Clark University

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Clark University
Motto Challenge Convention, Change our World
Established March 31, 1887 (1887-03-31)
Type Private
Endowment $392 million (2014)[1]
President David Angel
Academic staff
197 (2014)[2]
Students 3,423 (2014)[3]
Undergraduates 2,301 (2014)[3]
Postgraduates 1,122 (2014)[3]
Location Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.
Campus Urban
50 acres (20 ha)
Colors Scarlet and White[4]
Athletics NCAA Division IIINEWMAC
Nickname Clarkies, Cougars
Clark University logo.png

Clark University is an American private university and liberal arts college in Worcester, Massachusetts. Founded in 1887, it is the oldest educational institution founded as an all-graduate university in the United States. Clark now also educates undergraduates. The U.S. News & World Report ranked Clark 75th nationally in both 2015 and 2014, 83rd in 2013, and 95th in 2012. In 2013, Forbes ranked Clark University #51 in research. The acceptance rate of the undergraduate class in 2014 was 54%. It is best known for being the birthplace of rocket propulsion.

Clark is one of 40 schools profiled in the book Colleges That Change Lives by Loren Pope. Those who attend Clark University are colloquially called "Clarkies".


Founding and early history

On January 17, 1887, successful American businessman Jonas Gilman Clark announced his intention to found and endow a university in the city of Worcester, filing a petition in the Massachusetts Legislature requesting a charter for Clark University.[5] An Act of Incorporation was duly enacted by the legislature and signed by the governor on March 31 of that same year. Clark, who was a friend of Leland Stanford, was probably inspired by the plans for Stanford University and founded the University with an endowment of one million dollars, and later added another million dollars because he feared the university might someday face a lack of funds.[6] Opening on October 2, 1889, Clark was the first all-graduate university in the United States, with departments in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and psychology.[7]

G. Stanley Hall was appointed the first president of Clark University in 1888. He had been a professor of psychology and pedagogy at Johns Hopkins University, which had been founded just a few years prior and was quickly becoming a model of the modern research university. Hall spent seven months in Europe visiting other universities and recruiting faculty. He became the founder of the American Psychological Association and earned the first Ph.D. in psychology in the United States at Harvard. Clark has played a prominent role in the development of psychology as a distinguished discipline in the United States ever since. Franz Boas, founder of American cultural anthropology and adviser for the first Ph.D. in anthropology, taught at Clark from 1888 until 1892 when he resigned in a dispute with President Hall over academic freedom and joined the faculty of Columbia University. Albert A. Michelson, the first American to receive a Nobel Prize in Physics, best known for his involvement in the Michelson–Morley experiment, which measured the speed of light, was a professor from 1889 to 1892 before becoming head of the physics department at the University of Chicago.

Jonas G. Clark died in 1900, leaving gifts to the University and campus library, but reserving half of his estate for the foundation of an undergraduate college. This had been strongly opposed by President Hall in years past but Clark College opened in 1902, managed independently of Clark University. Clark College and Clark University had different presidents until Hall's retirement in 1920. Clark University began admitting women after Clark's death, and the first female Ph.D. in psychology was awarded in 1908. Early Ph.D. students in psychology were ethnically diverse, with several early graduates being Japanese. In 1920, Francis Sumner became the first African American to earn a Ph.D. in psychology.[8]

Clark University, along with Stanford and Johns Hopkins, was one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities, an organization of universities with the most prestigious profiles in research and graduate education, and was one of only three New England universities, along with Harvard and Yale, to be a founding member.[9] Clark withdrew its membership in 1999, citing a conflict with its mission; it is one of only four schools to do so.[10]

Clark Lectures

Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi.

In order to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Clark's opening, President Hall invited a number of leading thinkers to the University. Among them was Sigmund Freud who, accompanied by Carl Jung, delivered his five famous "Clark Lectures" there over the course of five days in September 1909, introducing psychoanalysis to an American audience.[11] This was Freud's only set of lectures in the United States.

Clark celebrated the centennial of the visit in October 2009[12] and there is a seated sculpture of Freud by Robert Shure just outside the University Center; students pose with it and dress it up for various holidays and university occasions such as graduation.[13]

Later history

In the 1920s Robert Goddard, a pioneer of rocketry, considered one of the founders of space and missile technology, served as a professor and chairman of the Physics Department. On November 23, 1929, noted aviator Charles Lindbergh visited campus and met with Goddard in the Physics Building.[14] The Robert H. Goddard Library, a distinctive modern building in the brutalist style by architect John M. Johansen, was completed in 1969.[15]

In 1963, student D'Army Bailey invited Malcolm X to campus to speak. He delivered a speech in Atwood Hall.

