Elections in Alabama

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Elections in Alabama are authorized under the Alabama State Constitution, which establishes elections for the state level officers, cabinet, and legislature, and the election of county-level officers, including members of school boards.

The office of the Alabama Secretary of State has an Elections Division that oversees the execution of elections under state law.

State elections


With the disenfranchisement of African Americans at the turn of the 20th century after the Reconstruction era, Alabama Democrats suppressed populist challenges and the state became part of the "Solid South." This constitution was not initially supported by the majority of whites, but Democrats used the call of white supremacy to gain passage.[1] In addition to wanting to affirm white supremacy, the planter and business elite were concerned about voting by lower-class and uneducated whites. Historian J. Morgan Kousser found, "They disfranchised these whites as willingly as they deprived blacks of the vote."[2] After passage, the 1901 constitution's provisions for a grandfather clause, cumulative poll taxes, literacy tests, and increased residency requirements state, county and precinct effectively disenfranchised many poor whites as well, to enable elite control. Glenn Feldman has documented that in total, by 1941 more whites than blacks had been disenfranchised in Alabama under this constitution.[3] The Democratic Party dominated politics in every Southern state. For nearly 100 years, local and state elections in Alabama were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally only token Republican challengers running in the General Election.

Demographic changes and developments in the 1986 Democratic primary election led to the election of the first Republican Governor by majority-white voters in more than a century. This was the beginning of what is now Republican political dominance in the state. One million voters cast ballots in the 1986 Democratic primary. The then-incumbent Lieutenant Governor, Bill Baxley, lost the Democratic nomination for Governor by approximately 8,000 votes to then fellow Democratic Attorney General Charles Graddick.

The state Democratic party's five-member election contest committee invalidated the primary election result, claiming that thousands of Republicans had "illegally" voted in the Democratic primary for Graddick. As a result, they removed Graddick from the ballot. The Democratic Party placed Baxley's name on the ballot as the Democratic candidate instead of Graddick. The voters of the state revolted at what they perceived as disenfranchisement of their right to vote and elected the Republican challenger, Guy Hunt, as Governor.[4] Hunt was nominated in a statewide Republican primary that had 28,000 participants compared to the 1,000,000 plus of the Democratic primary. That November Hunt became the first Republican Governor elected in Alabama since Reconstruction, winning 57 percent of the vote statewide against Baxley.

Since 1986, Republicans have won six of the seven gubernatorial elections and become increasingly competitive in Alabama politics at many levels. They currently control both seats in the U.S. Senate and six out of the state's seven congressional seats.

Two Republican Lieutenant Governors have been elected since Reconstruction, Steve Windom and Kay Ivey, the current Lieutenant Governor. Windom served as Lt. Governor under Democratic Gov. Don Siegelman. Before 2011, the last time that Alabama had a governor and Lieutenant Governor of the same party was the period between 1983 and 1987 when George Wallace was serving his fourth term as governor and Bill Baxley was serving as Lieutenant Governor; both were Democrats.

As of 2012

Republicans held all nine seats on the Alabama Supreme Court[5] and all ten seats on the state appellate courts. Until 1994, no Republicans held any of the state court seats. In the 1994 general election, the then-incumbent Chief Justice of Alabama, Ernest C. Hornsby, refused to leave office after losing the election by precisely 262 votes to Republican Perry O. Hooper, Sr.. Hornsby sued Alabama and defiantly remained in office for nearly a year before finally giving up the seat after losing a long court battle that included a decision by the very Supreme Court that he himself was the Chief Justice of.[6] This ultimately led to a collapse of support for Democrats at the ballot box in the next three or four election cycles. The Democrats lost the last of the nineteen court seats in August 2011 with the resignation of the last Democrat on the bench.

Republicans hold all seven of the statewide elected executive branch offices. Republicans hold six of the eight elected seats on the Alabama State Board of Education. In 2010, Republicans took large majorities of both chambers of the state legislature, giving them control of that body for the first time in 136 years. Democrats lost their last remaining statewide office in November 2012 with the re-election defeat of the President of the Alabama Public Service Commission, thus giving Republicans all three of its seats.[7][8][9]

Local elections

In the late 20th century, Alabama maintained its extensive system of at-large voting for most county and municipal offices, including County Commissioners, Boards of Education, Tax Assessors, Tax Collectors, etc. As a result, in majority-white jurisdictions, African-American minorities, even when significant in proportion and then able to register and vote, were generally unable to elect any candidates of their choice in such elections. These practices were challenged by plaintiffs under Dillard v. Crenshaw County (1986). The federal district judge found that the state's broad use of at-large elections had a racially discriminatory purpose and violated Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The state's use of a "place system", which precluded single-shot voting, was found specifically to have been adopted to "impede the ability of African-American voters to elect" candidates of their choice.[10]

