College of Wooster
|Motto||Scientia et religio ex uno fonte
(Knowledge and religion from one source)
|Endowment||US $274 million|
|President||S. Georgia Nugent (interim)|
|Location||Wooster, Ohio, United States|
|Campus||Suburban, 240 acres|
|Athletics||NCAA Division III — NCAC|
|Colors||Old Gold and Black
College of Wooster
|Location||OH 3, Wooster, Ohio|
|Architectural style||Late Gothic Revival, Other, Collegiate Gothic|
|NRHP Reference #||80003246|
|Added to NRHP||February 25, 1980|
The College of Wooster is a private liberal arts college primarily known for its emphasis on mentored undergraduate research. It enrolls approximately 2,000 students, and is located in Wooster, Ohio, United States, approximately 95 miles (153 km) northeast of Columbus. Founded in 1866 by the Presbyterian Church as the University of Wooster, it was from its creation a co-educational institution. The school is a member of The Five Colleges of Ohio and the Great Lakes Colleges Association. As of June 30, 2014, Wooster's endowment stood at approximately $274 million.
Wooster is one of forty colleges named in Loren Pope's influential book Colleges That Change Lives, in which he called it his "original best-kept secret in higher education." It is consistently ranked among the nation's top liberal arts colleges, according to U.S. News and World Report. In US News' "Best Colleges 2014", for the 12th year in a row, Wooster is recognized for its “outstanding” undergraduate research opportunities and its senior capstone program, known as I.S. Only two schools have been named to both lists in each of the past 12 years: Wooster and Princeton University.
- 1 History
- 2 Academics
- 3 Student life
- 4 Notable people
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Founded as The University of Wooster in 1866 by Presbyterians, the institution opened its doors in 1870 with a faculty of five and a student body of thirty men and four women. Wealthy Wooster citizen Ephraim Quinby donated the first 22 acres (8.9 ha), a large oak grove situated on a hilltop overlooking the town. After being founded with the intent to make Wooster open to everyone, the university's first Ph.D. was granted to a woman, Annie B. Irish, in 1882. The first black student, Clarence Allen, began his studies later in the same decade.
In the pre-dawn hours of December 11, 1901, a fire destroyed the five-story Old Main building, the centerpiece of the campus. Within two years, it was replaced by several new buildings which (after substantial renovations within the last 30 years) remain the primary structures for the classes, labs, and faculty offices. These include Kauke Hall (the center of campus), Scovel, Severance (which together form a large courtyard in front of Kauke Hall), and Taylor Hall.
About ten years after the fire and rebuilding, there were eight divisions, including a medical school whose faculty outnumbered those in the college of arts and sciences. However, the university had gradually begun to define itself as a liberal arts institution and, in 1915, after a bitter dispute between the faculty and the Trustees, chose to become The College of Wooster in order to devote itself entirely to the education of undergraduate students in the liberal arts. The enrollment of the college is kept intentionally small, around 2000 students, to allow for close interaction between faculty and students.
In the 1920s, William Jennings Bryan, a prominent Presbyterian layman, attacked the college for its teaching of evolution, which had been championed by president Charles F. Wishart, and called for the General Assembly of the church to cut off funding to the college. But Wishart defeated Bryan for the position of Moderator of the General Assembly, and the college continued to teach evolution.
The 240-acre (97 ha) college has a tree endowment, established in 1987, which supports tree conservation, maintenance, and a tree replacement program. The Oak Grove, a pleasant green space near the center of campus, plays host to commencement ceremonies each May. Several of the Grove's trees are older than the college itself, including an eastern black oak near Galpin Hall that dates to 1681, as well as a 1766 white oak. Each senior class plants a class tree in the Oak Grove on the day before graduation.
On November 10, 2015, the College named Sarah Bolton as its 12th president, and first female president, with her term to begin July 1, 2016. Bolton currently is a dean and physics professor at Williams College.
Upon completion of at least 32 courses, students may earn a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Music, or Bachelor of Music Education degree.
In addition to the programs listed below, students may design their own major with approval from the registrar and the Provost. Some of the pre-professional programs are cooperative ones in which students spend a certain period of time at the College of Wooster before transferring to accelerated courses at other colleges and universities.