On March 15, 1968, The Jimi Hendrix Experience performed at Clark University as part of the band's American tour in support of Axis: Bold As Love. The Experience played in the Atwood Hall, which could accommodate more than six hundred students. Tickets for the concerts, which sold out, were modestly priced, with seats priced at $3.00, $3.50, and $4.00. The show was professionally recorded and Live at Clark University, a posthumous live album was released in 1999 by Dagger Records.

In 1997, Clark announced the first PhD program in Holocaust Studies in the United States. This after the University convinced Debórah Dwork to leave Yale University and become Clark's first professor of Holocaust studies in the prior year.[16]

Recent developments

The Mosakowsi Institute for Public Enterprise was established in fall 2007 thanks to a generous founding gift from two Clark alumni, William '76 and Jane '75 Mosakowski.[17]

U.S. Secretary of State and former senator and democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton spoke at Clark University on February 4, 2008, to an audience of approximately 3,500 in the Kneller Athletic Center.[13]

In March 2009, Clark University convened a first-of-its-kind National Conference on Liberal Education and Effective Practice, co-sponsored by Clark’s Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprise and the Association of American Colleges and Universities.[18]

In April 2009, then-President John Bassett denied Clark University Students for Palestinian Rights, a student group, to bring Norman Finkelstein to speak about the "Gaza Massacre" (2008-2009 Gaza War) because Finkelstein "would invite controversy and not dialogue or understanding". He also cited a conflict in scheduling regarding a conference on Holocaust and Genocide Studies presented by the university in the same month.[19] However, following protests, which included a public protest in the center of campus, a petition campaign and outreach by alumni, students and faculty, Basset reversed his decision and allowed Finkelstein to speak April 27, the last day of classes for the semester. Finkelstein spoke to around 400 students, faculty and community members in Atwood Hall.[20]

In April 2010, Clark University received the largest gift in its 123-year history, a $14.2 million offering from the late head of Hanover Insurance, one of the nation's biggest property and casualty insurers. The gift from John Adam is intended to strengthen Clark's graduate programs in education, promote college-readiness among minority students and bolster its research profile related to urban education. This donation created the Adams Education Fund, which will enhance Clark's nationally recognized model for urban secondary education and reform, teacher-training, and community education partnerships.[21]

On July 1, 2010, former provost David Angel became the ninth president of Clark succeeding John Bassett, who went on to be president of Heritage University located on the Yakama Indian Reservation in Toppenish, Washington.

Clark University has an ongoing renovation project that will cover several buildings. In the summer of 2010, overhauls occurred in Bullock and Wright Hall dormitories.[22]

Noam Chomsky spoke at Clark University on the topic of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Arab Spring April 12, 2011, in Atwood Hall.[23] The visit was unprecedented not only for Chomsky's notoriety, but also because this was the first ever lecture given on a Spree Day at Clark.

In summer 2012, Clark University underwent more renovations. The city of Worcester allowed the university to close Downing Street to unite the campus.[24] The area was landscaped to become a pedestrian plaza. Johnson and Sanford halls were united to become the Johnson Sanford Center featuring new social, study, and multimedia spaces. The project included addition of an outdoor roof terrace and an elevator to all levels.[25] The University has recently begun a project called LEEP to connect students and the world of academia to practical experience.[26]

On October 16, 2014, President Bill Clinton spoke in Atwood Hall as a supporter of Martha Coakley's run for Governor of Massachusetts. While he was originally to be one of the first speakers, heavy rain that day delayed his flight, as a result he was in fact the last person to speak at the event. Tickets for the event could be booked for free on Clark's website, and they were completely booked within hours.


Main façade of Jonas Clark Hall, the main academic facility for undergraduate students.

The campus is located on Main Street in the Main South neighborhood about 2 miles (3.2 km) west of downtown Worcester and 40 miles (64 km) west of Boston. The campus is compact, with most of the major buildings located within the space of a single city block.[27]

The Traina Center for the Arts is located in the former Downing Street School.

Jonas Clark Hall, built in 1887, occupies the center of campus and houses the economics, psychology and education departments. Located in the basement of Jonas Clark Hall is the university's cogeneration plant which allows the university to recycle waste heat from electrical generation into hot water, heat, and steam. It was updated in 2013 to a more efficient 2.0 kWh natural gas engine.[28]

The Lasry Center for Bioscience (named for investorMarc Lasry and his wife Cathy, both alumni) houses the biology department. It received a LEED Gold certification for its energy efficiency.