Following the court ruling on the state's use of this system, the plaintiffs expanded their dilution claims in Dillard in an omnibus application to "include the at-large election systems to include other county commissions, county school boards, and municipal councils across the state."[10] The amended complaint covered nearly "200 units of local government", challenging at-large systems in local jurisdictions in which African Americans were at least 10 percent of the population.[10] Most of the affected jurisdictions settled these cases by adopting single-member district systems (SMDs), which has resulted in the election of more African Americans to local offices, generally in proportion to their part of the jurisdiction's population; this has resulted in more Democrats being elected to office. Limited voting schemes were adopted by 21 municipalities in negotiation with the plaintiffs, and another six jurisdictions adopted cumulative voting arrangements. As a result, total representation by African-American candidates has increased in local elections for municipal and county government, as well as county school boards.[10] Elections have been held since 1988 under these alternative systems.

As of the early 21st century, local elections in most rural counties, many of which are black dominated, are generally decided in the Democratic primary, and local elections in metropolitan and suburban counties, which are generally white majority, are decided in the Republican primary, although there are exceptions.[11][12]

Alabama's 67 County Sheriffs are elected in partisan races, and Democrats retain the majority of those posts. The current split as of December, 2013 is 39 Democrats, 27 Republicans, and 1 Independent (Choctaw).[13][full citation needed] Most of the Democratic sheriffs have been elected in rural, less populated counties. The majority of Republican sheriffs have been elected in more urban/suburban and heavily populated counties, which tend to be majority white.[14] Two of the Alabama counties with a population of over 100,000 (Montgomery and Calhoun) have Democratic sheriffs; and five Alabama counties with a population of under 75,000 have Republican sheriffs (Autauga, Coffee, Dale, Coosa, and Blount).[15] The state has one female sheriff (Morgan) and nine African-American sheriffs.[16][full citation needed]

Federal elections


Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic State winner
2012 60.55% 1,255,925 38.36% 795,696 Mitt Romney
2008 60.32% 1,266,546 38.80% 813,479 John McCain
2004 62.46% 1,176,394 36.84% 693,933 George W. Bush
2000 56.47% 944,409 41.59% 695,602 George W. Bush
1996 50.12% 769,044 43.16% 662,165 Bob Dole
1992 47.65% 804,283 40.88% 690,080 George Bush
1988 59.17% 815,576 39.86% 549,506 George Bush
1984 60.54% 872,849 38.28% 551,899 Ronald Reagan
1980 48.75% 654,192 47.45% 636,730 Ronald Reagan
1976 42.61% 504,070 55.73% 659,170 Jimmy Carter
1972 72.43% 728,701 25.54% 256,923 Richard Nixon
1968* 13.99% 146,923 18.72% 196,579 George Wallace (I)
1964 69.45% 479,085 30.55% 210,732 Barry Goldwater
1960 42.16% 237,981 56.39% 318,303 John F. Kennedy
*State won by George Wallace
of the American Independent Party,
at 65.86%, or 691,425 votes

From 1876 through 1956, Alabama supported only Democratic presidential candidates, by large margins. There were only two exceptions; the 1928 elections in which the Democrats won by a much smaller margin than normal due to Anti-Catholic prejudices against the Democratic Candidate Al Smith, and the 1948 election when Alabama, along with Mississippi, Louisiana, and South Carolina, voted for Strom Thurmond of the pro-segregation States Right's Democratic Party. In 1960, the Democrats won with John F. Kennedy on the ballot. However, six of the state's 11 Democratic electors were members of the unpledged elector movement, and gave their electoral votes as a protest to Harry Byrd.

In 1964, the state swung over dramatically to support Republican Barry Goldwater, who carried the state with an unheard-of 69 percent of the vote, carrying all but five counties. He was the first Republican to carry the state since 1872. Like much of the Deep South, Alabama's voters turned violently on President Lyndon Johnson in the wake of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

In the 1968 presidential election, Alabama supported native son and American Independent Party candidate George Wallace over both Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. Wallace was the official Democratic candidate in Alabama, while Humphrey was the National Democratic nominee.[17] In 1976, Democratic candidate Jimmy Carter from Georgia carried the state, the region, and the nation, but Democratic control of the region slipped after that.

Alabama does not register voters by party and in several recent statewide elections Republican turnout in statewide primaries now exceeds that of the Democrats, Alabama is now reckoned as a Republican stronghold at both the federal and state level, although Democrats still retain a slim majority in many local offices (sheriffs, county commissioners, etc.). The state has voted Republican in every presidential election since 1980, and Democrats have not seriously contested the state since. Republicans have also done increasingly well in Senate and House elections; they have held a majority of the state's congressional delegation and both Senate seats since 1997. In 2012, Democrats lost the only remaining statewide office the party still held giving Republicans control of all 10 state constitutional offices. The GOP also has won all 19 statewide court seats. In 2010, Republicans won large majorities in both chambers of the Alabama Legislature ending 136 years of Democrat rule; see Dixiecrat.

