Bromo-DragonFLY

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Bromo-DragonFLY
Kekulé, skeletal formula of bromo-DragonFLY (R)
Names
IUPAC name
1-(4-Bromofuro[2,3-f] [1]benzofuran-8-yl)propan-2-amine[1]
Other names
Bromo-benzodifuranyl-isopropylamine[citation needed]
Identifiers
502759-67-3 N
ChEMBL ChEMBL149024 N
ChemSpider 8014776 N
8719838 R N
8672089 S N
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
Interactive image
PubChem 9839057
10544447 R
10496688 S
Properties
C
13
H
12
BrNO
2
Molar mass 294.144 g mol−1
log P 2.519
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Bromo-DragonFLY (or 3C-Bromo-Dragonfly, DOB-Dragonfly[2]) is a psychedelic drug related to the phenethylamine family. Bromo-DragonFLY is considered an extremely potent hallucinogen, around one third as potent as LSD with a normal dose in the region of 200 μg to 800 μg,[citation needed] and it has an extremely long duration of action, up to several days.[3] Bromo-DragonFLY has a stereocenter and R-(−)-bromo-DragonFLY is the more active stereoisomer.

History

Bromo-DragonFLY was first synthesized by Matthew Parker in the laboratory of David E. Nichols in 1998. As with the earlier and less potent dihydrofuran series of compounds nicknamed FLY, Bromo-DragonFLY was named after its superficial structural resemblance to a dragonfly.

Pharmacology

The hallucinogenic effect of bromo-DragonFLY is mediated by its agonist activity at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. Bromo-DragonFLY also has a high binding affinity for the 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, and is most accurately described as a non-subtype selective 5-HT2 agonist, as it is actually twice as potent an agonist for 5-HT2C receptors as for 5-HT2A, as well as being less than 5x selective for 5-HT2A over 5-HT2B.[4][5]

Dosage

The typical dose of Bromo-DragonFLY is not known, however it has varied from 500 μg to 1 mg.[3] It has about 300 times the potency of mescaline, or 1/5 the potency of LSD. It has been sold in the form of blotters, similar to the distribution method of LSD, which has led to confusion, and reports of mistakenly consuming Bromo-DragonFly. It has a much longer duration of action than LSD and can last for up to 2–3 days[3] following a single large dose, with a slow onset of action that can take up to 6 hours before the effects are felt.

Toxicity

File:Packet of 4BDF powder.jpg
4BDF powder. The pink color is most likely due to an impurity. The color of pure BDF is usually white to off-white, similar to most recreational drugs, so there is no way to distinguish between them by eye.[citation needed]

The toxicity of Bromo-DragonFLY appears to be fairly high for humans when taken in doses above the therapeutic range, with reports of at least five deaths believed to have resulted from Bromo-DragonFLY reported in Norway,[6] Sweden,[7][8] Denmark,[9][10] Finland[11] and the United States. Laboratory testing has confirmed that in October 2009, a batch of Bromo-Dragonfly was distributed, mislabeled as the related compound 2C-B-FLY, which is around 20x less potent than BDF by weight. This mistake is believed to have contributed to several lethal overdoses and additional hospitalizations. The batch implicated in these deaths also contained significant synthesis impurities, which may have contributed to the toxicity.[12]

Vasoconstrictive action resulting from severe overdose of Bromo-DragonFLY is known to have caused tissue necrosis of the extremities in at least one case. In September 2007, a 35-year-old Swedish male required amputation of the front part of his feet and several fingers on one hand after taking a massive (but unknown) overdose; reportedly, the compound acted as a long-acting efficacious vasoconstrictor, leading to necrosis and gangrene which became apparent several weeks after the overdose occurred. Treatment was of limited efficacy in this case, although tolazoline is reportedly an effective treatment where available.[13][14]

Overdose-associated disturbing experiences and health problems have been described. One case in 2008 in England involved inhalation of vomit, causing nearly fatal asphyxia.[15] Seizures have also been reported.[16]

On October 3, 2009, a 22-year-old male from Copenhagen died after ingesting Bromo-dragonfly. His friend described the trip saying, "It was like being dragged to hell and back again. Many times. It is the most evil [thing] I've ever tried. It lasted an eternity." [17]

On May 7, 2011, in the United States, two young adults died after overdosing on Bromo-DragonFLY, which they thought was 2C-E, and several others were hospitalized during the same incident. Because they took a dosage appropriate for 2C-E, those who took the drug received, in some cases, 100x the normal dose. Both deaths followed seizures, vomiting blood, and terrifying hallucinations. Several surviving victims are reportedly still suffering from its physical effects.[18]

Drug prohibition laws

United States

Bromo-DragonFLY is listed as a Schedule I in Oklahoma.[citation needed]

Canada

Could be considered Schedule 1 [19] as it is an analogue of amphetamine.[20] The CDSA was updated as a result of the Safe Streets Act changing amphetamines from Schedule 3 to Schedule 1.[21] However Health Canada has concluded numerous times that this chemical is "NOT SCHEDULED" [22]

United Kingdom

Bromo-DragonFLY is widely reported by the media as being a class A drug.[23] However, as of 2014, it remains unclear to what extent it is covered by the UK phenylethylamine catch-all clause, with commentators noting both the structural similarities[24] and differences[25] to the phenylethylamine class. If the prosecution could demonstrate structural similarity in court, it would be considered a Class A substance.[26] It is not explicitly named in the misuse of drugs act.[27]

