Corruption in Ukraine

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

Corruption is a widespread and growing problem in Ukrainian society.[1][2] In 2015's Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index Ukraine was ranked 130th out of the 167 countries investigated (tied with Paraguay and the Comoros).[3] Back in 2007 Ukraine had taken 118th place (179 countries investigated that year).[4] Ernst & Young (in 2012) put Ukraine among the three most corrupted nations of the world together with Colombia and Brazil.[5]

United States diplomats have described Ukraine under Presidents Kuchma and Yushchenko as a kleptocracy, according to Wikileaks cables.[6]


Bribes are given to ensure that public services are delivered either in time or at all.[7] Ukrainians stated they give bribes because they think it is customary and expected.[7][8] Some of the biggest bribes involve more than 1 million US$.[9] According to a 2008 Management Systems International (MSI) sociological survey, the highest corruption levels were found in vehicle inspection (57.5%), the police (54.2%), health care (54%), the courts (49%) and higher education (43.6%).[10] On June 8, 2011 Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych stated that corruption costs the state budget US$2.5 billion in revenues annually and that through corrupt dealings in public procurement 10% to 15% (US$7.4 billion) of the state budget "ends up in the pockets of officials".[11]

According to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the main causes of corruption in Ukraine are a weak justice system and an over-controlling non-transparent government combined with business-political ties and a weak civil society.[12] Corruption is regularly discussed in the Ukrainian media.[13][14]

In May 2016 the IMF mission chief for Ukraine stated that the reduction of corruption was a key test for continued international support.[15] Some western analysts believe that large foreign loans are not encouraging reform, but enabling the corrupt extraction of funds out of the country.[16] U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Nuland urged Ukraine to start prosecuting corrupt officials: "It's time to start locking up people who have ripped off the Ukrainian population for too long and it is time to eradicate the cancer of corruption".[17]

Individual involvement in corruption

The biggest recipients of bribery are the police, the health service and the education system.[18] In the late 2000s and early 2010s, around 67% of Ukrainians who had dealt with government said that they had been directly involved in corrupt transactions.[7][19] In a survey in 2010, 30–49.9% of respondents admitted paying a bribe to a service provider during the past year;[20] in a similar survey in 2007, 18–32% of respondents admitted paying a bribe.[20] A comparable figure for Great Britain for 2011 was 1.9%.[21] However, in a different survey in late 2008, only 21% responded that they or anyone living in their household had paid a bribe in any form in the previous 12 months; comparable figures for the U.S. and UK were 2% and 3% respectively.[22] In a GfK survey held in the summer of 2001 43% stated they never personally had given bribes.[8]

In 2013 74% would not report an incident of corruption; 24% were afraid of consequences, 63% believed it would not make any difference.[18]

Political corruption

In the years after Ukrainian independence, election fraud was widespread, mainly through the use of "administrative resources".[23] On the other hand, according to Taras Kuzio election fraud in Ukraine can only reach five percent of the total vote.[24] Outright vote rigging diminished after the 2004 presidential election. After this election, the Supreme Court of Ukraine ruled that due to the scale of the electoral fraud, it became impossible to establish the election results and ordered a revote.[25][26] Although politicians still claim(ed) election fraud and administrative tricks to get more votes for a particular party have not vanished.[27] The Ukrainian electorate remains highly skeptical about the honesty of the election process.[28] Any voter who engages in election fraud faces a maximum sentence of two years in jail.[citation needed]

United States diplomats have claimed the privatization of several Ukrainian state enterprises were rigged in favor of political friends.[6] On a regional level, corruption has been discovered in connection with land allocation.[29]

Ukrainian politicians have regularly accused each other of corruption while claiming to fight it themselves.[30] After mockly joining the parliamentary faction Reforms for the Future in early 2012, Roman Zabzalyuk claimed this faction "bought" its members for "US$500,000 (for a "defection" from other parliamentary groups), and then they pay a monthly salary of $20,000-25,000"; according to Reforms for the Future, Zabzalyuk pretended he was "suffering a very serious disease" and the group had managed to raise some $100,000 for Zabzalyuk to undergo surgery in Israel.[31]

Since July 1, 2011, the President, Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada, Prime Minister, Prosecutor General, ministers and other Ukrainian top officials have been liable for prosecution for corruption.[32] Kost Bondarenko (chairman of the board of the Institute of Ukrainian Politics), claims that before 2010, there was an unwritten rule in Ukrainian politics, "No charges were brought against members of the outgoing government, and their successors never had to worry about what tomorrow might bring";[33] but in 2010 and 2011, "criminal charges were brought against 78 members of the former government; and more than 500 criminal cases have been opened against sitting officials.".[33] However, since 2010 the Ukrainian press brought up thousands of examples of criminal cases in which state officials, as well as politicians and businessmen linked to the ruling Party of Regions, were shown leniency unprecedented for the general population of suspects.[34]

