Ernst Jünger

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Ernst Jünger
240px
Jünger, wearing both the Pour le Mérite and the Bavarian Maximilian Order
Born (1895-03-29)29 March 1895
Heidelberg, Grand Duchy of Baden, German Empire
Died 17 February 1998(1998-02-17) (aged 102)
Riedlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Genre Diaries, novels
Subject War
Notable works In Stahlgewittern
Auf den Marmorklippen
Notable awards Iron Cross I. Class (1916)
Pour le Mérite (1918)
Grand Merit Cross (1959)
Schiller Memorial Prize (1974)
Goethe Prize (1982)
Maximilian Order (1986)
Spouse m. 1925 Gretha von Jeinsen (1906–60)
m. 1962 Liselotte Lohrer (1917–2000)
Military career
Allegiance  German Empire (1914–1918)
 Weimar Republic (1918–1923)
 Nazi Germany (1939–1944)
Service/branch Prussian Army
Reichsheer
German Army
Years of service 1914–1923, 1939–1944
Battles/wars World War I
World War II

Ernst Jünger ([ɛʁnst ˈjʏŋɐ]; 29 March 1895 – 17 February 1998) was a highly decorated German soldier, author, and entomologist who became publicly known for his World War I memoir Storm of Steel. The son of a successful businessman and chemist, Jünger rebelled against an affluent upbringing and sought adventure in the Wandervogel, before running away to briefly serve in the French Foreign Legion, an illegal act. Because he escaped prosecution in Germany due to his father's efforts, Jünger was able to enlist on the outbreak of war. During an ill-fated German offensive in 1918 Jünger's World War I career ended with the last and most serious of his many woundings, and he was awarded the Pour le Mérite, a rare decoration for one of his rank.

In the aftermath of World War II, Jünger was treated with some suspicion as a possible fellow traveller of the Nazis. By the latter stages of the Cold War, his unorthodox writings about the impact of materialism in modern society were widely seen as conservative rather than radical nationalist, and his philosophical works came to be highly regarded in mainstream German circles. Jünger ended life as an honoured establishment figure, although critics continued to charge him with the glorification of war as a transcendental experience.

Biography

Early life

Ernst Jünger was born in Heidelberg as the eldest of six children of the chemical engineer Ernst Georg Jünger (1868–1943) and of Karoline Lampl (1873–1950). Two of his siblings died as infants. His father acquired some wealth in potash mining. He went to school in Hannover from 1901 to 1905, and during 1905 to 1907 to boarding schools in Hanover and Brunswick. He rejoined his family in 1907, in Rehburg, and went to school in Wunstorf with his siblings from 1907 to 1912. During this time, he developed his passion for adventure novels and for entomology. He spent some time as an exchange student in Buironfosse, Saint-Quentin, France, in September 1909. With his younger brother Friedrich Georg Jünger (1898–1977) he joined the Wandervogel movement in 1911. His first poem was published with the Gaublatt für Hannoverland in November 1911.[1] By this time, Jünger had a reputation as a budding bohemian poet.[2]

In 1913, Jünger was a student at the Hamelin gymnasium. In November, he travelled to Verdun and enlisted in the French Foreign Legion for five years. Stationed in a training camp at Sidi Bel Abbès, Algeria, he deserted and travelled to Morocco, but was captured and returned to camp. Six weeks later, he was dismissed from the Legion due to the intervention of the German Foreign Office, at the request of his father, on the grounds of being a minor. Jünger was now sent to a boarding school in Hanover, where he was seated next to the future communist leader Werner Scholem (1895–1940).[citation needed]

World War I

Jünger during World War I, wearing the House Order of Hohenzollern.

On 1 August 1914, shortly after the start of World War I, Jünger volunteered with the 73rd Infantry Regiment Albrecht von Preussen of the Hannoverian 19th Division and after training was transported to the Champagne front in December. He was wounded for the first time in April 1915. During reconvalesce, he decided to enlist as an officer aspirant (Fahnenjunker), and he was promoted to Lieutenant on 27 November 1915. As platoon leader, he gained a reputation for his combat exploits and initiative in offensive patrolling and reconnaissance.

