Conservatism in South Korea

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The logo of the Saenuri Party. Saenuri Party is the current South Korean largest conservative party.

Conservatism in South Korea is chiefly associated with the Saenuri Party (named the Grand National Party prior to 2012). Within the party, groups such as the New Right promote conservatism. The conservative Park Geun-hye government is the current government of the Sixth Republic of South Korea.

South Korean conservatism has been influenced from the military dictatorships of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan. In domestic policy, South Korean conservatism has a strong elitist streak and promotes rapid modernization and social stability.[1]

Values

Conservatism in South Korea is fervently anti-communist. South Koreans oppose relations with North Korea and support upholding the National Security Act. Some conservative citizen groups such as the Korean Council for Restoration National Identity and American and Korean Friendship National Council protested at UNESCO headquarters in Paris in May 2011 to prevent inscribing the records of the Gwangju Democratization Movement in the Memory of the World Register, and to petition for reconsidering identifying North Korean Special Forces as the perpetrators of the GDM.[2]

Jeong Tae-heon, a professor of Korean history at Korea University has expressed concerns that disputes over the term "liberal democracy" reflect a strong conservative bias reacting against North Korea's political ideologies, similar to political views seen in 1950.[3]

It has been alleged that the South Korean right has promoted McCarthyism-like red scares among the South Korean public.[4][clarification needed]

Media

The Chojoongdong media cartel wields the largest political influence in the South Korean political scene through newspaper and other print publications.

Timeline

Conservative presidents

  • Rhee Syng-man (Liberal Party, 1948-1960)
  • Park Chung-hee (Military junta/Democratic Republican Party, 1961-1979)
  • Chun Doo-hwan (Military junta/Democratic Justice Party, 1979-1988)
  • Roh Tae-woo (Democratic Justice Party/Democratic Liberal Party, 1988-1993)
  • Kim Young-sam (Democratic Liberal Party/New Korea Party/Grand National Party, 1993-1998)
  • Lee Myung-bak (Grand National Party/Saenuri Party, 2008-2013)
  • Park Geun-hye (Saenuri Party, 2013–present)

Major conservative parties election results of South Korea

Election Candidate Total votes Share of votes Outcome Party Name
1948 Rhee Syng-man
Kim Gu
180 (electoral vote)
13 (electoral vote)
91.8%
6.7%
Elected Green tickY
Defeated Red XN
National Alliance for the Rapid Realization of Korean Independence
Korean Independence Party
1952 Rhee Syng-man 5,238,769 74.6% Elected Green tickY Liberal Party
1956 Rhee Syng-man 5,046,437 70.0% Elected Green tickY Liberal Party
March 1960 Rhee Syng-man 9,633,376 100.0% Elected Green tickY Liberal Party
August 1960 no candidate N/A
1963 Park Chung-hee 4,702,640 46.6% Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1967 Park Chung-hee 5,688,666 51.4% Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1971 Park Chung-hee 6,342,828 53.2% Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1972 Park Chung-hee 2,357 (electoral vote) 99.91 Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1978 Park Chung-hee 2,578 (electoral vote) 99.96% Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1981 Chun Doo-hwan 4,755 (electoral vote) 90.2% Elected Green tickY Democratic Justice Party
1987 Roh Tae-woo
Kim Young-sam
Kim Jong-pil
8,282,738 36.6%
28.0%
8.1%
Elected Green tickY
Defeated Red XN
Defeated Red XN
Democratic Justice Party
Reunification Democratic Party
New Democratic Republican Party
1992 Kim Young-sam
Chung Ju-yung
9,977,332
3,880,067
42.0%
16.3%
Elected Green tickY
Defeated Red XN
Democratic Liberal Party
United People's Party
1997 Lee Hoi-chang 9,935,718 38.7% Defeated Red XN Grand National Party
2002 Lee Hoi-chang 11,443,297 46.5% Defeated Red XN Grand National Party
2007 Lee Myung-bak 11,492,389 48.7% Elected Green tickY Grand National Party
2012 Park Geun-hye 15,773,128 51.6% Elected Green tickY Saenuri Party