Minister of Internal Affairs Vitaliy Zakharchenko stated in March 2012 that since 2010 about 400 politicians had faced criminal charges in connection with corruption; most of them from the Party of Regions, followed by Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko and Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc members.[35] It is unclear how many of those charges have since been proved by the courts.[citation needed]

Ukrainian media, particularly the Ukrayinska Pravda, regularly unveil a millionaire lifestyle of Ukrainian politicians and publica servants,[36] utterly contradictive to their declared official incomes.[37]

According to historian Andrew Wilson, as of 2016 progress in reducing corruption was poor.[38] A 2015 survey showed that 72% of adults blamed "corruption of power" for the lack of progress in reform.[38]

Local politics

Several Ukrainian mayors have been suspected of using their posts to serve their own business interests.[39]

The ex-mayor of Cherkasy Serhiy Odarych has been suspected of causing a hryvnia 600,000 loss to the city budget.[40]

Juridical corruption

"There could even be cases of the revocation of investment, because legal uncertainty is very deep, and the actions of regional authorities are willful."

German Ambassador to Ukraine Hans-Jurgen Heimsoeth, late September 2011[41]

Ukrainian politicians and analysts have described the system of justice in Ukraine as "rotten to the core"[42][43] and have complained about political pressure put on judges and corruption.[44] Independent lawyers and human rights activists have complained Ukrainian judges regularly come under pressure to hand down a certain verdict.[45] Ukraine's court system is widely regarded as corrupt.[46] A Ukrainian Justice Ministry survey in 2009 revealed that only 10% of respondents trusted the nation’s court system. Less than 30% believed that it was still possible to get a fair trial.[42]

Although judicial independence exists in principle, in practise there is little separation of juridical and political powers. Judges are subjected to pressure by political and business interests.[47]

An August 2014 Ukrayinska Pravda article claimed that the bribes judges receive ("from a few to many thousands of dollars") are sometimes much higher their salaries (of 915 US dollar).[48] (An example of this could be) on May 22, 2012 Volodymyr Rokytskyi, Deputy Head of Ukraine's Security Service, was photographed in public wearing a US$32,000 luxury wristwatch despite the fact that its price amounts to his yearly official income. The instance happened at a joint Ukrainian-American event dedicated to fighting illegal drugs.[49] Ukrainian judges have been arrested while taking bribes.[50]

Critics have also complained that officials and their children (the latter ones are known as "mazhory"[51]) receive favourable sentences compared with common citizens.[52][53]

Corruption in higher education

Higher education in Ukraine is plagued with bribery.[54][55][56] In 2011 33% of all students claimed they have encountered corruption in their school, 29% heard about cases of corruption from other students, while 38% did not encountered corruption.[57] According to Transparency International research done in 2008, 47.3% of university students stated that a bribe had been demanded from them; of those, 29% had paid this bribe freely.[10] Students can "buy" a college entry, exam results, marking doctoral and/or master’s theses.[10][56]

Bribes range from US$10 to US$50 for an exam pass to several thousand for entry to a university.[10] According to government sources, bribes vary from US$80 to US$21,500.[10] Salaries of teachers and professors are low in Ukraine compared with other professions; this may cause them to be tempted to demand bribes.[10][56] According to Ararat Osipian entire corruption hierarchies have formed in Ukraine's colleges and universities.[58] These hierarchies evolved evolutionary since the 1990s as the result of uncontrolled and rampant corruption.[59] Ararat claims that corrupt ruling regimes control corrupt universities and force them into compliance,[60] including during the elections.[61] This was aided by universities largely remain Stalinist type bureaucracies, unable to transform.[62]

Until 2015 university autonomy was nonexistent.[63] In 2015 the Ukrainian parliament passed a new law on higher education to give universities more autonomy, including control over their own finances.[56] The aim was to encourage private investment, fundraising and the creation of endowments.[56]

Ukrainian government officials have been caught with fake university diplomas.[64]

Corruption and business

Companies encounter corruption mainly in business licensing, taxation and customs.[65] The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has stated corruption is a "significant obstacle" to doing business in Ukraine.[66]