In 2004, George W. Bush won Alabama's nine electoral votes by a margin of 25 percentage points with 62.5% of the vote, mostly white voters. The 11 counties that voted Democratic were Black Belt counties, where African Americans are the majority racial group.


The state's two U.S. senators are Jefferson B. Sessions III and Richard C. Shelby, both Republicans. Sessions was re-elected in 2014 without Democratic Party opposition, the first time since the Civil War that the Democratic Party failed to contest one of the U.S. Senate seats.

In the U.S. House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, six Republicans (Bradley Byrne, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Morris J. Brooks, Martha Roby, and Gary Palmer) and one Democrat (Terri Sewell).

Presidential elections

Vote in Alabama National vote
Year Candidate Year Candidate
1820 James Monroe 1820 James Monroe
1824 Andrew Jackson 1824 John Quincy Adams
1828 Andrew Jackson 1828 Andrew Jackson
1832 Andrew Jackson 1832 Andrew Jackson
1836 Martin Van Buren 1836 Martin Van Buren
1840 Martin Van Buren 1840 William Henry Harrison
1844 James K. Polk 1844 James K. Polk
1848 Lewis Cass 1848 Zachary Taylor
1852 Franklin Pierce 1852 Franklin Pierce
1856 James Buchanan 1856 James Buchanan
1860 John C. Breckinridge 1860 Abraham Lincoln
1864 Abraham Lincoln
1868 Ulysses S. Grant 1868 Ulysses S. Grant
1872 Ulysses S. Grant 1872 Ulysses S. Grant
1876 Samuel J. Tilden 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes
1880 Winfield Scott Hancock 1880 James A. Garfield
1884 Grover Cleveland 1884 Grover Cleveland
1888 Grover Cleveland 1888 Benjamin Harrison
1892 Grover Cleveland 1892 Grover Cleveland
1896 William Jennings Bryan 1896 William McKinley
1900 William Jennings Bryan 1900 William McKinley
1904 Alton B. Parker 1904 Theodore Roosevelt
1908 William Jennings Bryan 1908 William Howard Taft
1912 Woodrow Wilson 1912 Woodrow Wilson
1916 Woodrow Wilson 1916 Woodrow Wilson
1920 James M. Cox 1920 Warren G. Harding
1924 John W. Davis 1924 Calvin Coolidge
1928 Al Smith 1928 Herbert Hoover
1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt
1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt
1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt
1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt 1948 Franklin D. Roosevelt
1948 Strom Thurmond 1948 Harry S. Truman
1952 Adlai Stevenson 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower
1956 Adlai Stevenson 1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower
1960 Harry F. Byrd 1960 John F. Kennedy
1964 Barry Goldwater 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson
1968 George Wallace 1968 Richard Nixon
1972 Richard Nixon 1972 Richard Nixon
1976 Jimmy Carter 1976 Jimmy Carter
1980 Ronald Reagan 1980 Ronald Reagan
1984 Ronald Reagan 1984 Ronald Reagan
1988 George H. W. Bush 1988 George H. W. Bush
1992 George H. W. Bush 1992 Bill Clinton
1996 Bob Dole 1996 Bill Clinton
2000 George W. Bush 2000 George W. Bush
2004 George W. Bush 2004 George W. Bush
2008 John McCain 2008 Barack Obama
2012 Mitt Romney 2012 Barack Obama

Summary of elections

The following table displays, by color, the parties of elected officials in the U.S. state of Alabama from 1817 to the current year. As such, it may indicate the political party strength at any given time. The officers listed include:

The table also indicates the historical party composition in the:

For years in which a presidential election was held, the table indicates which party's nominees received the state's electoral votes.

The parties are as follows:       American (A),       Democratic (D),       Democratic-Republican (DR),       Greenback (G),       Independent (I),       Jacksonian (J),       Military (M),       no party (N),       Populist (P),       Republican (R),       Southern Democratic (SD),       Whig (W), and       a tie or coalition within a group of elected officials.