Near the obliterated remains of the village of Guillemont his platoon took up a front line position in a defile that had been shelled until it consisted of little more than a dip strewn with the rotting corpses of predecessors. He wrote:

As the storm raged around us, I walked up and down my sector. The men had fixed bayonets. They stood stony and motionless, rifle in hand, on the front edge of the dip, gazing into the field. Now and then, by the light of a flare, I saw steel helmet by steel helmet, blade by glinting blade, and I was overcome by a feeling of invulnerability. We might be crushed, but surely we could not be conquered.[3]

The platoon was relieved but Jünger was wounded by shrapnel in the rest area of Combles and hospitalized, his platoon reoccupied the position on the eve of the Battle of Guillemont and was obliterated in a British offensive.[4] He was wounded for the third time in November 1916, and awarded the Iron Cross First Class in January 1917.[5]

In the spring of 1917, he was promoted to command of 7th company and stationed at Cambrai. Transferred to Langemarck in July, Jünger's actions against the advancing British included forcing retreating soldiers to join his resistance line at gunpoint. He arranged the evacuation of his brother Friedrich Georg, who had been wounded. In the Battle of Cambrai (1917) Jünger sustained two wounds, by a bullet passing through his helmet at the back of the head, and another by a shell fragment on the forehead.

He was awarded the House Order of Hohenzollern. While advancing to take up positions just before Ludendorff's Operation Michael on 19 March 1918, Jünger was forced to call a halt after the guides lost their way, and while bunched together half of his company were lost to a direct hit from artillery. Jünger himself survived, and led the survivors as part of a successful advance but was wounded twice towards the end of the action, being shot in the chest and less seriously across the head. After reconvalescence, he returned to his regiment in June, sharing a widespread feeling that the tide had now turned against Germany and victory was impossible.

On 25 August he was wounded for the seventh and final time near Favreuil, being shot through the chest while leading his company in a German advance that was quickly overwhelmed by a British counter-attack. Becoming aware the position he was lying in was falling, Jünger rose, and as his lung drained of the blood spurting through the wound, recovered enough to escape in the confused situation. He made his way to a machine gun post that was holding out, where a doctor told him to lie down immediately. Carried to the rear in a tarpaulin, he and the bearers came under fire, killing the doctor. A soldier who tried to take Jünger on his shoulders was killed after a few yards, but another took his place.

Jünger received the Wound Badge 1st Class. While he was treated in a Hannover hospital, on 22 September he received notice of being awarded the Pour le Mérite on the recommendation of division commander Johannes von Busse. Pour le Mérite, the highest military decoration of the German Empire, was awarded some 700 times during the war, but almost exclusively to high-ranking officers (and seventy times to combat pilots); Jünger was one of only eleven infantry company leaders receiving the order.[6]

Throughout the war, Jünger kept a diary, which would become the basis of his 1920 Storm of Steel. He spent his free time reading the works of Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, Ariosto and Kubin, besides entomological journals he was sent from home. During 1917, he was collecting beetles in the trenches and while on patrol, 149 specimens between 2 January and 27 July, which he listed under the title of Fauna coleopterologica douchyensis ("Coleopterological fauna of the Douchy region").[6]

Interwar period

Ernst Jünger in uniform as depicted in the frontispiece of the 3rd edition of In Stahlgewittern (1922).

Jünger served as a lieutenant in the army of the Weimar Republic until his demobilisation in 1923. He studied marine biology, zoology, botany, and philosophy, and became a well-known entomologist. In Germany, an important entomological prize is named after him: the Ernst-Jünger-Preis für Entomologie.[7] His war experiences described in Storm of Steel (German title: In Stahlgewittern), which Jünger self-published in 1920, gradually made him famous. He married Gretha von Jeinsen (1906–60) in 1925. They had two children, Ernst Jr. (1926–44) and Alexander (1934–93).