Research conducted by Ernst & Young in 2011 and 2012 showed that the practice of top managers accepting bribes increased by 9 percent in 2011 and 15 percent in 2012.[5] Another 4 percent were ready to pay bribes in order to hide the details of their financial performance.[5]

Politician Natalia Korolevska has estimated that "Corruption has forced business to go in the shadow where now we have 45% of our economy”.[67]

The representative of one United Kingdom-based company has claimed non-Ukrainian companies often lose contracts if they will not pay bribes or fail to "out-bribe" their competitors.[45] Ukrainians and business representatives have claimed "Business ventures above a certain level require palm-greasing of some functionary at some level".[45]

Corruption in the social security system

In 2012 President Viktor Yanukovych reported that only about 23 percent of social service funds go to those who actually need it.[5] The Ukrainian media have featured many stories revealing that even parliamentarians illegally receive social benefits, fraudulently claiming to be war and Chernobyl veterans.[5]

Corruption in healthcare

Though medical care in state-run hospitals is theoretically free for Ukrainians, patient's paying money there to ensure they receive the treatment required is widespread.[68][69]

In June 2012 advocacy groups accused Health Ministry officials of embezzling money that should be used to treat AIDS patients by buying AIDS drugs at hugely inflated prices and then receiving kickbacks.[70]

Costs of corruption

According to Ararat Osipian due to endemic corruption, Ukraine failed to sustain its economic growth trends.[71] The perceived as reckless corruption that marked President Viktor Yanukovich’s rule contributed to his downfall in 2014 and left the country’s army ill-equipped to counter Russia’s invasion of Crimea.[72]

In 2008 Transparency International estimated that 30 to 50 percent of all Ukrainians had faced government corruption.[10] Juhani Grossmann (working for an a.o. Management Systems International project)[73] claimed in 2009 that that "Ukrainians pay roughly 3.5 billion, or more than US$400 million, in bribes annually."[14] The previous year, he claimed that the figure was US$700 million.[74]

Government actions

Corruption has become an immediate threat to the constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens.

— President Yanukovych (April 7, 2011)[75]

After his election in late 2004 President Viktor Yushchenko promised a "War on Corruption".[76] Several officials were indeed arrested and/or questioned early 2005 (among them later ministers in the Azarov Government Borys Kolesnikov[77][78][79] and Yuri Boyko[80][81]). Former Security Service of Ukraine Chairman Oleksandr Turchynov claimed that in the summer of 2005 Yushchenko prevented an investigation into allegedly fraudulent practices in the transport of Turkmen natural gas to Ukraine and prevented the arrest of Boyko for abuse of office while heading Naftogaz:[80][81]

"Turchynov stated that Yushchenko told him in mid-August to stop 'persecuting my men' and that the investigation of RosUkrEnergo was 'creating a conflict with Russian President Vladimir Putin'".[81] A survey conducted in November 2008 showed that 73% of people in Ukraine considered the second Tymoshenko Government's actions against corruption to be ineffective; comparable figures for the U.S. and the UK were 73% and 39%.[22] In a survey in 2001, when Kuchma was President, 80% of Ukrainians "totally/fairly agreed" with the statement: "The present government has no real interest in punishing corruption".[8]

Ukraine joined the Group of States Against Corruption in 2006.[82]

Over the years, several anti-corruption laws have been passed by the Ukrainian parliament.[32][83] In September 2011 the National Anti-Corruption Committee was introduced.[84]

Just like his predecessor Yushchenko,[76] President Viktor Yanukovych (and his Azarov Government[85]) made the fight against corruption a spearhead in his domestic policies.[84][86][87] Political opponents of Yanukovych have accused him of using his anti-corruption campaign for politically motivated trials; the general public in Ukraine largely shares this view.[88][89][45][90] President Yanukovych has denied this.[87]

Kost Bondarenko, chairman of the board of the Institute of Ukrainian Politics, claims the main sponsors of President Yanukovych's Party of Regions are unhappy that some Ukrainian politicians have been criminally charged "because they no longer feel above the law".[33] The International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities spoke in April 2011 of "remarkable successes in fighting corruption in 2010".[91] The EU Ambassador to Ukraine, Jose Manuel Pinto Teixeira, stated at an investment conference on February 28, 2012 that Yanukovych's pledges of reform "have regrettably produced no such results."[45]

In May, 2014, an Anti-Corruption Initiative was established. In December, it appointed Lithuanian economist and former European Commissioner for Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud Algirdas Šemeta as Business Ombudsman.[92]