Year Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress Electoral College votes
Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General Auditor Treasurer Comm. of Ag. and Ind. State Senate State House U.S. Sen. (Class II) U.S. Sen. (Class III) U.S. House
1817 William Wyatt Bibb (N)[19] no such office no such office no such office Jack Ross[20] no such office no such bodies no such offices John Crowell (DR)[21] no electoral votes
1818 Henry Hitchcock[22] unknown D majority
1819 William Wyatt Bibb (DR)[23] Thomas A. Rodgers Henry Hitchcock Samuel Pickens Jack Ross W majority William R. King (D) John Williams Walker (D) John Crowell (DR)
1820 D majority James Monroe and Daniel Tompkins (DR) Green tickY
Thomas Bibb (DR)[24]
1821 James J. Pleasants (W) W majority Gabriel Moore (DR)
1822 Israel Pickens (DR) John C. Perry William Kelly (D)
1823 Thomas White D majority 3J
1824 James I. Thornton[25] Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun (DR) Red XN
1825 Constantine Perkins Henry H. Chambers (D)
1826 John Murphy (J) Israel Pickens (D)
1827 John McKinley (D)
1828 Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun (D) Green tickY
1829 George Whitfield Crabb (W) Hardin Perkins 2D, 1J
1830 Gabriel Moore (J)[26]
1831 Samuel B. Moore (D)[24] Gabriel Moore (D)
1832 John Gayle (D) Peter Martin[27] Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren (D) Green tickY
1833 3J, 2D
1834 Edmund A. Webster William Hawn
1835 unknown 3D, 2W
1836 Clement Comer Clay (D)[26] Thomas B. Tunstall Alexander Meek[28] Jefferson C. Van Dyke Martin Van Buren and Richard Mentor Johnson (D) Green tickY
1837 John D. Phelan 18D, 12D, 3? 46W, 44D, 10? John McKinley (D)
Hugh McVay (D)[24] Clement Comer Clay (D)
1838 Arthur P. Bagby (D) Lincoln Clarke unknown 45D, 33W, 22?
1839 Matthew W. Lindsay 19D, 9W, 5? 66D, 31W, 3?
1840 William Garrett (D) Samuel Frierson 23D, 10W 67D, 33W Martin Van Buren and Richard Mentor Johnson (D) Red XN
1841 20D, 13W 54D, 46W 5D
1842 Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D) 52D, 48W Arthur P. Bagby (D)
1843 Thomas D. Clarke 21D, 12W 67D, 33W 6D, 1W
1844 19D, 14W 62D, 38W Dixon H. Lewis (D) James K. Polk and George M. Dallas (D) Green tickY
1845 D Majority D Majority
1846 Joshua L. Martin (I)[29] William Graham 20D, 13W 61D, 37W, 2?
1847 William H. Martin 5D, 2W
1848 Reuben Chapman (D) Marion A. Baldwin Joel Riggs 17D, 16W 65D, 35W Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D) William R. King (D) Lewis Cass and William O. Butler (D) Red XN
1849 Jeremiah Clemens (D)
1850 Henry W. Collier (D) 17W, 16D 57D, 43W
1851 4D, 2W, 1A
1852 Vincent M. Benham (D) 22 Union, 11 Southern Rights 62 Union, 38 Southern Rights Franklin Pierce and William R. King (D) Green tickY
1853 Clement Claiborne Clay (D) Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D) 5D, 1W, 1A
1854 John A. Winston (D) 20D, 13W 59D, 41W
1855 William J. Greene 5D, 2A
1856 James H. Weaver 20D, 13A 61D, 39A James Buchanan and John C. Breckinridge (D) Green tickY
1857 7D
1858 Andrew B. Moore (D) 27D, 6A 84D, 16A
1860 Patrick Henry Brittan (D) Duncan Graham (D) 27D, 6 Opp. 85D, 15 Opp. John C. Breckinridge and Joseph Lane (SD) Red XN
1861 vacant vacant