The Jefferson Academic Center houses various social science departments including Women's Studies, Geography, History, Geographical Information Sciences, Political Science and Sociology.

Atwood Hall, attached to the Jefferson Academic Center, is the primary theater on campus and seats 658.[29] Atwood Hall originally served as the chapel for the university.

The Little Center is the alternate performing arts venue, with its largest room, the Michelson Theater seating 120.[30]

The Academic Commons, also known as the AC, acts as a study area and lounge for the students, and incorporates a Sodexo coffeehouse named Jazzmans, a quiet study area, a computer room, and the Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprises. The Goddard Library is upstairs from the Academic Commons and houses more than 375,000 volumes.[31]

The Kneller Athletic Center houses the basketball courts, swimming pool, raquet ball courts, handball courts, and the Bickman Fitness Center which was completely renovated in 2013 . Major campus events, such as International Gala, the fall concert, and first year orientation are usually held in the Kneller as the basketball courts are the largest rooms on campus and can accommodate the entire student body.

Estabrook Hall, located on Woodland Street, is the second oldest building on Clark's campus. It was constructed as dormitories, it now functions as the language center and the music center. The top three floors are dedicated to languages including Spanish, French, German, Latin, and Hebrew, while the bottom floor and basement are practice rooms and music halls.

The center of campus is known as The Green. The Green is a hub for student activity, and is where most Clarkies spend their time during the warm months. It is the location of Spree Day, the welcome back BBQ, several clubs' events and graduation. The buildings surrounding The Green include Atwood Hall, Jefferson Academic Center, Higgins University Center, Jonas Clark Hall, and the Goddard Library.

Administrative offices are housed in small buildings along Woodland Street, as is the president's house.

Students entering Clark must live on campus for the first two years unless their primary address is within 25 miles (40 km) of campus. The residence halls at Clark are organized by those who live there. The halls include the following breakdowns:

  • First Year Experience halls (Johnson-Sanford Center, Bullock and Wright)
  • Mixed Class halls (Dana and Hughes)
  • Single Sex hall (Dodd—female only)
  • Suite-style and Apartment-style halls (Maywood and Blackstone)

Clark owns apartments that, while outside of the main campus area, exclusively house Clark students.

The first Clark "residence halls" (Wright and Bullock) opened in 1959. Before that time, Estabrook Hall was the men's dormitory and small women's dorms stood in the current location of Little Center and Bullock Hall. Blackstone, the newest of the halls, opened in 2007.[32][33]

As of fall 2007, gender blind/neutral housing is an option at Clark, meaning that students of different genders can room together.[34]

Clark University released its Climate Action Plan December 15, 2009, detailing strategies for the University to reduce its carbon footprint while strengthening many of its existing sustainability practices. The plan sets two goals with respect to climate neutrality: First is an interim goal of reducing emissions to 20 percent below 2005-levels by 2015. The second goal is to achieve climate neutrality (net zero greenhouse gas emissions) by the year 2030.[35]


University rankings
U.S. News & World Report[37] 76
Washington Monthly[38] 71[36]

Clark offers 32 undergraduate majors. It offers 57 study abroad and away programs in 34 different countries. Clark has 197 full-time faculty, representing a 10:1 student-faculty ratio. Ninety-six percent of Clark's faculty have doctoral or terminal degrees.[2]

In recent years, Clark has been noted especially for its geography and psychology departments, with the latter having a distinctive humanistic orientation. The School of Geography was founded by then President Wallace Walter Atwood in 1921, and is the first institution in the United States established for graduate study in this science. It has granted more doctoral degrees than any other geography program in the country. The geography department is best known for its strength in human-environment geography and for the development of the IDRISI geographic information systems software, named for the famous 12th century explorer and cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi by Prof. Ron Eastman. It was ranked #1 for undergraduate geography by Rugg's Recommendations on Colleges and has consistently been ranked in the top 10 in the nation by other publications. The geography department also offers a graduate-level degree in GIS as part of the Fifth-Year Free program. The department's mission is ambitious: "to educate undergraduate and graduate students to be imaginative and contributing citizens of the world, and to advance the frontiers of knowledge and understanding through rigorous scholarship and creative effort."