In 2015, President Petro Poroshenko sacked Ihor Kolomoisky — the billionaire governor of the key industrial region of Dnipropetrovsk. It came after armed men suspected of links to Mr Kolomoisky briefly occupied the offices of a state-owned oil firm in the capital Kiev.[93]


According to Ukrainians the most corrupt are the judiciary, the police, public servants, the health service and parliament.[18]

Corruption Perceptions Index ratings

Transparency International produces an annual report listing each country's Corruption Perceptions Index score. This "score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business people and country analysts and, through 2011, ranged between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt)."[94] In the 2010 report, the least corrupt country listed was Denmark with a score of 9.3, and the most corrupt of the 178 countries listed was Somalia with a score of 1.1.[95] From 2012 on, the scores were presented on a 0-100 scale.[96]

The following table lists Ukraine's place in the Corruption Perceptions Index table, based on Transparency International's annual reports from 1999 onward. The methods used in assessing the Index change from year to year, so comparisons between years are difficult.

Year Ranking Corruption Perception Index Score Confidence Range[97] Standard Deviation[98] Surveys Used[99] Source
0-10 0-100
1998 69 of 85 2.8 1.6 6 [100]
1999 75 of 99 2.6 1.4 10 [101]
2001 83 of 91 2.1 1.1 6 [102]
2002 85 of 102 2.4 0.7 6 [103]
2003 106 of 133 2.3 0.6 10 [104]
2004 122 of 146 2.2 2.0–2.4 10 [105]
2005 107 of 158 2.6 2.4–2.8 8 [106]
2006 99 of 163 2.8 2.5–3.0 6 [94][107]
2007 118 of 179 2.7 2.4–3.0 7 [4][108]
2008 134 of 180 2.5 2.0–2.8 8 [109][110]
2009 146 of 180 2.2 2.0–2.6 8 [111][112]
2010 134 of 178 2.4 2.1–2.6 8 [95][113]
2011 152 of 183 2.3 2.1–2.5 10 [114][115]
2012 144 of 176 26 24–29 8 [116][96]
2013 144 of 175 25 22–28 8 [117]
2014 142 of 175 26 23-29 1.6 8 [3][118]

In 2014's Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index Ukraine was ranked 142nd out of the 175 countries investigated (tied with Uganda and the Comoros).[3] Note: For 1999 and 2000, the data were listed as 1998 and 1999 respectively. From 2001, the data listed are stated to be for the year of the annual report. Up to 2005, the annual report included some measures of the uncertainty of the index scores; these data were omitted from the annual reports from 2006 onwards, but were contained in the CPI report.

Public Perception of Corruption in Institutions of Ukraine

The following table shows average scores from a survey of Ukrainian public perception of corruption in Ukraine's institutions. Comparable figures for the United Kingdom and the United States from surveys for 2009 (for British and American people's perception of corruption in their own countries) are shown at the bottom of the table.

Year Political Parties Parliament Police Business/ Private Sector Media Public Officials/ Civil Servants Judiciary NGOs Religious Bodies Military Education System Source
2007 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.2 4.2 3.2 2.3 3.1 3.8 [20]
2009 4.4 4.5 4.3 3.8 4.5 4.5 [20][119]
2010 4.0 4.1 4.3 3.7 3.2 4.1 4.4 3.2 2.3 3.5 4.0 [20]
2009 UK 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.8 [119]
2009 USA 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.2 [119]
Question: To what extent do you perceive the following institutions in this country to be affected by corruption? (1: not at all corrupt, 5: extremely corrupt). [20]