1862 John Gill Shorter (D) American Civil War American Civil War
1864 Thomas H. Watts (D)[30] no electoral votes
1865 Albert S. Elmore John W. A. Sanford Malcolm A. Chisholm Lyd Saxon (D)
Lewis E. Parsons (D)[31]
1866 Robert M. Patton (D)[32] David L. Dalton (D) 33N 100N
1867 Micah Taul (D) 6R
Wager Swayne (M)[33]
1868 Charles A. Miller (R) Joshua Morse (R) Arthur Bingham (R) Ulysses S. Grant and Schuyler Colfax (R) Green tickY
William Hugh Smith (R)[34] Willard Warner (R) George E. Spencer (R)
Andrew J. Applegate (R)
1869 Robert M. Reynolds (R) 32R, 1D 97R, 3D 4R, 2D
1870 Jabez J. Parker John W. A. Sanford James Grant
1871 Robert B. Lindsay (D)[34] Edward H. Moren (D) 65D, 35R George Goldthwaite (D) 3R, 3D
1872 Patrick Ragland (R) Benjamin Gardner (R) Robert T. Smith (R) Arthur Bingham (R) Ulysses S. Grant and Henry Wilson (R) Green tickY
1873 David P. Lewis (R) Alexander McKinstry (R) Neander H. Rice 17R, 16D[35] 51R, 49D[36] 6R, 2D
1874 Rufus K. Boyd (D) John W. A. Sanford Daniel Crawford
1875 George S. Houston (D) Robert F. Ligon (D) 20D, 13R 60D, 40R 6D, 2R
1876 Willis Brewer (D) Samuel Tilden and Thomas Hendricks (D) Red XN
1877 [37] 33D 80D, 20R John Tyler Morgan (D) 8D
1878 William W. Screws (D) Henry Tompkins (D) Isaac Vincent (D)
1879 Rufus W. Cobb (D) 31D, 2R 91D, 4ID, 3R, 2G George S. Houston (D) 7D, 1G
1880 Jesse Malcolm Carmichael Luke Pryor (D) Winfield Hancock and William English (D) Red XN
1881 33D 94D, 4ID, 1R, 1G James L. Pugh (D) 8D
1882 Ellis Phelan (D) 7D, 1G
1883 Edward A. O'Neal (D) Frederick Smith Edward C. Betts (D) 31D, 2R 77D, 17I, 5R, 1G 8D
1884 Thomas McClellan (D) Malcolm C. Burke 7D, 1R Grover Cleveland and Thomas Hendricks (D) Green tickY
1885 Charles C. Langdon (D)[38] 30D, 3R 93D, 7R 8D
1887 Thomas Seay (D) Ruben F. Kolb (D) 32D, 1R 83D, 17R
1888 Cyrus D. Hogue John Cobbs (D) Grover Cleveland and Allen Thurman (D) Red XN
1889 William L. Martin (D) 92D, 8R
1890 Joseph D. Barron (D) 7D, 1R
1891 Thomas G. Jones (D) Hector D. Lane (D) 33D 97D, 3R 8D
1892 John Purifoy (D)[38] J. Craig Smith (D) Grover Cleveland and Adlai E. Stevenson I (D) Green tickY
1893 26D, 7P 61D, 38P. 1R 9D
1894 James K. Jackson (D) William C. Fitts (D)
1895 William C. Oates (D) 24D, 8P, 1R 65D, 34P. 1R 8D, 1P
1896 Walter S. White George Ellis (D) Issac F. Culver (D) 5D, 2P, 2R William Jennings Bryan and Arthur Sewall (D) Red XN
1897 Joseph F. Johnston (D) 22D, 9P, 2R 74D, 23P. 3R Edmund Pettus (D) 8D, 1P
1898 Robert P. McDavid (D) Charles G. Brown 7D, 1P, 1R
1899 28D, 5P 89D, 10P. 1R 9D
1900 Thomas L. Sowell (D) J. Craig Smith (D) Robert R. Poole (D) William Jennings Bryan and Adlai E. Stevenson I (D) Red XN
William D. Jelks (D)[39] 8D, 1R
1901 William J. Samford (D)[23] 32D, 1P 92D, 6P. 2R 9D
William D. Jelks (D)[40][41]
1903 Russell McWhortor Cunningham (D)[42] James Thomas Heflin (D) Massey Wilson (D) 35D 103D, 2R
1904 Edmund R. McDavid (D)[28] Alton Parker and Henry Davis (D) Red XN
1905 Jesse Malcolm Carmichael
1907 B. B. Comer (D) Henry B. Gray (D) Frank N. Julian (D) Alexander M. Garber (D) William W. Brandon (D) Walter D. Seed, Sr. (D) Joseph A. Wilkinson (D) 34D, 1R 104D, 2R John H. Bankhead (D) Joseph F. Johnston (D)
