Dan Shechtman, Nobel Prize 2011 press conference.
24 January 1941 |
Tel Aviv, Mandatory Palestine (now in Israel)
|Institutions||Wright-Patterson Air Force Base
Johns Hopkins University
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Iowa State University
|Notable awards||Israel Prize (1998)
Wolf Prize in Physics (1999)
Gregori Aminoff Prize (2000)
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2011)
Dan Shechtman (Hebrew: דן שכטמן; born January 24, 1941) is the Philip Tobias Professor of Materials Science at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, an Associate of the US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, and Professor of Materials Science at Iowa State University. On April 8, 1982, while on sabbatical at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D.C., Shechtman discovered the icosahedral phase, which opened the new field of quasiperiodic crystals. Shechtman was awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of quasicrystals, making him one of six Israelis who have won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Dan Shechtman was born in 1941 in Tel Aviv, in what was then Mandatory Palestine; the city became part of the new state of Israel in 1948. He is married to Prof. Tzipora Shechtman, Head of the Department of Counseling and Human Development at Haifa University, and author of two books on psychotherapy. They have a son Yoav Shechtman (a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of W. E. Moerner) and three daughters: Tamar Finkelstein (an organizational psychologist at the Israeli police leadership center), Ella Shechtman-Cory (a PhD in clinical psychology), and Ruth Dougoud-Nevo (also a PhD in clinical psychology).
After receiving his Ph.D. in Materials Engineering from the Technion in 1972, where he also obtained his B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering in 1966 and M.Sc. in Materials Engineering in 1968, Prof. Shechtman was an NRC fellow at the Aerospace Research Laboratories at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio, where he studied for three years the microstructure and physical metallurgy of titanium aluminides. In 1975 he joined the department of materials engineering at Technion. In 1981–1983 he was on Sabbatical at Johns Hopkins University, where he studied rapidly solidified aluminum transition metal alloys, in a joint program with NBS. During this study he discovered the Icosahedral Phase which opened the new field of quasiperiodic crystals.
In 1992–1994 he was on sabbatical at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where he studied the effect of the defect structure of CVD diamond on its growth and properties. Shechtman's Technion research is conducted in the Louis Edelstein Center, and in the Wolfson Centre which is headed by him. He served on several Technion Senate Committees and headed one of them.
Work on quasicrystals
From the day Shechtman published his findings on quasicrystals in 1984 to the day Linus Pauling died (1994), Shechtman experienced hostility from him toward the non-periodic interpretation. "For a long time it was me against the world," he said. "I was a subject of ridicule and lectures about the basics of crystallography. The leader of the opposition to my findings was the two-time Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling, the idol of the American Chemical Society and one of the most famous scientists in the world. For years, 'til his last day, he fought against quasi-periodicity in crystals. He was wrong, and after a while, I enjoyed every moment of this scientific battle, knowing that he was wrong."
Linus Pauling is noted saying "There is no such thing as quasicrystals, only quasi-scientists." Pauling was apparently unaware of a paper in 1981 by H. Kleinert and K. Maki which had pointed out the possibility of a non-periodic Icosahedral Phase in quasicrystals (see the historical notes). The head of Shechtman's research group told him to "go back and read the textbook" and a couple of days later "asked him to leave for 'bringing disgrace' on the team." Shechtman felt dejected. On publication of his paper, other scientists began to confirm and accept empirical findings of the existence of quasicrystals.
The Nobel Committee at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said that "his discovery was extremely controversial," but that his work "eventually forced scientists to reconsider their conception of the very nature of matter." Through Shechtman's discovery, several other groups were able to form similar quasicrystals,[when?] finding these materials to have low thermal and electrical conductivity, while possessing high structural stability. Quasicrystals have also been found naturally.
A quasiperiodic crystal, or, in short, quasicrystal, is a structure that is ordered but not periodic. A quasicrystalline pattern can continuously fill all available space, but it lacks translational symmetry. "Aperiodic mosaics, such as those found in the medieval Islamic mosaics of the Alhambra palace in Spain and the Darb-i Imam shrine in Iran, have helped scientists understand what quasicrystals look like at the atomic level. In those mosaics, as in quasicrystals, the patterns are regular -- they follow mathematical rules -- but they never repeat themselves.""An intriguing feature of such patterns, [which are] also found in Arab mosaics, is that the mathematical constant known as the Greek letter tau, or the "golden ratio", occurs over and over again. Underlying it is a sequence worked out by Fibonacci in the 13th century, where each number is the sum of the preceding two."
Quasicrystalline materials could be[needs update] used in a large number of applications, including the formation of durable steel used for fine instrumentation, and non-stick insulation for electrical wires and cooking equipment., but presently have no technological applications.
On January 17, 2014, in an interview with Israel's Channel One, Shechtman announced his candidacy for President of Israel. Shechtman received the endorsement of the ten Members of Knesset required to run. In the elections, held on 10 June 2014, he was awarded only one vote. This led Israeli press and Israeli humorists to qualify Shechtman as "quasi-president" in reference to the "quasi-scientist" quote.
- 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of quasicrystals
- 2008 European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) 25th Anniversary Award
- 2002 EMET Prize in Chemistry
- 2000 Muriel & David Jacknow Technion Award for Excellence in Teaching
- 2000 Gregori Aminoff Prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
- 1999 Wolf Prize in Physics.
