitation Center for Young People with Disabilities in Town of Bar, Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 152 – 155, 2011.
  • Hryhorchuk P. S., Zin'ko Yu. A. (editors), Scientific Notes, Vinnytsia State Pedagogic University named after M. Kotsyubinsky, Series: History, Issue XIX, pp. 1 – 337, 2011.
  • Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan, Description of Ukraine, 1650; Kravets Ya. (translator), Kamenyar Publishing House, Lviv, Ukraine, ISBN 5-7745-0300-3, pp. 1 – 301, 1990.
  • Tsytsyurs'ka V. A., The restoration project of the fortress in the town Bar, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 24–42, September 2014.
  • Esiunin S., The Town of Bar in Mogilev District in the early twentieth century, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 75–81, September 2014.
  • Klimchuk A. A., Fathers Jesuits in Bar, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 81–85, September 2014.
  • Khikhlach B. M., The Basilians in Bar, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 86–93, September 2014.
  • Malinovsky Yu. L., Bar monastery in space and time, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 93–95, September 2014.
  • Kharitonova I. V., Basilian school as part of religion-spiritual life in Bar at XVI - XIX centuries, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 96–101, September 2014.
  • Gal'chak S. D., Role by representatives of Ukrainian intelligent people in birth of regional history studies in Vinnytsia region, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 127–132, September 2014.
  • Moroz V. S. and Moroz V. S., Roman coin on the Podillia and South-Eastern Volyn', ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 162–169, September 2014.
  • Kyrilyuk L. A., Bar's district library: Library in context of community life, II International Conference "Bar Land from Prism of Centuries", Bar, Ukraine, pp. 359–361, May 17, 2008.
  • Kyrilyuk L. A., Phenomenon of Bar's district library: Transformation of classical library into innovative organization, which intensifies social - economical development of territorial communities, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 176–180, September 2014.
  • Kryzhanivsky A., Western European tradition of the Sforza dynasty in the era of the Italian renaissance and its influence on the formation of social and cultural formations on land of Podolian the first half of the XVI century, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 190–196, September 2014.
  • Mesnyankin E. I., Bona Sforza and renaissance age in Podil'sky district, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 198–201, September 2014.
  • Koval' N. O., The figure of Queen Bona Sforza in the history of Bar land in Podill'ya, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 207–209, September 2014.
  • Zelenen'ka I. A., Bar's school of modern Ukrainian poetry, ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 291–300, September 2014.
  • Pen'kova N. O., Ethnical-psychological features of Bar's land images creation and their pedagogical potential (going from literature by Podolyans), ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 322–329, September 2014.
  • Dmytrienko M. F., Mosunov M. M., Bakalets' O. A. (editors), Proceedings of the ІІІ International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," Bar-Kyiv, Ukraine, September 2014, Rogal's'ka І. О. Publisher, Khmel'nyts'ke Shose 145, Vinnytsia, Ukraine, ISBN 978-617-7171-10-1, pp. 1–348, 2014.
  • Bar, City in Podol'skoy Gubernii, Encyclopedia Dictionary by Brokgauz and Efron, vol. 86 (82 vols. and 4 additional vols.), St. Petersbourg, Russia, 1890—1907.
  • Bar, vol. VII, Big Soviet Encyclopedia, Soviet Encyclopedia Publishing House, Moscow, Russia, 1969—1978.

External links

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