1908 William Jennings Bryan and John Kern (D) Red XN
1910 Cyrus B. Brown (D)
1911 Emmet O'Neal (D) Walter D. Seed, Sr. (D) Robert Brickell (D) Charles Brooks Smith (D) John Purifoy (D) Ruben F. Kolb (D) 103D, 3R
1912 Woodrow Wilson and Thomas R. Marshall (D) Green tickY
1913 10D
1914 Francis S. White (D)
1915 Charles Henderson (D) Thomas Kilby (D) John Purifoy (D) William Logan Martin (D) Miles C. Allgood (D) William Lancaster (D) James A. Wade (D) 104D, 2R Oscar Underwood (D)
1918 F. Lloyd Tate
Emmet S. Thigpen
1919 Thomas Kilby (D) Nathan Lee Miller (D) William Peyton Cobb (D) J. Q. Smith (D) Henry F. Lee (D) Robert Bradley Miles C. Allgood (D) 100D, 5R, 1?
1920 B. B. Comer (D) James Cox and Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) Red XN
1921 Harwell G. Davis (D) James Thomas Heflin (D)
1923 William W. Brandon (D) Charles S. McDowell (D)[43] Sidney H. Blan (D) William Barnett Allgood (D) George Ellis (D) James Monroe Moore (D) 35D 105D, 1R
1924 John Davis and Charles Bryan (D) Red XN
1927 Bibb Graves (D) William C. Davis (D) John M. Brandon (D) Charlie C. McCall (D) Sidney H. Blan (D) William Barnett Allgood (D) Samuel Dunwoody (D) 104D, 2R Hugo Black (D)
1928 Al Smith and Joseph Robinson (D) Red XN
1931 Benjamin M. Miller (D) Hugh D. Merrill (D) Pete Bryant Jarman, Jr. (D) Thomas E. Knight, Jr. (D) John M. Brandon (D) Sidney H. Blan (D) Seth Paddock Storrs (D) 103D, 3R John H. Bankhead II (D)
1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt and John Nance Garner (D) Green tickY
1933 9D
1935 Bibb Graves (D) Thomas E. Knight David Howell Turner (D) Albert A. Carmichael (D) Charles E. McCall (D) John M. Brandon (D) Robert James Goode (D) 105D, 1R
1937 Dixie Bibb Graves (D)
1938 J. Lister Hill (D)
1939 Frank M. Dixon (D) Albert A. Carmichael (D) John M. Brandon (D) Thomas S. Lawson (D) David Howell Turner (D) Charles E. McCall (D)[23] Haygood Paterson (D)
1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt and Henry Wallace (D) Green tickY
1941 Walter Lusk[38]
1943 Chauncey Sparks (D) Leven H. Ellis (D) David Howell Turner (D) William N. McQueen (D) John M. Brandon (D) Joseph N. Poole
1944 Sibyl Pool (D)[38] Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman (D) Green tickY
1946 George R. Swift (D)
1947 Jim Folsom (D) James C. Inzer (D) Albert A. Carmichael (D) Daniel H. Thomas, Sr. John M. Brandon (D) Haygood Paterson (D) John Sparkman (D)
1948 Strom Thurmond and Fielding Wright (D) Red XN
1951 Gordon Persons (D) James Allen (D) Agnes Baggett (D) S. I. Garrett (D) John M. Brandon (D) Sibyl Pool (D) Frank M. Stewart (D)
1952 Adlai Stevenson and John Sparkman (D) Red XN
1955 Jim Folsom (D) William G. Hardwick (D) Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D) John Malcolm Patterson (D) Agnes Baggett (D) John M. Brandon (D) A. W. Todd (D)
1956 Adlai Stevenson and Estes Kefauver (D) Red XN
1959 John Malcolm Patterson (D) Albert Boutwell (D) Bettye Frink (D) MacDonald Gallion (D) Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D) Agnes Baggett (D) Robert Bamberg (D) 106D
1960 6 Harry F. Byrd and Strom Thurmond (D) Red XN, 5 John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson (D) Green tickY