- 1998 Israel Prize, for Physics.
- 1993 Weizmann Science Award
- 1990 Rothschild Prize in Engineering
- 1988 New England Academic Award of the Technion
- 1988 International Award for New Materials of the American Physical Society
- 1986 Physics Award of the Friedenberg Fund for the Advancement of Science and Education
- Shechtman, D.; Blech, I.; Gratias, D.; Cahn, J. (1984). "Metallic Phase with Long-Range Orientational Order and No Translational Symmetry". Physical Review Letters. 53 (20): 1951. Bibcode:1984PhRvL..53.1951S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.1951.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Swartzendruber, L.; Shechtman, D.; Bendersky, L.; Cahn, J. (1985). "Nuclear γ-ray resonance observations in an aluminum-based icosahedral quasicrystal". Physical Review B. 32 (2): 1383. Bibcode:1985PhRvB..32.1383S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.32.1383.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cahn, John W.; Gratias, Denis; Shechtman, Dan (1986). "Pauling's model not universally accepted". Nature. 319 (6049): 102. Bibcode:1986Natur.319..102C. doi:10.1038/319102a0.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Shechtman, Dan (1988). "The Icosahedral Quasiperiodic Phase". Physica Scripta. 49: 49. Bibcode:1988PhST...23...49S. doi:10.1088/0031-8949/1988/T23/008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cahn, John W.; Shechtman, Dan; Gratias, Denis (1986). "Indexing of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals". Journal of Materials Research. 1: 13. Bibcode:1986JMatR...1...13C. doi:10.1557/JMR.1986.0013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Dan Shechtman. (PDF). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- "Israeli Wins Chemistry Nobel For Quasicrystals". npr.org. Retrieved 2011-10-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Iowa State, Ames Laboratory, Technion Scientist Wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Newswise.com (2011-10-05). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- Tiny Israel a Nobel heavyweight, especially in chemistry
- Israel’s Shechtman vindicated with Nobel for chemistry AFP (in Al Arabiya News) Thursday, 06 October 2011
- Fiske, Gavriel (2013-10-09). "Tiny Israel a Nobel heavyweight, especially in chemistry". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 2013-10-13.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Professor Zipora Shechtman. Edu.haifa.ac.il. Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- He deserves it, wife of 2011 Nobel Chemistry laureate says. Monstersandcritics.com (2011-10-05). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- Shechtman Wins Chemistry Nobel for Crystal Find. Mobile.bloomberg.com (2011-10-05). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- Genealogy of the Shechtman family. Geni.com (2010-08-12). Retrieved on 2012-01-28.
- Iowa State prof wins Nobel in chemistry (Chicago Tribune, October 5, 2011)
- В ТПУ впервые прошло заседание Международного научного совета
- Ünal, B; V. Fournée; K.J. Schnitzenbaumer; C. Ghosh; C.J. Jenks; A.R. Ross; T.A. Lograsso; J.W. Evans; P.A. Thiel (2007). "Nucleation and growth of Ag islands on ﬁvefold Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal surfaces: Dependence of island density on temperature and ﬂux". Physical Review B. 75 (6): 064205. Bibcode:2007PhRvB..75f4205U. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.75.064205.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lannin, Patrick (2011-10-05). "Ridiculed crystal work wins Nobel for Israeli". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-10-22.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Kleinert H., Maki K. (1981). "Lattice Textures in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals" (PDF). Fortschritte der Physik. 29 (5): 219–259. Bibcode:1981ForPh..29..219K. doi:10.1002/prop.19810290503.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Jha, Alok (5 Jan 2013). "Dan Shechtman: 'Linus Pauling said I was talking nonsense'". Guardian.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bradley, David (Oct 5, 2011). "Dan Shechtman discusses quasicrystals". ScienceBase. Retrieved 5 October 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Shechtman video interview
- "Clear as crystal". Haaretz. 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2011-10-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Janot, Christian (1997). Quasicrystals – a primer, 2nd ed. Oxford University Publishing.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Van Noorden, Richard (2011-10-05). "Impossible crystals snag chemistry Nobel". nature. Retrieved 2011-10-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Carpenter, Jennifer (2011-10-05). "Nobel win for crystal discovery". BBC. Retrieved 2011-10-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Wolf Prize Recipients in Physics". Wolffund.org.il. Retrieved 2011-10-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Israel Prize Official Site – Recipients in 1998 (in Hebrew)".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- D. P. DiVincenzo and P. J. Steinhardt, eds. 1991. Quasicrystals: The State of the Art. Directions in Condensed Matter Physics, Vol 11. ISBN 981-02-0522-8.
- T. Janssen. 2007. Quasicrystals: Comparative dynamics. Nature Materials, Vol 6., 925-926.
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- Nobel Laureates from Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
- Biography and Bibliographic Resources, from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy
- Story of quasicrystals as told by Shechtman to APS News in 2002.
- Biography/CV Page – Technion
- TechnionLIVE e-newsletter
- Dan Shechtman (Iowa State faculty page)
- 2012 interview with The Times of Israel
|Nobel Laureate in Chemistry||Succeeded by