Independent Study program
The College of Wooster also has an Independent Study program, in which all students work one-on-one with a faculty advisor to complete a written thesis or other significant project during the course of the senior year, usually about 50 to 100 pages in length. The student also presents an oral defense of the thesis before a faculty committee. The program, begun in 1947 by Howard Lowry (the college's 7th President), has received attention from other colleges and universities, and a number of other institutions have modeled programs after it. In 2003, the independent study program at Wooster was recognized by US News and World Report as the second best 'senior capstone experience' in the US, behind only Princeton University. Wooster ranks 14th in the United States among independent colleges whose graduates earned Ph.D.s between 1920 and 1995 (according to the Baccalaureate Origins of Doctorate Recipients, 1998). Preparation and completion of the thesis can be time consuming, and led to one view in which a student, writing in the weekly The Wooster Voice, suggested that the independent study program be interwoven with career planning as well as applications to graduate schools.
Special traditions have been developed surrounding Independent Study. Upon completion, a student receives a yellow button saying 'I did it!' as well as the highly coveted Tootsie Roll. The tradition began in 1974 when the registrar at the time, Lee Culp (also a graduate of the College of Wooster), gave out candy along with the buttons one year; the Tootsie Roll itself was chosen simply because it was cheap to buy in bulk. Beginning in 1989, buttons were given out to indicate the order in which theses had been handed in. The 'due date,' or the last day that students can turn in their completed Independent Study project, is the first Monday after spring break. On I.S. Monday, the pipe band strikes up including drums and trumpets, and with the Provost leading the way, the seniors march through the Kauke Arch in a jubilant parade, described by one professor as a "celebration of both scholarship and survival", ending at Kittredge dining hall, where a celebratory dinner with advisors and college administrators follows.
The College of Wooster Libraries consists of three branches (Andrews Library, The Flo K. Gault Library and The Timken Science Library in Frick Hall) and a music library located at the Scheide Music Center. Andrews Library, the largest library in the system, houses more than 850,000 volumes and can accommodate over 500 readers. Andrews Library houses the college's Special Collections, media library and the student writing center. The Flo K. Gault Library, built as an addition to Andrews Library in 1995, primarily serves as a place for class seniors to work on their Independent Study projects. The Gault Library contains carrels devoted to Independent Study for every senior student of the humanities and social sciences. The Timken Science Library in Frick Hall (1900, 1998), which is the oldest branch in the system, served as the original academic library for the college from 1900 to 1962. After three decades as an art museum the building reopened as the science library in 1998, with substantial funding from the Timken Foundation of Canton, Ohio, and now primarily serves students in the math and sciences departments. The library provides Independent Study carrels for math and science seniors.
- CONSORT: The College of Wooster became a founding member of the Five Colleges of Ohio Consortium in 1996. The College of Wooster merged its library catalogue with Denison University, Kenyon College and Ohio Wesleyan University to form the CONSORT library system. The CONSORT library system provides its patrons access to the combined holdings of all four colleges.
- OhioLINK: CONSORT is a member of OhioLINK, a statewide consortium of academic libraries as well as the State Library of Ohio, which agreed to make their collections available to library patrons within this network. CONSORT's membership into OhioLink gives its patrons immediate access to a collection of books, online journals and databases that rivals the largest academic libraries in the country. The OhioLINK catalogue represents 89 libraries in the state and lists nearly 11.5 million unique titles from total holdings of 48 million items.
The College of Wooster Art Museum was established in the 1930s as a small gallery to facilitate the teaching of art and art research at the college. The current museum was established at the Ebert Art Center in 1997. The museum houses two small galleries, the Charlene Derge Sussel Art Gallery and the Burton D. Morgan Gallery, as well as storage for the college's permanent art collection. The museum's encyclopedic collection spans from ancient to contemporary art. Permanent collections include the John Taylor Arms Print Collection - which represents works by Edward Hopper, Winslow Homer, Isabel Bishop, Martin Lewis, James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Albrecht Dürer, Käthe Kollwitz and Félix Bracquemond - the William C. Mithoefer Collection of African Art, Middle Eastern pottery and Chinese decorative art.
The College of Wooster is a residential campus and has 16 residence halls, which house 16 to 270 students each, and 30 program houses that 99% of the student body live in. The residence halls include Andrews Hall, Armington Hall, Babcock Hall, Bissman Hall, Bornhuetter Hall, Compton Hall, Douglass Hall, Gault Manor, Gault Schoolhouse, Holden Annex, Holden Hall, Kenarden Lodge, Luce Hall, the Rubbermaid Student Center, Stevenson Hall, and Wagner Hall.