See also


  1. UAH 1.5 b in budget funds embezzled since year-start, interior minister says, Interfax-Ukraine (June 18, 2009)
  2. Ukrainians Pessimistic about Country’s Future; Confidence in Political Leaders Falling, International Foundation for Electoral Systems (September 13, 2011)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Ukraine remains most corrupt country in Europe - Transparency International, Interfax-Ukraine (3 December 2014)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2007 Table.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 People First:The latest in the watch on Ukrainian democracy, Kyiv Post (11 September 2012)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Clearer Picture Kyiv Post (September 2, 2011)
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Corruption, Democracy, and Investment in Ukraine, Atlantic Council (October 2007)
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Press release, 10th International Anti-Corruption Conference (2001)
  9. Top- 100 biggest bribes in Ukraine, UNIAN (October 6, 2009)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Global Corruption Report 2008, Transparency International, Chapter 7.4, p. 280.
  11. Under Yanukovych, Ukraine slides deeper in ranks of corrupt nations, Kyiv Post (1 December 2011)
  13. Shuster Live – How to fight with corruption in Ukraine. Consequences of corruption in an army – 2,
  14. 14.0 14.1 Corruption Plague Kyiv Post (June 25, 2009).
    Since Ukraine has a population of about 45 million, $400 million a year paid in bribes would equate to $9 per person on average.
  15. Alessandra Prentice (May 18, 2016). "Ukraine, IMF agree terms to resume financial support - IMF". Reuters. Retrieved May 20, 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Neil A. Abrams, M. Steven Fish (May 5, 2016). "How Western aid enables graft addiction in Ukraine". Washington Post. Retrieved May 20, 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Isabela Cocoli (April 27, 2016). "US Urges Ukraine to Jail Corrupt Officials". Voice of America. Retrieved May 20, 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer: Ukraine has become more corrupt over the last two years, The Ukrainian Week (9 July 2013)
  19. Fighting Corruption In Ukraine: Ukrainian Style, Gorshenin Institute (July 3, 2011)
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 National Integrity System Assessment, Ukraine 2011, TORO Creative Union – Transparency International Contact in Ukraine. pdf page 36.
  21. Corruption in the UK: Overview & Policy Recommendations, Transparency International UK, June 2011, ISBN 978-0-9566194-4-0 summary page 2.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer 2009 Report, June 2, 2009, ISBN 978-3-935711-28-9 pdf Abs1:22, 32, 33.
    In Ukraine, 1200 people were interviewed face to face in a national survey November 4–12, 2008. The survey in the UK was of 1018 people interviewed online November 27 – December 1, 2008. The survey in the U.S. was of 1017 people interviewed online October 30 – November 4, 2008. (pdf ABs1:22).
  23. Andrew Wilson, Virtual Politics – Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World, Yale University Press (2005), ISBN 0-300-09545-7
  24. Ukrainian Political Technologists and Seven Election Myths by Taras Kuzio, Jamestown Foundation (29 November 2012)
  25. Supreme Court of Ukraine decision regarding the annulment of November 21 vote. Full text in Ukrainian and Summary in English
  26. Understanding Ukrainian Politics:Power, Politics, And Institutional Design by Paul D'Anieri, M. E. Sharpe, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7656-1811-5 (page 63)
    Committee of Electors of Ukraine registers no major violations at elections to Ternopil regional council, Interfax-Ukraine (March 16, 2009)
    EU endorses Ukraine election result, EU Observer (February 8, 2010)
    International observers say Ukrainian election was free and fair The Washington Post (February 9, 2010)
    European Parliament president greets Ukraine on conducting free and fair presidential election Kyiv Post (February 9, 2010)
  27. Opposition pushes for immediate meeting with Yanukovych Kyiv Post (September 22, 2011)
    BYT: International observers were physically unable to record mass irregularities in run-off vote Kyiv Post (February 11, 2009)
    Yanukovych sure Tymoshenko will try to rig results of presidential election Kyiv Post (December 17, 2009)
    Tymoshenko says she will prevent Yanukovych from rigging presidential election Kyiv Post (December 17, 2009)
    President's office ex-official blows Yushchenko-Yanukovych secret deal (January 8, 2010)
    Taras Kuzio, Yushchenko and Yanukovych Forge an Electoral Alliance Kyiv Post (January 8, 2010)
    Yanukovych's Party Looks To Victory Amid Claims Of Election Fraud, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (November 1, 2010)
    (Ukrainian) ПР отримала мерів майже в половині областей BBC Ukrainian (November 8, 2010)