Legislative elections

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader Party Name
1963
110 / 175
3,112,985 33.5% new 110 seats; Majority Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1967
129 / 175
5,494,922 50.6% Increase19 seats; Majority Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1971
113 / 204
5,460,581 48.8% Decrease16 seats; Majority Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1973
146 / 219
4,251,754 38.7% Decrease40 seats; Majority Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1978
145 / 231
4,695,995 31.7% Increase2 seats; Majority Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1981
151 / 276
5,776,624 35.6% new 151 seats; Majority Chun Doo-hwan Democratic Justice Party
1985
148 / 276
7,040,811 34.0% Decrease3 seats; Majority Chun Doo-hwan Democratic Justice Party
1988
125 / 299
59 / 299
35 / 299
6,675,494

4,680,175

3,062,506
34.0%

23.8%

15.6%
Decrease23 seats; Minority

new 59 seats; Minority

new 35 seats; Minority
Roh Tae-woo

Kim Young-sam

Kim Jong-pil
Democratic Justice Party

Reunification Democratic Party

New Democratic Republican Party
1992
149 / 299
31 / 299
7,923,719

3,574,419
38.5%

17.4%
new 149 seats; Minority

new 31 seats; Minority
Roh Tae-woo

Chung Ju-yung
Democratic Liberal Party

United People's Party
1996
139 / 299
50 / 299
6,783,730

3,178,474
34.5%

16.2%
new 139 seats; Minority

new 50 seats; Minority
Kim Young-sam

Kim Jong-pil
New Korea Party

United Liberal Democrats
2000
133 / 273
17 / 273
7,365,359

1,859,331
39.0%

9.8%
new 133 seats; Minority

Decrease35 seats; Minority
Lee Hoi-chang

Kim Jong-pil
Grand National Party
United Liberal Democrats
2004
121 / 299
4 / 299
7,613,660

600,462
35.8%

2.8%
Decrease24 seats; Minority

Decrease6 seats; Minority
Park Geun-hye

Kim Jong-pil
Grand National Party

United Liberal Democrats
2008
153 / 299
18 / 299
14 / 299
6,421,654

1,173,463

2,258,750
37.5%

6.8%

13.2%
Increase32 seats; Majority

new 18 seats; Minority

new 14 seats; Minority
Kang Jae-seop

Lee Hoi-chang

Suh Chung-won
Grand National Party

Liberty Forward Party

Pro-Park Coalition
2012
152 / 300
5 / 300
9,130,651

690,754
42.8%

3.2%
new 152 seats; Majority

Decrease13 seats; Minority
Park Geun-hye

Sim Dae-pyung
Saenuri Party

Liberty Forward Party
2016
122 / 300
7,960,272 42.8% Decrease30 seats; Minority Kim Moo-sung Saenuri Party

Local elections

Election Metropolitan mayor/Governor Provincial legislature Municipal mayor Municipal legislature Party Name
1995
5 / 15
4 / 15
284 / 875
82 / 875
70 / 230
23 / 230
Democratic Liberal Party

United Liberal Democrats
1998
6 / 16
4 / 16
224 / 616
82 / 616
74 / 232
29 / 232
Grand National Party

United Liberal Democrats
2002
11 / 16
1 / 16
467 / 682
33 / 682
136 / 227
16 / 227
Grand National Party

United Liberal Democrats
2006
12 / 16
557 / 733
155 / 230
1,621 / 2,888
Grand National Party
2010
6 / 16
1 / 16
0 / 16
288 / 761
41 / 761
3 / 761
82 / 228
13 / 228
0 / 228
1,247 / 2,888
117 / 2,888
19 / 2,888
Grand National Party

Liberty Forward Party

Pro-Park Coalition
2014
8 / 17
416 / 789
117 / 226
1,413 / 2,898
Saenuri Party

See also

References

  1. 한국 보수주의를 묻는다. Historical Criticism (in Korean) (95). Retrieved 10 September 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Bae, Myeong-jae (11 May 2011). 보수단체 "광주학살은 北 특수부대 소행". The Kyunghyang Shinmun (in Korean). Retrieved 19 November 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Park, Jang-jun (13 November 2011). 한국의 보수는 1950년에 머물러 있다. Media Today (in Korean). Retrieved 19 November 2011.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Kang, Hyun-kyung (2 April 2012). "Is red scare right-wing conspiracy?". The Korea Times. Retrieved 6 May 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links