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The contrasting and categorisation of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections.
Contrasting basic emotions
The following table, based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include mental experiences that:
- have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;
- are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;
- motivate particular kinds of behaviour.
The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
|Kind of Emotion
|Related to Object Properties
|Attraction, desire, admiration
||Aversion, disgust, revulsion
||Indifference, familiarity, habituation
|Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation
||Pride in achievement, self-confidence, sociability
||Embarrassment, shame, guilt, remorse
||Avarice, greed, miserliness, envy, jealousy
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL (Emotion Annotation and Representation Language)
The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions.
Parrott's emotions by groups
A tree-structured list of emotions was described in Shaver et al. (1987), and also featured in Parrott (2001).
Plutchik's wheel of emotions
Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions
In 1980 Robert Plutchik constructed a wheel-like diagram of emotions visualising eight basic emotions, plus eight derivative emotions each composed of two basic ones.
|Human feelings (results of emotions)
||Anticipation + Joy
||Joy + Trust
||Trust + Fear
||Fear + Surprise
||Surprise + Sadness
||Sadness + Disgust
||Disgust + Anger
||Anger + Anticipation
- ↑ Robinson, D. L. (2009). "Brain function, mental experience and personality". The Netherlands Journal of Psychology. pp. 152–167.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ "HUMAINE Emotion Annotation and Representation Language". Emotion-research.net. Retrieved June 30, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O'connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of personality and social psychology, 52(6), 1061.
- ↑ Parrott, W. (2001), "Emotions in Social Psychology", Psychology Press, Philadelphia.
- ↑ Plutchik, R. "The Nature of Emotions". American Scientist. Retrieved 14 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>