Elias Compton, former dean of the College, founded the Wooster in India program during the 1930s, which established a sister school relationship with Ewing Christian College in Allahabad, India. Over a forty-year time span, Wooster sent several former students to serve as Head Resident at Ewing while Ewing faculty were brought to Wooster as Ewing Fellows; a plaque with the names of Ewing Fellows hangs in Babcock Hall. The Wooster in India program helped build this unique bond between Wooster and India that enhanced the exchange of students, ideas and cultures. This international presence affected the entire campus, establishing a tradition which continues to influence the College. Today, approximately six percent of the student body is international in origin, representing more than 30 different countries. The College offers majors in Cultural Area Studies and International Relations, instruction in seven foreign languages and opportunities to study abroad in 60 countries. Fifty-nine percent of Wooster students are from outside of Ohio.
- Scot Center: In early 2012, the Scot Center, a 123,000-square-foot (11,400 m2) $30 million recreation facility, opened its doors. It includes four multipurpose sport courts (for intramural basketball, volleyball and tennis), a 200-meter indoor track, a new fitness center, batting cages for baseball and softball, expanded locker rooms, coaches' offices and meeting facilities. The building also boasts a 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) solar roof, the largest of any college facility in the United States. The Scot Center is the first phase of a master plan to create a Campus Center.
- Babcock Residence Hall: Babcock Hall houses 60% domestic and 40% international students who desire to experience this cross-cultural living environment. Babcock Hall offers cross-cultural programming that includes regular hall meetings with student speakers and cultural activities; celebrations of holidays from around the world; and discussions of international issues led by faculty and invited speakers.
- Luce Residence Hall: Luce Hall houses six language suites (Chinese, Classics, French, German, Spanish & Russian) providing students with a living/learning environment focusing on developing foreign language skills. The building features submarine-inspired architectural details, like a winding floorplan and porthole windows.
Wooster's athletic history dates back to its first baseball team, in 1880, which played only one game, losing 12-2 to Kenyon College. The football program was established in 1889; over its first two seasons, the team won all seven games it played, by a total score of 306-4. Included was a 64-0 victory at Ohio State on November 1, 1890, in the Buckeyes' first-ever home football game. Shortly thereafter, intercollegiate sports were banned by the College President. After varsity athletics returned in 1901, Wooster became an early member of the Ohio Athletic Conference (OAC). In 1983, Wooster (along with the rest of the Ohio Five) broke away from the OAC to form the North Coast Athletic Conference (NCAC). The NCAC, which competes at the non-scholarship Division III level of the NCAA, was founded primarily on the principle of offering women equal opportunity to participate in varsity sports. In its first season of competition, 1984–85, the NCAC sponsored 21 sports, eleven for men and ten for women. Women's softball was added in 1998, and women's golf in 2010, giving the NCAC its current 23 sports. Wooster fields varsity athletic teams in all 23 of these sports.
Wooster's school colors are black and old gold, and its mascot is the 'Fighting Scot'. Early Wooster teams were known as the Presbyterians, or unofficially as the 'Presbyterian Steamroller', due to the football team's success. In 1939, a large donation from alumnus Birt Babcock funded the purchase of kilts for the marching band, in the yellow-and-black MacLeod tartan (MacLeod of Lewis), which had no particular significance, except that it matched the school colors. Scottish culture eventually became an important part of the school's heritage; today, the football games feature a Scottish pipe band with Highland dancers in addition to a traditional marching band, with all three groups clad in the MacLeod tartan. The college offers the "Scottish Arts Scholarship" for students who perform as pipers, drummers, or Scottish dancers.
The baseball team has made five appearances in the NCAA Division III World Series, including a second-place finish in 2009. The Scots lost the national championship final game to the University of St. Thomas, 3-2 in 12 innings. Wooster has made seven consecutive appearances in the NCAA baseball tournament, and 20 times overall, under head coach Tim Pettorini, who has led the Scots since 1982. Pettorini has guided the Scots to nearly 1,000 victories, placing him in the all-time top ten among D-III baseball coaches. The Scots have also won a conference-record thirteen NCAC championships, including the 2010 title, in the league's 27 seasons. Prior to Pettorini's tenure, Bob Morgan led the Scots to the NCAA tournament in each of his final five seasons, giving Wooster a total of 25 appearances since the event began in 1976. During the first decade of the 21st century, the Scots had a record of 372-98, winning more games than any other team in Division III, and were second in winning percentage over that span, trailing only The College of St. Scholastica. The team has had six All-Americans in the last two seasons. In 2009, pitcher Justin McDowell, designated hitter Matt Groezinger, pitcher Mark Miller and outfielder Sean Karpen in 2009 were all honored, while shortstop Greg Van Horn and second baseman Matthew Johnson were named All-Americans in 2010. Following his graduation, Johnson signed with the Toronto Blue Jays organization, and is currently playing in their minor-league system.