Sweden

Sveriges riksdag added Bromo-Dragonfly to schedule IV ("substances, plant materials and fungi with medical use") as narcotics in Sweden as of Jan 3, 2008, published by Medical Products Agency in their regulation LVFS 2007:14 listed as Bromo-Dragonfly, brombensodifuranyl-isopropylamin.[28] Bromo-DragonFLY was first classified as "health hazard" by Sveriges riksdags health ministry Statens folkhälsoinstitut under the act Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor (translated Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health) as of Jul 15, 2007, in their regulation SFS 2007:600 listed as brombensodifuranylisopropylamin (Bromo-Dragonfly), making it illegal to sell or possess.[29]

Denmark

On December 3, 2007 the drug was banned in Denmark.[30] The substance has been declared illegal by health minister Jakob Axel Nielsen, following recommendations from the Danish Health Ministry. It is currently classified as a dangerous narcotic and therefore its possession, manufacture, importation, supply or usage is strictly prohibited. Anyone involved in such activities can face legal action.[31]

Norway

Bromo-DragonFLY is currently on the Norwegian narcotics list,.[32][33] Thus it is effectively a narcotic drug by Norwegian law.

Poland

Currently, Bromo-DragonFLY is an uncontrolled substance in Poland.[citation needed]

Romania

The chemical compound has been added as an illegal substance under the Law 143/2000 on February 10, 2010.[34]

Australia

As of 9 September 2011, Bromo-DragonFLY was added to Schedule 2 of the Queensland Drugs Misuse Regulation 1987.[35]

Nationally, the drug is listed under Schedule 9 (Prohibited) of the Poisons Standard. Accordingly, the drug is prohibited in all states and territories.[36]

Finland

As of 12 March 2012, Bromo-DragonFLY is an illegal designer drug.[37]

See also

Notes

  1. "Bromo-DragonFLY". Forendex. USA: Southern Association of Forensic Scientists. Retrieved 16 March 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/bromo_dragonfly/bromo_dragonfly.shtml
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Erowid Bromo-DragonFly Vault : Dosage".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  5. Corazza O, Schifano F, Farre M, Deluca P, Davey Z, Torrens M, Demetrovics Z, Di Furia L, Flesland L, Siemann H, Skutle A, Van Der Kreeft P, Scherbaum N. Designer drugs on the internet: a phenomenon out-of-control? the emergence of hallucinogenic drug Bromo-Dragonfly. Current Clinical Pharmacology. 2011 May;6(2):125-9. PMID 21592070
  6. Kajsa Hallberg (2007-04-03). "Man i 20-årsåldern dog av drogen Dragonfly". expressen.se (in Swedish). AB Kvällstidningen Expressen. Retrieved 2009-10-30. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Ritzau (2008-08-24). "Nyt stof har slået dansker ihjel". jp.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 2009-10-30. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  9. Siukonen, Timo (2012-12-14). "Kassisurman päätekijälle 11,5 vuoden vankeustuomio taposta". Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish). Retrieved 2012-12-14. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Erowid 2C-B-Fly Vault: Death Report".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Bromo-dragonfly – livsfarlig missbruksdrog (Swedish)
  12. Thorlacius K, Borna C, Personne M. Bromo-dragon fly--life-threatening drug. Can cause tissue necrosis as demonstrated by the first described case. (Swedish). Lakartidningen. 2008 Apr 16-22;105(16):1199-200. PMID 18522262
  13. George, Sallie (2008-03-27). "England | Surrey | 'I nearly died from taking £5 hit'". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-02-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  15. "| Danish man died after trip on Chinese drug". Jp.dk. Retrieved 2010-02-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. [1]
  17. "CDSA Schedule I: Amphetamines".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>(English)
  18. http://isomerdesign.com/Cdsa/definitions.php?structure=C. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>(English)
  19. http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/news-nouv/nr-cp/2012/doc_32759.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>(English)
  20. (PDF) http://isomerdesign.com/Cdsa/HC/Status/A-2012-00096.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. George, Sallie (2008-03-27). "'I nearly died from taking £5 hit'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 2013-11-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Psychonaut Webmapping Research Group. "Bromo-Dragonfly Report" (PDF). http://www.psychonautproject.eu/. Institute of Psychiatry, London. Retrieved 12 June 2014. External link in |website= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. http://www.erowid.org/ask/ask.php?ID=3103
  24. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. "Consideration of the Novel Psychoactive Substances ('Legal Highs')" (PDF). UK Home Office. Retrieved 12 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. UK Home Office. "UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 > 1971 c. 38 > SCHEDULE 2". Retrieved 2013-11-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. http://www.lakemedelsverket.se/upload/lvfs/LVFS_2007-14.pdf
  27. http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/sfs/20070600.pdf
  28. "Amendment of Executive Order on Euphoriant Substances". Danish Medicines Agency. 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "List of narcotic drugs according to Norwegian law".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Statens Legemiddelverk about derivates and Bromo-DragonFLY".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "Modified Romanian law 143/2000 on January 10, 2010". Retrieved February 28, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Queensland Drugs Misuse Regulation 1987" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Poisons Standard October 2015 https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01534
  34. Design drugs (Finnish)

References