Effendi

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Effendi, Effendy or Efendi (Greek: αφέντης IPA: [aˈfendis]; Ottoman Turkish language: افندي Efendi, Arabic: أفندي Afandī; Persian: آفندی ‎‎, Urdu: آفندی ‎) is a title of nobility meaning a Lord or Master.[1]

It is a title of respect or courtesy, equivalent to the English Sir, which was used in the Ottoman Empire. It follows the personal name, when it is used, and is generally given to members of the learned professions and to government officials who have high ranks, such as bey or pasha. It may also indicate a definite office, as hekim efendi, chief physician to the sultan. The possessive form efendim (my master) is used by servants, in formal discourse, when answering the telephone, and can substitute for "excuse me" in some situations (e.g. asking someone to repeat something) .[not verified in body]

In the Ottoman era, the most common title affixed to a personal name after that of agha was efendi. Such a title would have indicated an "educated gentleman", hence by implication a graduate of a secular state school (rüşdiye), even though at least some if not most of these efendis had once been religious students, or even religious teachers.[not verified in body]

Etymology

The Ottoman Turkish word افندي efendi, in modern Turkish efendi, is a borrowing of the Medieval Greek ἀφέντης afendēs, from Ancient Greek αὐθέντης authentēs, "master, author, doer, perpetrator" (cf. authentic).[2][3][4][5] This word was widely used as a title for Byzantine nobles as late as 1465, such as in the letters of Cardinal Bessarion concerning the children of Thomas Paleologus.[6]

Other uses

  • Effendi is still used as an honorific in Egypt, Jordan, and Turkey (as well as some other former Ottoman states), and is the source of the word أفندم؟ afandim?, Turkish: efendim, a particularly polite way of saying, "Excuse me?",[9] and can be used in answering the phone.[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. El-Messiri, Sawsan (1997). Ibn Al-Balad: A Concept of Egyptian Identity. Brill Publishers. p. 5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. αὐθέντης. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  3. "effendi". Oxford Dictionaries.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Harper, Douglas. "effendi". Online Etymology Dictionary.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Harper, Douglas. "authentic". Online Etymology Dictionary.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Bessarion on the imperial hangers-on". Surprised by Time.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Egypt: Muhammad Ali Dynasty: Glossary". http://www.royalark.net. External link in |website= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Nassau, William Senior (1882). Conversations and Journals in Egypt and Malta. 2. S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Hans-Jürgen Kornrumpf (1979) Langenscheidt's Universal Dictionary, Turkish-English, English-Turkish, Langenscheidt KG, Berlin and Leipzig ISBN 978-0-88729-167-8
  10. Parsons, Timothy H. (2003). The 1964 Army Mutinies And The Making Of Modern East Africa. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-325-07068-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Gelfand, A. Allmusic Review accessed February 19, 2009.

References