1963 George Wallace (D) James Allen (D) Agnes Baggett (D) Richmond M. Flowers (D) Bettye Frink (D) Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D) A. W. Todd (D) 104D, 2R 8D
1964 Barry Goldwater and William Miller (R) Red XN
1965 5R, 3D
1967 Lurleen Wallace (D)[23] Albert Brewer (D)[44] Mabel Sanders Amos (D) MacDonald Gallion (D) Melba Till Allen (D) Agnes Baggett (D) Richard Beard (D) 34D, 1R 106D 5D, 3R
1968 George Wallace and Curtis LeMay (AI) Red XN
Albert Brewer (D)[45] vacant
1969 James Allen (D)
1971 George Wallace (D) Jere Beasley (D)[46] Bill Baxley (D) 35D 104D, 2R
1972 Marion Gilmer (D)[23] Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew (R) Green tickY
1973 4D, 3R
1974 McMillan Lane (D)[38]
1975 Agnes Baggett (D) Bettye Frink (D) Melba Till Allen (D) 105D
1976 Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale (D) Green tickY
1978 Annie Laurie Gunter (D)[38] Maryon Pittman Allen (D)
1979 Fob James (D) George McMillan (D) Don Siegelman (D) Charles Graddick (D) 101D, 4R Howell Heflin (D) Donald W. Stewart (D)
1980 Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush (R) Green tickY
1981 Jeremiah Denton (R)
1983 George Wallace (D) Bill Baxley (D) Jan Cook (D) Albert McDonald (D) 32D, 3R 97D, 8R 5D, 2R
1984 29D, 3R, 3I 87D, 18R
1987 H. Guy Hunt (R)[47] Jim Folsom, Jr. (D) Glen Browder (D) Don Siegelman (D) George Wallace, Jr. (D) 30D, 5R 89D, 16R Richard Shelby (D)
1988 George H. W. Bush and Dan Quayle (R) Green tickY
1989 Fred Crawford (R)[28] 27D, 8R[48] 82D, 23R
1990 Perry A. Hand (R)[28]
1991 Billy Joe Camp (D) Jimmy Evans (D) Terry Ellis (D) A. W. Todd (D) 28D, 7R
1992 George H. W. Bush and Dan Quayle (R) Red XN
1993 27D, 8R 4D, 3R
Jim Folsom, Jr. (D)[45] vacant James R. Bennett (D)[38]
1995 Fob James (R) Don Siegelman (D) Jeff Sessions (R)[49] Pat Duncan (R) Lucy Baxley (D) Jack Thompson (R) 23D, 12R 73D, 32R Richard Shelby (R)[50]
1996 Bob Dole and Jack Kemp (R) Red XN
1997 William H. Pryor, Jr. (R)[38] 71D, 34R[51] Jeff Sessions (R) 5R, 2D
1998 21D, 14R[52] 68D, 37R[53]
1999 Don Siegelman (D) Steve Windom (R) James R. Bennett (R)[54] Susan Parker (D) Charles Bishop (D) 23D, 12R 69D, 36R
2000 24D, 11R[55] George W. Bush and Dick Cheney (R) Green tickY
2001 68D, 37R[56]
2002 67D, 38R[57]
2003 Bob Riley (R) Lucy Baxley (D) Nancy Worley (D) Beth Chapman (R) Kay Ivey (R) Ron Sparks (D) 25D, 10R 63D, 42R[58]
Troy King (R)[38]
2006 62D, 43R[59]
2007 Jim Folsom, Jr. (D) Beth Chapman (R) Samantha Shaw (R) 23D, 12R
2008 22D, 13R[60] John McCain and Sarah Palin (R) Red XN
2009 21D, 13R, 1I[61] 4R, 3D
2010 20D, 14R, 1I[62] 60D, 45R[63] 5R, 2D[64]
2011 Robert Bentley (R) Kay Ivey (R) Luther Strange (R) Young Boozer (R) John McMillan (R) 22R, 12D, 1I 66R, 39D[65] 6R, 1D
2012 Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan (R) Red XN
2013 23R, 11D, 1I[66] 66R, 38D, 1I[67]
James R. Bennett (R)
2014 67R, 37D, 1I[68]
2015 John Merrill (R) Jim Zeigler (R) 26R, 8D, 1I 72R, 33D
Year Governor Lieutenant Governor Secretary of State Attorney General Auditor Treasurer Comm. of Ag. and Ind. State Senate State House U.S. Sen. (Class II) U.S. Sen. (Class III) U.S. House Electoral College votes
Executive offices State Legislature United States Congress