In 24 seasons at Wooster, head men's basketball coach Steve Moore has won over 500 games, and has the highest winning percentage among all coaches in the history of NCAA Division III men's basketball. His teams have won 16 NCAC regular-season championships (including seven in a row from 2005 to 2011) and 14 NCAC Tournament titles (the most recent in 2011). Since 1991, the Scots have made 19 appearances in the NCAA Men's Division III Basketball Championship, more than any other school during that span, failing to earn a berth only in 1994 and 2002. The team reached the Final Four of the NCAA D-III Tournament in 2003, 2007, and 2011. The 2011 team set a school record for victories, with a record of 31-3, and reached the national championship game before falling to St. Thomas (Minnesota). The 2003 team was close behind at 30-3, with center Bryan Nelson named D-III Men's Basketball Player of the Year. Home games are contested in the 3,400-seat Timken Gym, which is often filled to capacity for big games, including the rivalry contest with Wittenberg University and post-season tournaments. Since 2000, the Scots have been in the top ten in D-III basketball attendance every year, ranking 2nd in 2010-11 with over 2,000 fans per home game.
The football team's greatest success occurred between 1916 and 1934; during this era, Wooster had a record of 118-31-12, and won four outright OAC championships. The 1934 title would be the Scots' last outright conference championship for 70 years, with only a pair of shared conference titles (1959 OAC and 1997 NCAC) during that time. In 2004, the team recorded a perfect 10-0 regular season and won its first outright NCAC conference championship, as well as its first NCAA D-III football tournament game. From 1995 through 2008, Wooster's record is 99-43, making this the most successful era since World War II. The 2008 Scots had a record of 8-2, placing second in the NCAC and narrowly missing an NCAA playoff berth. With over 3,100 fans per home game, Wooster ranked in the top 25 in D-III football attendance. In 2009, lights and artificial turf were added to the Scots' 4,500-seat John Papp stadium. The first-ever nighttime football game at Wooster was played on October 10, 2009, against Case Western Reserve University, with Case retaining the Baird Brothers Trophy by virtue of a 53-32 victory over the Scots.
In addition to baseball and men's basketball, two other Wooster teams earning NCAA Tournament berths during the 2009-10 academic year. The women's field hockey and women's lacrosse teams each won their second consecutive NCAC championships, earning automatic bids to their national NCAA D-III tournaments. This was the sixth conference title of the decade for the women's lacrosse team. The only national championship won by a Wooster athletic team came in 1975, when the men's golf team won the NCAA D-III title.
Since 2000, there have been 18 Scots named Academic All-Americans by College Sports Information Directors of America, in the College division, which includes NCAA Division II and Division III institutions, as well as NAIA schools, a total of over 1000 colleges.
Wooster is the home of the Ohio Light Opera, an enterprise founded within the college in 1979, but not part of the college curriculum. It is the only professional company in the United States entirely devoted to operetta. OLO performs the entire Gilbert & Sullivan repertoire, but also regularly revives rarely performed continental works of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Over the years, the Company has produced eighty different operettas.
Wooster's performing ensembles include the Wooster Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1915 by Daniel Parmelee, then Professor of Violin at the college. The orchestra currently is the second-oldest orchestra in continuous performance in the state of Ohio. Additional ensembles include the Scot Symphonic and Marching Bands, the Wooster Chorus, and the Wooster Jazz Ensemble.
Wooster has an active on-campus pipe band. Officially called the College of Wooster Pipe Band, members perform at many official on-campus events such as commencement, sports games (football, basketball, swim meets, and sometimes lacrosse games) and many spontaneous student-run events. During the spring season they perform and compete at a grade 3 level, having won prizes at the Scots wi' Shotts event in Cleveland hosted by the local Lochaber Pipe Band. The Pipe Band also placed first in the grade 3 contest at the 2009 Toronto Indoor Highland Games. Wooster was the only American band competing.
The College's department of Theatre and Dance produces two dance concerts per year, a fall concert in the round, and a spring concert in a more formal proscenium setting. Additionally, the college produces at least two plays each academic year. Further plays are produced by student groups and seniors pursuing their Independent Study projects. In 2007, Wooster's theatre production of 'Nocturne' was invited to perform at the Kennedy Center's American College Theatre Festival in Washington, D.C. Wooster's production was one of four shows chosen from a field of approximately 400 entries.
Student activities and clubs
The College of Wooster has over one hundred student organizations, from the Jenny Investment Club, which allows students to invest real money for the college as they learn about the stock market, to Common Grounds, a student-run coffee shop and house program offering 'an alternative atmosphere to the partying scene' for the college community.
