# Commutativity of conjunction

In propositional logic, the commutativity of conjunction is a valid argument form and truth-functional tautology. It is considered to be a law of classical logic. It is the principle that the conjuncts of a logical conjunction may switch places with each other, while preserving the truth-value of the resulting proposition.

## Formal notation

Commutativity of conjunction can be expressed in sequent notation as: $(P \and Q) \vdash (Q \and P)$

and $(Q \and P) \vdash (P \and Q)$

where $\vdash$ is a metalogical symbol meaning that $(Q \and P)$ is a syntactic consequence of $(P \and Q)$, in the one case, and $(P \and Q)$ is a syntactic consequence of $(Q \and P)$ in the other, in some logical system;

or in rule form: $\frac{P \and Q}{\therefore Q \and P}$

and $\frac{Q \and P}{\therefore P \and Q}$

where the rule is that wherever an instance of " $(P \and Q)$" appears on a line of a proof, it can be replaced with " $(Q \and P)$" and wherever an instance of " $(Q \and P)$" appears on a line of a proof, it can be replaced with " $(P \and Q)$";

or as the statement of a truth-functional tautology or theorem of propositional logic: $(P \and Q) \to (Q \and P)$

and $(Q \and P) \to (P \and Q)$

where $P$ and $Q$ are propositions expressed in some formal system.

## Generalized principle

For any propositions H1, H2, ... Hn, and permutation σ(n) of the numbers 1 through n, it is the case that:

H1 $\land$ H2 $\land$ ... $\land$ Hn

is equivalent to

Hσ(1) $\land$ Hσ(2) $\land$ Hσ(n).

For example, if H1 is

It is raining

H2 is

Socrates is mortal

and H3 is

2+2=4

then

It is raining and Socrates is mortal and 2+2=4

is equivalent to

Socrates is mortal and 2+2=4 and it is raining

and the other orderings of the predicates.