In recent years, Clark has received widespread media coverage for its "Fifth-Year Free" program. Under Clark's BA/MA program with the fifth year free, undergraduates who maintain a B+ average are eligible for tuition-free enrollment in its one-year graduate programs, meaning that they can get a Master of Arts degree for the price of a bachelor's degree. Students apply to master's degree programs in their junior year, begin meeting requirements in their senior year and typically complete those requirements in the fifth year. Bachelor's degrees are granted en route to the master's degree.[39]

Student life

Student body

As of fall 2014, Clark's student body comprised 2,301 undergraduates and 1,122 graduate and professional students, 3,095 of which were full-time students.[3] The undergraduate student body is composed primarily of students from outside Massachusetts, with 67% of undergraduates from out-of-state. This includes international students, who make up 14% of undergraduates. In addition, 19% of the undergraduate student body is classified as ALANA (Asian-, Latino-, African-, and Native-American) and 59% of undergraduates are female.[2]

Residential life

The majority of the undergraduate student body, 70%, lives on campus. Clark requires undergraduates to do so for their first two years, with first-years being assigned housing based on their responses to a Housing Preferences Form.[40] Once first-years have been assigned housing, a seniority system, whereby seniors have the first choice of spaces left, juniors have the second, and sophomores the third, ensures that seniors and juniors are usually able to live on campus if they wish to. Nonetheless, some choose to live in off-campus apartments in the immediate neighborhood of Clark, along with the graduate students outside the 7% that live on campus.[2]

Student organizations

There are more than 130 student clubs and organizations at Clark.[40] All these are headed by the Clark Undergraduate Student Council which disseminates more than $750,000 in budgets to the various clubs and their events.

Media and publications

The Scarlet is Clark University's student newspaper. It is published weekly and has four sections: News, Opinions, Living Arts, and Sports.[41] Clark's literary magazine, Caesura, is published annually and features artwork, poetry, prose, essays, and creative non-fiction submitted by undergraduate and graduate students.[42] STIR Magazine, Clark's life, culture, and style magazine was founded by Diana Levine as a student project in 2004. STIR began with a three-person staff and in black and white, and now has about 30 core students who contribute to its production in full color.[43] The Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal (SURJ) is Clark's student-run undergraduate research journal. It publishes undergraduate academic work and is intended to provide undergraduates with "experiences in the peer review and academic publication processes."[44] Peer reviewers consist of undergraduate and graduate students, as well as faculty.

There is also a student-run internet radio station, Radio of Clark University (ROCU), with over 100 student DJs.[45]


Spree Day is one of the most beloved Clark events, and the worst kept secret on campus. Spree Day originated in 1903 to coincide with St. Patrick's Day.[46] The university previously used Spree Day as a day without classes with university sponsored drinking and carnivals. Now, Spree Day occurs on a "secret" day. The university cancels classes, ropes-off The Green and, hires inflatables, bands, and holds a fair food that allows the student body to relax in the warming New England weather. It is traditional to not tell first-year students about Spree Day, instead, the Senior class awakens the first-years by running through their dorms banging pots and pans.

Many Clarkies, uninterested in the events the University puts on, usually throw large parties and use the day to take a break from classes. This led the University's Office of Leadership and Programming to lead an effort to scrap Spree Day in early 2013 for the more tame and wildly unpopular FreudFest. FreudFest would have consolidated International Gala, Spree Day, and the Spring comedy act into one Thursday-Sunday span in April, with no days of canceled classes.[47] Within hours of the announcement that Spree Day would be no more, students mounted a massive campaign to "Free Spree" and save Spree Day activities. With a massive social media and email campaign, sit-ins at the Student Leadership and Programming office, and a funding veto by Student Council President Andrew Schuschu, the decision was reversed within a week, and festivities occurred as usual in April. This did lead to a Spree Day committee being formed to reform the event to a safer day for the university.

While Spree Day is a day of fun and relaxation, Clark University also holds the Academic Spree Day in the Spring semester. This event has an academic nature and is the day when Clark undergraduates present their research and creative work annually [48]


Clark's sports teams, called Cougars after the University's mascot, participate in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division III and the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference (NEWMAC). Clark University fields 17 varsity teams; men's sports include baseball, basketball, cross country, lacrosse, rowing, soccer, swimming & diving and tennis; while women's sports include basketball, cross country, field hockey, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming & diving, tennis and volleyball.