He criticized the fragile and unstable democracy of the Weimar Republic, stating that he "hated democracy like the plague."[8] More explicitly than in Storm of Steel, he portrayed war as a mystical experience that revealed the nature of existence.[9] According to Jünger, the essence of the modern was found in total mobilisation for military effectiveness, which tested the capacity of the human senses.[10] In 1932, he published The Worker (German title: Der Arbeiter), which called for the creation of an activist society run by warrior-worker-scholars.[11] In the essay On Pain,[12] written and published in 1934, Jünger rejects the liberal values of liberty, security, ease, and comfort, and seeks instead the measure of man in the capacity to withstand pain and sacrifice. Around this time his writing included the aphorism "What doesn't kill me makes me stronger; and what kills me makes me incredibly strong."[13]

Third Reich

As a famous war hero and prominent nationalist critic of the Weimar Republic, the ascendant Nazi Party (NSDAP) courted Jünger as a natural ally, but Jünger rejected such advances. When Jünger moved to Berlin in 1927, he rejected an offer of a seat in the Reichstag for the NSDAP. In 1930, he openly denounced Hitler's suppression of the Rural People's Movement.[14] In the 22 October 1932 edition of Völkischer Beobachter, the article Das endlose dialektische Gespräch ("the never-ending dialectical debate") attacked Jünger for his rejection of the "blood and soil" doctrine, accusing him of being an "intellectualist" and a liberal.[15] Jünger again refused a seat offered to him in the Reichstag following the Nazi Party's ascension to power in January 1933, and he refused the invitation to head the German Academy of Literature (Die deutsche Akademie der Dichtung).[16] On 14 June 1934, Jünger wrote a "letter of rejection" to the Völkischer Beobachter, the official Nazi newspaper, in which he requested that none of his writings be published in it.[15] Jünger also refused to speak on Joseph Goebbels's radio. He was one of the few "nationalist" authors whose names were never found on the frequent declarations of loyalty to Hitler. He and his brother Friedrich Georg quit the "Traditionsverein der 73er" (veteran's organization of the Hanoverian regiment they had served during World War I) when its Jewish members were expelled.[15]

When Jünger left Berlin in 1933, his house was said to have been searched by the Gestapo.[citation needed] On the Marble Cliffs (1939, German title: Auf den Marmorklippen), a short novel in the form of a parable, uses metaphor to describe Jünger's negative perceptions of the situation in Hitler's Germany.

He served in World War II as an army captain. Assigned to an administrative position in Paris, he socialized (often at Maxim's) with prominent artists of the day such as Picasso and Jean Cocteau. His early time in France is described in his diary Gärten und Strassen (1942, Gardens and Streets). He was also given the task of executing a German deserter who had beaten the women sheltering him and been turned in. Jünger considered avoiding the assignment but eventually attended to oversee the execution in, as he claimed in his journal, 'the spirit of higher curiosity'.[17]

Jünger appears on the fringes of the Stauffenberg bomb plot. He was clearly an inspiration to anti-Nazi conservatives in the German Army,[18] and while in Paris he was close to the old, mostly Prussian, officers who carried out the assassination attempt against Hitler. He was only peripherally involved in the events however, and in the aftermath suffered only dismissal from the army in the summer of 1944 rather than execution.

His elder son Ernst Jr., then a naval (Kriegsmarine) cadet, was imprisoned that year for engaging in "subversive discussions" in his Wilhelmshaven Naval Academy. Transferred to Penal Unit 999, he was killed near Carrara in occupied Italy on 29 November.[19]

Postwar period

After the war, Jünger was initially under some suspicion for his nationalist past, and he was banned from publishing in Germany for four years by the British occupying forces because he refused to submit to the denazification procedures.[11] His work The Peace (German title: Der Friede), written in 1943 and published abroad in 1947, marked the end of his involvement in politics. When German Communists threatened his safety in 1945, Bertolt Brecht instructed them to "Leave Jünger alone."[20] His public image rehabilitated by the 1950s, he went on to be regarded as a towering figure of West German literature.

