Brahma Vaivarta Purana
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Brahma Vaivarta Purana, (Sanskrit: व्रह्मबैवर्तपुराणम्, brahma-vaivarta purāṇa) one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text of the 10th century AD, is divided into four parts. First part describes the creation of the universe and all beings, the second part relates to description and histories of different goddesses. The third part is mostly devoted to life and deeds of Ganesha, and the last part details the life and deeds of Krishna. The Padma Purana categorizes Brahma Vaivarta Purana as a Rajas Purana (Purana which represents dimness and passion).
Structure and content
Brahma Vaivarta Purana was written in Banga, which was the ancient name for the region of present day Bengal. It was recited by Suta to the sages at the forest of Naimisharanya. The first part is called Brahma Khanda and describes Brahma and his sons, Narada in particular. The second part is called Prakriti Khanda deals with the goddesses or shaktis who are manifestations of Prakriti. The third part, Ganesha Khanda, is about Ganesha, the elephant-headed son of Shiva and Parvati. In this canto Ganesha's mother Parvati told Shani to ignore the curse and look at Ganesha. The fourth and last part is called Krishna Janma Khanda, a canto about the birth and life of Krishna, Svayam bhagavan.(BVP 4.90.32–33 is quoted in Chanakya's Niti sastra 11.4.)
Krishna and creation of the universe
Brahma Vaivarta Purana declares Krishna to be the supreme God,(para-Brahman) who lives in Goloka and who with Rasesvari (Radha) has created this universe. They are married by Brahma. All Vedas and related scriptures mention the para-Brahman to be the supreme God but this Purana specifies that this supreme God is Krishna. He created the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva whose responsibility is the creation, preservation and destruction of universe respectively. This Purana takes a view on the creation that is slightly different from other Puranas. The fully developed legend of Radha and Krishna appears in both the Narada-pancaratra and this Purana.
- Wilson, H. H. (1840). The Vishnu Purana: A system of Hindu mythology and tradition. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 12.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Vyasa; Sen, R.N. (1974) . The Brahma-Vaivarta Puranam. AMS Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Brahma Vaivarta Purāṇa 4.4.64, 4.5.94,100,105
- Kṛṣṇa called paripūrṇatama: 4.1.8, 4.9.13, 4.13.56,79, 4.20.16, 4.21.181,202, 4.22.45, 4.53.51, 4.69.22, 4.70.49
- param brahma, Bhagavad Gita 10.12(−14)
- Dimock, Jr, E.C. (1963). "Doctrine and Practice among the Vaisnavas of Bengal". History of Religions. 3 (1): 106. doi:10.1086/462474. JSTOR 1062079.
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- Brahma-vaivarta puranam. Translated into English by Rajendra Nath Sen, Publisher - DIVINE Books, Delhi
- Mani, Vettam. Puranic Encyclopedia. 1st English ed. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1975.
- C.M. Brown (June 1976). "God as Mother: A Feminine Theology in India. An Historical and Theological Study of the Brahmavaivarta Purana". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 44 (2): 366–367. JSTOR 1462354.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>