There are currently ten active Greek groups at the College of Wooster, six sororities and four fraternities. Called clubs and sections, these groups are not affiliated with national Greek organizations, and approximately fifteen percent of the student body participates.
The college has a wide variety of student-run media. The Wooster Voice is the weekly student newspaper with a newly launched website, and has been published continuously since 1886 (see list of college newspapers), while WCWS (WOO 91) is the college radio station. The Goliard is the annual literary magazine. Each year, English professor Daniel Bourne also publishes an international literary magazine called Artful Dodge. Additionally, the English Department has classes every two years on journalism and magazine writing; these students create and publish a newspaper and a magazine respectively.
The college also has a successful Ultimate Frisbee program. The Women's team, Betty Gone Wild, won USAUltimate's D-III College Championship Sectionals in 2014 and 2015. Also in 2014 and 2015 they came in 2nd at USAUltimate's D-III College Championship Regionals. They attended the National College Championship in 2014 and came in 15th place with a 1st place award in spirit.
- "Fast Facts". Wooster.edu. Retrieved October 31, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Staff (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Pope, Loren. "Colleges that Change Lives". ctcl.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Official website: Our history & traditions". Retrieved 2011-08-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Sarah Bolton named 12th president of The College of Wooster | The College of Wooster". wooster.edu. Archived from the original on 2015-12-02. Retrieved 2015-12-02. Unknown parameter
|dead-url=ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "CAMPUS LIFE: WOOSTER; Agony, Then Ecstasy: Senior Theses Are Done". The New York Times. March 26, 1989. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
... independent study ... the 50- to 100-page theses ...Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- Archived December 15, 2004 at the Wayback Machine
- Hannah Diorio-Toth (11 February 2011). "Senior Dilemma: I.S. versus Job Hunt". The Wooster Voice. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
The problem is that Wooster places so much emphasis on I.S. that it becomes the student’s only priority.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Andrews Library - College of Wooster Campus Tour". Wooster.edu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "What is OhioLINK". Ohiolink.edu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Residences". www.wooster.edu. The College of Wooster. Retrieved 22 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Halls". www.wooster.edu. The College of Wooster. Retrieved 21 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "International Education Week | Cosmos" (PDF). Wooster.edu. October 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "International Insight". Thewoostervoice.com.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Scot Center - College of Wooster". Wooster.edu. Retrieved 2012-07-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Scot Center's Solar Roof Will Be Largest at Any College in U.S. - College of Wooster". Wooster.edu. 2010-09-20. Retrieved 2012-06-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Babcock Hall - College of Wooster". Wooster.edu.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Site of First Ohio State Home Football Game / The Ohio State University First Football Team 1890 Marker". Hmdb.org. Retrieved 2010-07-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Athletics - College of Wooster". Athletics.wooster.edu. Retrieved 2010-07-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "NCAC History". Northcoast.org. Retrieved 2010-07-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The Presbyterian church in America is descended from the Church of Scotland.
- "Admissions & Financial Aid - College of Wooster". Admissions.wooster.edu. 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2010-07-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Scottish Arts Scholarship". www.wooster.edu. The College of Wooster. Retrieved 22 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "D3baseball.com 2009 All-America team" (PDF). d3baseball.com. Retrieved 2011-08-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "2009 NCAA Division III Baseball Championship". Titans.uwosh.edu. Retrieved 2010-07-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Van Horn, Johnson Consensus All-American Picks - College of Wooster". Wooster.edu. 2010-05-28. Retrieved 2010-07-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "2011 Coaching records" (PDF). NCAA. Retrieved 2011-08-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "North Coast Athletic Conference : Men's Basketball All-Time Standings" (PDF). Northcoast.org. Retrieved 2014-03-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "College of Wooster Athletics : Timken Gymnasium". Woosterathletics.com. Retrieved 2012-07-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "2011 NCAA MEN'S BASKETBALL ATTENDANCE" (PDF). NCAA. Retrieved 2011-08-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Athletics - College of Wooster". Athletics.wooster.edu. Retrieved 2010-07-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Archived June 11, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Archived May 25, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Archived September 10, 2003 at the Wayback Machine
- James R. Blackwood, The House on College Avenue: the Comptons at Wooster, 1891-1913 (Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1968).
- Lucy Lilian Notestein, Wooster of the Middle West (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1971).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to [[commons:Lua error in Module:WikidataIB at line 506: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).|Lua error in Module:WikidataIB at line 506: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).]].|
- Official website
- Official athletics website
- . Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.