See also


  1. Joseph H. Taylor, "Populism and Disfranchisement in Alabama", The Journal of Negro History Vol. 34, No. 4 (Oct., 1949), pp. 410-427(subscription required)
  2. J. Morgan Kousser.The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974
  3. Glenn Feldman, The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, pp. 135–136
  4. Stovall, Cotter, & Fisher, Alabama Political Almanac, p. 260, 1995
  5. "Sue Bell Cobb considering running for governor". The Birmingham News. al.com. 2009-05-02. Retrieved 2009-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. [1]
  7. "Commissioners". Psc.state.al.us. Retrieved 2009-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Special (2008-11-05). "Lucy Baxley wins Alabama Public Service Commission presidency, but recount possible". Birmingham News via al.com. Retrieved 2009-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Jeff Amy, Press-Register. "Public Service Commission: Twinkle Cavanaugh, Terry Dunn join GOP sweep". al.com. Retrieved 2011-06-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Georgia Anne Persons, editor, Race and Representation, Transaction Publishers, 1997, p. 185
  11. "2006 Gubernatorial Democratic Primary Election Results - Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2009-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "2006 Gubernatorial Republican Primary Election Results - Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. 2007-02-15. Retrieved 2009-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Alabama Sheriff's Association
  14. "Association". Alabama Sheriffs. Retrieved 2009-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "2007-2011 Alabama Sheriffs". Alabamasheriffs.com. Retrieved 2009-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Alabama Sheriffs Association
  17. "1968 Presidential General Election Results – Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. 1968-11-05. Retrieved 2009-08-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. With the adoption of the state Constitution of 1819, the auditor became the comptroller of public accounts elected annually by a joint vote of both houses of the General Assembly. The Constitution of 1868 changed the title of the office to auditor and established a process by which the officeholder would be chosen by the electors of the state every four years.
  19. Governor of Alabama Territory appointed by President James Monroe.
  20. Treasurer of Alabama Territory.
  21. Delegate from Alabama Territory.
  22. Secretary of Alabama Territory.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 Died in office.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 As president of the state senate, filled unexpired term. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "presfilled" defined multiple times with different content
  25. Resigned.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  27. Resigned following appointment to the Circuit Court bench.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 Appointed to fill vacancy.
  29. Democrat who opposed party leaders and ran as an independent.
  30. Arrested by Union forces soon after the American Civil War ended in May 1865; was released a few weeks later.
  31. Provisional governor appointed by the Union occupation; between Watts's arrest and Parsons' appointment, Alabama had no governor, instead being under direct rule of General George Henry Thomas.
  32. The United States Congress stripped Patton of most of his authority in March 1867, after which time the state was effectively under the control of Major General Wager Swayne.
  33. Military governor appointed during Reconstruction; though Patton was still officially governor, he was mostly a figurehead. The term start date given is the date of the first Reconstruction Act, which placed Alabama into the Third Military District; all references only say "March 1867."
  34. 34.0 34.1 Robert Lindsay was sworn into office on November 26, 1870, but William H. Smith refused to leave his seat for two weeks, claiming Lindsay was fraudulently elected, finally leaving office on December 8, 1870, when a court so ordered.
  35. Initial returns showed a 19-14 Democratic majority, but was overturned in a series of contests through March 1873.
  36. Initial returns showed a 54-46 Democratic majority, but was overturned in a series of contests through March 1873.
  37. Position of lieutenant governor was eliminated in 1875, effective at the end of the then-present term in November 1876, and was reestablished upon the adoption of the Alabama Constitution in 1901.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 38.6 38.7 38.8 Initially appointed to fill vacancy, later was elected in his own right.
  39. Acting governor for 26 days. Jelks was president of the state Senate when William J. Samford was out of state at the start of his term seeking medical treatment.
  40. As president of the state Senate, filled unexpired term and was subsequently elected in his own right.
  41. Gubernatorial terms were increased from two to four years during Jelks' governorship; his first term was filling out Samford's two-year term, and he was elected in 1902 for a four-year term.
  42. Acting governor from April 25, 1904 until March 5, 1905 while Jelks was out of state for medical treatment.
  43. Acting governor for two days—July 10 and 11, 1924—while Brandon was out of state for 21 days as a delegate to the 1924 Democratic National Convention.
  44. Wallace left the state for 20 days for medical treatment; as lieutenant governor, Brewer became acting governor on July 25, 1967. Wallace returned to the state later that day.
  45. 45.0 45.1 As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  46. Acting governor for 32 days, from June 5 until July 7, 1972. Beasley was lieutenant governor when Wallace spent 52 days in Maryland for medical treatment following an assassination attempt while campaigning for president of the United States.
  47. Removed from office upon being convicted of illegally using campaign and inaugural funds to pay personal debts; he was later pardoned by the state parole board based on innocence.
  48. Sens. John Amari, Frank "Butch" Ellis, and John Rice switched parties from Democrat to Republican. [2]
  49. Resigned to accept U.S. Senate seat.
  50. Switched parties from Democratic to Republican in December 1994.
  51. Reps. H. Mac Gipson and Ronald "Ron" Johnson switch parties from Democrat to Republican.
  52. Sens. Chip Bailey and Steve Windom switched parties from Democratic to Republican before the 1998 session.
  53. Reps. Gerald Allen, Steve Flowers, and Tim Parker, Jr. switch parties from Democrat to Republican. [3]
  54. Bennett ran as a Democrat in 1994 and as a Republican in 1998. He might have switched parties between those elections.
  55. Sen. Jeff Enfinger switched parties from Republican to Democrat
  56. A Republican won a special election, flipping a seat from the Democrats.
  57. Rep. Blaine Galliher switched parties from Democrat to Republican
  58. Rep. Johnny Ford switched parties from Democrat to Republican right after the election, becoming the first black Republican legislator in Alabama in over a century. He resigned in 2004 and was succeeded Democrat Pebblin Warren before the 2005 session. At the same time, Republican Nick Williams succeed longtime Democratic Rep. Jeff Dolbare in a special election, leaving the overall House partisan composition unchanged. [4] [5] [6]
  59. Democratic Rep. Jack Venable died, and was succeeded by Republican Barry Mask, flipping the seat from Democrat to Republican. [7]
  60. Sen. Jimmy Holley switched parties from Democrat to Republican
  61. Paul Sanford succeeded Parker Griffith after he resigned to take a Congressional seat, flipping a seat from Democrat to Republican. Sen. Harri Anne Smith was thrown out by the Republicans and became an Independent at around the same time after crossing party lines to endorse Democrat Bobby Bright in his successful run for Congress.
  62. Sen. Jim Preuitt switched parties from Democrat to Republican in the lead-up to the general election.
  63. Democratic Reps. Sue Schmitz and Lea Fite resigned and died, and were succeeded in special elections by Republicans Phil Williams and K.L. Brown, respectively, before the 2010 session.
  64. Rep. Parker Griffith switched parties from Democrat to Republican.
  65. Four representatives, Alan Boothe, Steve Hurst, Mike Millican, and Lesley Vance, switched parties from Democrat to Republican right after the election. Between the 2011 and 2012 sessions Rep. Daniel Boman switched parties from Republican to Democrat, and Rep. Alan Harper switched parties from Democrat to Republican, leaving the partisan composition of the House overall the same.
  66. Sen. Jerry Fielding switched parties from Democrat to Republican.
  67. Rep. Richard Laird switched parties from Democrat to Independent, and caucused with the Republicans as such.
  68. Rep. Charles Newton switched parties from Democrat to Republican