    (Ukrainian) У Криму комуністи і партія «Союз» вимагають перерахунку голосів, Дзеркало тижня (November 3, 2010)
    Westerners, local observers rip Oct. 31 elections as undemocratic Kyiv Post (November 5, 2010)
  28. Poll: Less than 5% Ukrainians believe presidential election will be fair Kyiv Post (January 12, 2010)
    Poll: Most Ukrainians not planning to sell their votes in presidential election Kyiv Post (January 12, 2010)
    Survey Shows Every Fifth Ukrainian Ready To Sell Vote, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (October 22, 2010)
  29. Heads of two towns in Khmelnytsky, Ternopil regions charged with bribery Interfax-Ukraine (April 13, 2009)
  30. Regions Party declares current government corrupt Kyiv Post (January 10, 2010)
    Tymoshenko Accuses Yanukovych Of Involvement In Land Machinations In Crimea, (January 4, 2010)
    “I’m the only politician without land ownership in Crimea,” says Yulia Tymoshenko (January 3, 2010)
    Court dismisses Yanukovych's suit against Tymoshenko concerning unsanctioned election funds Kyiv Post (December 31, 2009)
    Tymoshenko accuses Chernovetsky of corrupt use of funds of Kyiv residents Interfax-Ukraine (December 12, 2008)
    Tymoshenko blames Firtash and Presidential Secretariat for hryvnia’s collapse UNIAN (December 18, 2008)
    Presidential secretariat says about misuse of funds from sale of government domestic loan bonds for Euro 2012 Interfax-Ukraine (November 27, 2009)
    Lutsenko accuses Yanukovych of giving false data in his income declaration, Interfax-Ukraine (December 8, 2009)
    Tymoshenko proposes creating independent anti-corruption bureaus in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (December 8, 2009)
    Lutsenko removed Yushchenko's portrait from his office, Kyiv Post (December 9, 2009)
    Yuschenko accuses Tymoshenko of corruption Kyiv Post (December 9, 2009)
    Yushchenko calls nation's law-enforcement chiefs mediocre and corrupt Kyiv Post (December 9, 2009)
    Yushchenko: Open list of candidates for parliamentary elections a condition for eradicating corruption Kyiv Post (December 12, 2009)
    Yatseniuk submits draft law on state committee for fighting corruption Kyiv Post (December 16, 2009)
    Parliamentary majority responsible for failures in fight against corruption, says president Interfax-Ukraine (December 12, 2009)
  31. Turchynov: Batkivschyna knew why Zabzaliuk left faction, Kyiv Post (8 February 2012)
  32. 32.0 32.1 Ukraine Advances on Anti-Corruption Practices Reuters {Reuters is not responsible for the content in this press release} (June 10, 2011)
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 RIA Novosti, Ukraine without Tymoshenko, by Kost Bondarenko, 12 October 2011. Kost Bondarenko is chairman of the board of the Institute of Ukrainian Politics, which is based in Kiev.
  34. Генпрокуратура не захотіла зайнятися підприємством сина Азарова. Ukrayinska Pravda (in українська). August 26, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. (Ukrainian) Голова МВС:Найбільше корупціонерів у Партії регіонів, Ukrayinska Pravda (29 March 2012)
  36. Probe needed Kyiv Post (July 22, 2011)
    Ukrainska Pravda exposes presidential estate scandal Kyiv Post (November 26, 2010)
  37. Sodel, Vlad (photo credit) (August 25, 2013). Новий голова ЦВК носить годинник за 50-60 тисяч доларів. Ukrayinska Pravda (in українська). Retrieved August 25, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. 38.0 38.1 Andrew Wilson (February 14, 2016). "Corruption is Stalling Ukraine's Optimistic Revolution". Newsweek. Retrieved February 17, 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. (Ukrainian) Навіщо йдуть в мери?, Ukrayinska Pravda (24 February 2012)
  40. Prosecutors suspect ex-mayor of Cherkasy Odarych of causing UAH 600,000 loss to city budget, Interfax-Ukraine (10 June 2013)
  41. German ambassador: No progress in fight against corruption in Ukraine Kyiv Post (September 28, 2011)
  42. 42.0 42.1 Jackpot Kyiv Post (March 25, 2010)
  43. Moskal: ‘Rotten to the core’ Kyiv Post (March 25, 2010)
  44. Yanukovych notes political pressure on Ukraine's judicial system Kyiv Post (March 25, 2010)
    Tymoshenko: Yanukovych entourage aims at recognizing legitimacy of coalition before president's trip to U.S. Kyiv Post (March 29, 2010)
    Anders Åslund, How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2009, ISBN 978-0-88132-427-3 (page 219)
    Yanukovych allies: Tymoshenko trying to pressure court Kyiv Post (March 30, 2010)
    Anders Åslund and Marek Dabrowski (Eds.), Europe after Enlargement Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-87286-7 (page 149)
    Adrian Karatnycky, Alexander Motyl and Amanda Schnetzer (Eds.), Nations in Transit 2000–2001 Transaction Publishers, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7658-0897-4 (page 400)
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 In Ukraine, scales of justice often imbalanced, Kyiv Post (10 April 2012)