Clark and the community

In 1985, the university engaged in a partnership with community groups and business organizations to revitalize Clark neighborhoods. Its efforts in the University Park Partnership program include refurbishing dilapidated or abandoned homes, reselling them to area residents, and subsidizing mortgages for new home buyers.

In 1997, Clark opened a secondary public school, the University Park Campus School (UPCS), that is also a professional development school for Clark’s teacher education program. Because of its long hours and demanding curricula, UPCS has been lauded as a model for collaboration between a university and an urban district. Students are able to attend Clark University free of charge upon graduation, provided they meet certain residency and admissions requirements. In the May 16, 2005, issue of Newsweek, UPCS was named the 68th best high school in the nation. UPCS was featured in a page-one story entitled Town-grown triumph: In poorest part of Worcester, Clark helps put children on path to college of the November 22, 2007, edition of The Boston Globe.[49]

The UPCS collaborative is one of several sponsored by Clark's Jacob Hiatt Center for Urban Education focused on urban teacher education and school reform.


Clark has eight research institutes and centers.

The William and Jane Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprise seeks to improve through the successful mobilization of use-inspired research the effectiveness of government and other institutions in addressing social concerns. The institute focuses on important social issues, including focal areas such as education reform, environmental sustainability, access to healthcare, human development, well-being and global change.[17]

The George Perkins Marsh Institute conducts collaborative, interdisciplinary research on human-environment relationships and the human dimensions of global environmental change.[50]

The Strassler Family Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies an interdiscplinary center which focuses on the causes and effects of Holocausts and Genocides around the world. It is housed in Lasry House, donated by investor Marc Lasry and his wife Cathy in honor of their fathers Irwin Cohen and Moise Lasry.[51]

The Jacob Hiatt Center for Urban Education develops models of urban schooling, teaching and teacher education through local partnership, in order to learn from these models and expand the knowledge-base of effective practice through research.[52]

The Center for Risk and Security (CRS) at the George Perkins Marsh Institute conducts in-depth studies of homeland security issues using a risk-analysis perspective. The Center's broad range of security issues includes: terrorism; disaster management; law and human rights; resource availability; and public health.[53]

The Center for Technology, Environment and Development (CENTED), founded in 1987, is a center for the study of natural and technological hazards in the United States. Projects include theoretical work on hazard analysis, hazard taxonomies, vulnerability, environmental equity, corporate risk management, emergency planning and hazardous waste transportation.[54]

The Center for Community-Based Development (CCBD) is the research arm of the IDCE Program. CCBD works with host country colleagues and institutions to help local communities increase productivity and conserve natural resources. CCBD disseminates its approach and research through publications and training courses, both at Clark and overseas.[50]

Clark Labs is engaged in the research and development on geospatial technologies including the development of computer software and analytical techniques for GIS and remote sensing with an emphasis on monitoring and modeling earth system dynamics. Clark Labs continues to develop and distribute IDRISI, a geographic information system (GIS) software package that is in use at more than 40,000 sites in over 180 countries worldwide. Its chief is Dr. J. Ronald Eastman, creator of IDRISI.


Clark's first president, G. Stanley Hall, founded the American Psychological Association in July 1892 at Clark, but the university's most famous alumnus was graduate student and professor Robert H. Goddard, a pioneering rocket scientist who conducted many experiments on campus. Clark is also notable for being the site of Sigmund Freud's only lectures in the United States.