  46. Battle looming over new law on judiciary and judge status Kyiv Post (July 4, 2010)
    A top prosecutor, accused of corruption and incompetence, forced out in political struggle Kyiv Post (December 18, 2009)
  47. Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz and Thierry Geiger, The Ukraine Competitiveness Report 2008 World Economic Forum, 2008, ISBN 978-92-95044-05-0 (page 50)
  48. (Ukrainian) Criminal organization judges, Ukrayinska Pravda (21 August 2014)
  49. Головний борець із корупцією з СБУ носить годинник дорожчий за його річну зарплату (Ukrainian)
  50. Kyiv district court judge arrested while taking bribe Kyiv Post (February 8, 2011)
    Ex-judge Zvarych sentenced to ten years in prison Kyiv Post (September 20, 2011)
  51. Gang-raped, strangled and set alight, brave Oksana loses her fight, The Age (30 March 2012)
    Ukrainian Woman's Rape Stirs Public 'Vendetta': Leonid Bershidsky, Bloomberg (22 March 2012)
  52. Unruly Untouchables, Kyiv Post (14 July 2011)
  53. Charges dismissed against driver who killed pedestrian, Kyiv Post (1 December 2011)
  54. Osipian, Ararat. (2009). Corruption and Reform in Higher Education in Ukraine. Canadian and International Education Journal, 38(2), pp. 104-122.
  55. Osipian, Ararat. (2007). Higher Education Corruption in Ukraine: Opinions and Estimates. International Higher Education, 49, pp. 20-21.
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 56.4 In Ukraine’s universities, trading bribes for diplomas, Politico Europe (30 January 2016)
  57. One third of students have encountered cases of corruption in higher educational institutions, International Renaissance Foundation (April 20, 2011)
  58. Osipian, Ararat. (2009). Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(3), pp. 321-330.
  59. Osipian, Ararat. (2010). Corrupt Organizational Hierarchies in the Former Soviet Bloc. Transition Studies Review, 17(4), pp. 822-836.
  60. Osipian, Ararat. (2008). Political Graft and Education Corruption in Ukraine: Compliance, Collusion, and Control. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization, 16(4), pp. 323-344.
  61. Osipian, Ararat. (2010). Corruption in the Politicized University: Lessons for Ukraine’s 2010 Presidential Elections. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 23(2), pp. 101-114.
  62. Osipian, Ararat. (2014). Transforming University Governance in Ukraine: Collegiums, Bureaucracies, and Political Institutions. Higher Education Policy, 27(1), pp. 65-84.
  63. Osipian, Ararat. (2008). Corruption and Coercion: University Autonomy versus State Control. European Education: Issues and Studies, 40(3), pp. 27-48.
  64. Cheating nation Kyiv Post (November 19, 2009)
  65. Ukraine adopts new anti-corruption bill Press TV (March 18, 2011)
  66. Bribes and bureaucrats: Doing business in Ukraine, BBC News (7 March 2011)
  67. N. Korolevskaya: Ukraine Needs a Single Anti-Corruption Project, Foundation for Effective Governance
  68. Corruption No. 1 problem as Ukraine heads for election, Reuters (24 October 2012)
  69. 'If I receive it, it is a gift; if I demand it, then it is a bribe':On the Local Meaning of Economic Transactions in Post-Soviet Ukraine by Abel Polese, Berghahn Books (Winter 2008)
  70. Ukraine:Corruption blamed for AIDS non-treatment, Associated Press (29 June 2012)
  71. Osipian, Ararat. (2009). The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: A Case Study in Post-Soviet Ukraine, 1989-2009. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 256 p.
  72. Zavis, Alexandra (December 2, 2014). "How do countries rank on corruption?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 2, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. Ukrainians shrug off corruption despite damaging effects Kyiv Post (March 6, 2008).
    See also blog post Kiev Ukraine News Blog, (March 5, 2008).
  75. Ukraine's parliament passes president's anti-corruption law RIA Novosti (April 7, 2011)
  76. 76.0 76.1 Viktor Yushchenko Attracts Investments with the War on Corruption Kommersant (February 16, 2005)
  77. Yanukovych’s inner circle, Kyiv Post (January 24, 2009)
  78. Countries at the crossroads: a survey of democratic governance by Sanja Tatic & Christopher Walker, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7425-5801-4 (page 580)
  79. Corruption Watch: October 3, 2005, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (October 3, 2005)
  80. 80.0 80.1 Gas Lobby Takes Control of Ukrains Secret Service by Taras Kuzio (18 March 2010)
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 Ukraine: Battle Against Corruption Grinds To A Halt, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (September 26, 2005)
  82. GRECO publishes report on fight against corruption in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (18 November 2011)
  83. Rada passes bill to impose life imprisonment on judges and prosecutors who take large bribes Interfax-Ukraine (May 21, 2009)
    Yanukovych approves postponement of introduction of two anti-corruption laws until January Kyiv Post (March 30, 2010)
    Parliament adopts anti-corruption law, Interfax-Ukraine (14 April 2013)
  84. 84.0 84.1 Yanukovych vows to put an end to corruption Kyiv Post (September 15, 2011)
  85. Ukraine's prime minister says budget problem hardest, Kyiv Post (March 11, 2010)
  86. Yanukovych: Over 400 officials of current government stand trial Kyiv Post (Augustus 25, 2011)
  87. 87.0 87.1 Yanukovych: 'Some misinform international community about Ukraine' Kyiv Post (February 7, 2011)
  88. Ukraine timeline BBC News
  89. Euronews, Putin calls Tymoshenko jail term unfair, 11 October 2011.
    RFI English Tymoshenko supporters protest at jail sentence, by Jan van der Made, 12 October 2011.
    Amnesty International: Jailed former Ukraine prime minister must be released, Kyiv Post (11 October 2011)
    Putin: Tymoshenko verdict unfair, Kyiv Post (11 October 2011)
    EU feels let down by Ukraine over Tymoshenko, Euronews (11 October 2011)
    Russia and West condemn Tymoshenko verdict, RIA Novosti (11 October 2011)
    [1], RIA Novosti (12 October 2011)
    Council of Europe concerned about Tymoshenko trial, Kyiv Post (12 October 2011)
  90. The Rating Group undertook a survey of Ukrainian voter's opinions on the Yulia Tymoshenko case:
    46% believed her guilty, 34% not guilty, and 20% were undecided.
    26% believed that the case was brought as observance of the law, 54% that it was political persecution, and 20% were undecided.
    28% believed that in signing the gas contracts Tymoshenko acted for the benefit of Ukraine, 4% for the benefit of Russia, 44% for her own benefit, and 24% were undecided.
    The Rating Group, Tymoshenko case through eyes of voters, 29 September 2011.
    The Rating Group, Справа Тчмощенко Очима Виборцїв (Voters' Opinions on the Tymoshenko case), September 2011
  91. Ukraine successfully fighting corruption, group says Kyiv Post (April 13, 2011)
  92. Former European Taxation Commissioner appointed Business Ombudsman for Ukraine's Anti-Corruption Initiative, Interfax-Ukraine (11 December 2014)
  93. "Ukraine governor Kolomoisky sacked after oil firm row". BBC. Europe. March 25, 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. 94.0 94.1 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006 Table
  95. 95.0 95.1 Annual Report Transparency International 2010 , pdf p79-80.
  96. 96.0 96.1 Annual Report Transparency International 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index data
    'Annual Report Transparency International 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index data
  97. The confidence range is a measure of the degree of certainty about the Corruption Perception Index score. Nominally, the true score has a 1 in 20 probability of being above the upper range, and a 1 in 20 probability of being below the lower range. If the number of surveys available was low, then these 1 in 20 probabilities might really only be 1 in 10.
  98. Called "Standard Error" in the 2014 results spreadsheet.
  99. Ideally 12 surveys should be used for a country. If less than 3 surveys were available, then that country was not included in the Corruption Perceptions Index.
  100. Annual Report Transparency International 1999 , pdf p13
  101. Annual Report Transparency International 2000 , pdf p14
  102. Annual Report Transparency International 2001 , pdf p13
  103. Annual Report Transparency International 2002 , Portuguese, Spanish, pdf p30
  104. Annual Report Transparency International 2003 , pdf p21
  105. Annual Report Transparency International 2004 , pdf p11
  106. Annual Report Transparency International 2005 , pdf p21
  107. Annual Report Transparency International 2006, pdf p23
  108. Annual Report Transparency International 2007 , pdf Abs1:27
  109. Annual Report Transparency International 2008 , pdf Sec1:21
  110. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2008 Table, and the same table in newsroom section.
  111. Annual Report Transparency International 2009 , pdf p53
  112. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2009 Table.
  113. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2010 pdf p7.
  114. Corruption Perceptions Index 2011, Transparency International
  115. Annual Report Transparency International 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index data
  116. Ukraine inches up on international corruption index, Kyiv Post ( December 2012)
  117. Annual Report Transparency International 2013 Corruption Perceptions Index data
  118. "2014 Corruption Perceptions Index -- Results". Transparency International. Transparency International. December 2014. Retrieved November 3, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. 119.0 119.1 119.2 Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer 2009 Report, June 2, 2009, ISBN 978-3-935711-28-9 pdf Abs1:28–29.

External links

A world map of the 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International