  1. "Financial Statements and Report of Independent Certified Public Accountants" (PDF). Clark University. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Fast Facts". Clark University. Retrieved 23 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Clark University Student Enrollments: Fall 2014" (PDF). Clark University Office of Institutional Research. 24 April 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "A Rival for Old Harvard" (PDF). New York Times. 17 January 1887. Retrieved 24 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Koelsch, William A. (Winter 2013). "Grass-Roots Garrisonians in Central Massachusetts: The Case of Hubbardston's Jonas and Susan Clark" (PDF). Institute for Massachusetts Studies and Westfield State University. Retrieved 24 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Koelsch, William A. (1987). Clark University, 1887–1987: A Narrative History. Worcester: Clark University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-914206-25-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Charles, Eric P. "History of the psychology department at Clark University". Pennsylvania State University, Altoona. Retrieved 25 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Speicher, Ann Leigh. "The Association of American Universities: A Century of Service to Higher Education 1900-2000". Association of American Universities. Retrieved 24 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Fain, Paul (April 21, 2010). "As AAU Admits Georgia Tech to Its Exclusive Club, Other Universities Await the Call". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Jacoby, Russell (21 September 2009). "When Freud Came to America". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 24 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Sheehan, Nancy (October 1, 2009). "Echoes of a legacy". Telegram & Gazette. Wooster. pp. A1, A12. Unknown parameter |subscription= ignored (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Historical Timeline". Clark University. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Lehman, Milton (4 October 1963). "How Lindbergh Gave a Lift to Rocketry". Life. 55 (14): 115–127. ISSN 0024-3019. Retrieved 24 May 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "College Building Of The Month". College and University Business. McGraw-Hill Inc. November 1969.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Brilliant objects of desire". Time Higher Education. 1 June 1998. Retrieved 24 May 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. 17.0 17.1 "About the Institute". Clark University. Retrieved 2013-11-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Freeland, Richard M. (Fall 2009). "The Clark/AAC&U Conference on Liberal Education and Effective Practice". Liberal Education. 95 (4). Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Byrne, Matt (April 10, 2009). "Clark drops Holocaust scholar: Schedule conflict, controversy cited". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Hammel, Lee (April 28, 2009). "Clark speaker: Israel provoked war: Controversial call for Palestinian peace pact". Telegram & Gazette. Retrieved 2014-09-18. Unknown parameter |subscription= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Adams Education Fund". Clark University. Retrieved 2013-11-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "The Bullock and Wright Hall Renovation Projects". Clark University. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Gains, Lee V. (April 9, 2011). "Activist Noam Chomsky slated to speak at Clark". Telegram & Gazette. Retrieved 2011-12-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Vilakati, Bonginkhosi (March 17, 2011). "Clark wins bid to close Downing Street". Worcester Wired.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Introducing the Johnson Sanford Center" (Press release). Clark University. March 21, 2012. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "LEEP Center". Clark University. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "Campus Map". Clark University. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Energy Use and Campus Sustainability". Clark University. Retrieved 2013-11-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "Auditoriums at Clark". Clark University. Retrieved 2013-11-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Visual and Performing Arts". Clark University. Retrieved 2013-11-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "Academic Commons at Goddard Library". Clark University. Retrieved 2010-10-08.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Clark University Bulletin General Catalogues 1959-60. Clark University. 1959. p. 33.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Reis, Jacqueline (August 27, 2007). "College students back; 30,000 will transform city and campuses". Telegram & Gazette. p. A1. Unknown parameter |subscription= ignored (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Sacks, Pamela H. (December 12, 2006). "Dorms to go 'gender-blind'; Clark men, women can room together". Telegram & Gazette. p. A1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. Nicodemus, Aaron (December 16, 2009). "Clark plans a green future". Telegram & Gazette. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "2014 National Universities Rankings". Washington Monthly. n.d. Retrieved May 25, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. "Best Colleges". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved September 10, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "2015 National Universities Rankings". Washington Monthly. n.d. Retrieved September 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Griffin-Kumpey, Tammy, ed. (June 1, 2007). Clark University Academic Catalog 2007–2008. Worcester: Clark University Communications Office. p. 5. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. 40.0 40.1 "Campus Life Questions and Answers", Clark University Office of Admissions. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  41. "About", The Scarlet. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  42. "Profile", LINK Involvement Network. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  43. "Profile: Diana Levine, Clark Student,'07: STIR MAGAZINE", Clark University. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  44. "About SURJ", Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  45. "About", Radio of Clark University. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  46. "About Clark". Clark University. Retrieved 2013-11-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. Goldstein, Ethan (January 24, 2012). "Spree Day Doomed?". The Scarlet. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. "Academic Spree Day and Fall Fest". Clark University. Retrieved 2013-11-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. Schworm, Peter (November 22, 2007). "Town-gown triumph: In poorest part of Worcester, Clark helps put children on path to college". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. 50.0 50.1 "Welcome to the Marsh Institute". Clark University. Retrieved 2014-09-18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. Griffin-Kumpey 2007, p. 21.
  52. Griffin-Kumpey 2007, p. 53.
  53. Griffin-Kumpey 2007, p. 22.
  54. Koelsch 1987, p. 231.

Further reading

  • Ryan, W. Carson. Studies in Early Graduate Education: The Johns Hopkins, Clark University, The University of Chicago. New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1939. OCLC 41645290.
  • Koelsch, William A. Clark University, 1887–1987: A Narrative History. Worcester: Clark University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-914206-25-7. OCLC 17064546.

External links

Script error: The function "top" does not exist.

Script error: The function "bottom" does not exist.

Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.