West German publisher Klett put out a ten-volume collected works (Werke) in 1965, extended to 18 volumes 1978–1983. This made Jünger one of just four German authors to see two subsequent editions of their collected works published during their lifetime, alongside Goethe, Klopstock and Wieland.[21]

His diaries from 1939 to 1949 were published under the title Strahlungen (1948, Reflections). In the 1950s and 1960s, Jünger travelled extensively. His first wife, Gretha, died in 1960, and in 1962 he married Liselotte Lohrer. He continued writing prodigiously for his entire life, publishing more than 50 books.

File:Maison ernst jünger wilflingen.jpg
Ernst Jünger House in Wilflingen.

Jünger was a friend of Martin Heidegger. Jünger was admired by Julius Evola who published a book called L'Operaio nel pensiero di Ernst Juenger (1960), in which he summarized The Worker.

Jünger was among the forerunners of magical realism. His vision in The Glass Bees (1957, German title: Gläserne Bienen), of a future in which an automated machine-driven world threatens individualism, could be seen as science fiction. A sensitive poet with training in botany and zoology, as well as a soldier, his works in general are infused with tremendous details of the natural world.

Throughout his life he had experimented with drugs such as ether, cocaine, and hashish; and later in life he used mescaline and LSD. These experiments were recorded comprehensively in Annäherungen (1970, Approaches). The novel Besuch auf Godenholm (1952, Visit to Godenholm) is clearly influenced by his early experiments with mescaline and LSD. He met with LSD inventor Albert Hofmann and they took LSD together several times. Hofmann's memoir LSD, My Problem Child describes some of these meetings.[22]

Later life

One of the most important contributions of Jünger's later literary production is the metahistoric figure of the Anarch, an ideal figure of a sovereign individual, conceived in his novel Eumeswil (1977),[23] which evolved from his earlier conception of the Waldgänger, or "Forest Fleer" by influence of Max Stirner's conception of the Unique (der Einzige).[24][25][26][page needed]

In 1981, Jünger was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca. Jünger was immensely popular in France, where at one time 48 of his translated books were in print.[27] In 1984, he spoke at the Verdun memorial, alongside his admirers, French president François Mitterrand and German chancellor, where he called the "ideology of war" in Germany before and after World War I "a calamitous mistake".[28] [29]

Although he had been cleared of the accusation of any fascist or Nazi sympathies since the 1950s, and he never showed any sympathy to the political style of "blood and soil" popular in the Third Reich, Jünger's national conservativism and his ongoing role as conservative philosopher and icon made him a controversial figure in the eyes of the German Marxist Left, and Huyssen (1993) argued that nevertheless "his conservative literature made Nazism highly attractive",[30] and that "the ontology of war depicted in Storm of Steel could be interpreted as a model for a new, hierarchically ordered society beyond democracy, beyond the security of bourgeois society and ennui".[31] Marxist writer and critic Walter Benjamin wrote "Theories of German Fascism" (1930) as a review of War and Warrior, a collection of essays edited by Jünger.[32] Despite the ongoing political criticism of his work, Jünger said he never regretted anything he wrote, nor would he ever take it back.[27]

His younger son Alexander, a physician, committed suicide in 1993. Jünger's 100th birthday on 29 March 1995, was met with praise from many quarters, including the socialist French president François Mitterrand.

Death

A year before his death, Jünger was received into the Catholic Church and began to receive the Sacraments.[33] He died on 17 February 1998 in Riedlingen, Upper Swabia in his 103rd year. He was the last living bearer of the military version of the order of the Pour le Mérite.[34] His body was buried at Wilflingen Cemetery.[35]

Photography

Ernst Jünger's photobooks are visual accompaniments to his writings on technology and modernity. The seven books of photography Jünger published between 1928 and 1934 are representative of the most militaristic and radically right wing period in his writing. Jünger's first photobooks, Die Unvergessenen (The Unforgotten, 1929) and Der Kampf um das Reich (The Battle for the Reich, 1929) are collections of photographs of fallen World War I soldiers and the World War front, many that he took himself. He also contributed six essays on the relationship between war and photography in a photobook of war images called Das Antlitz des Weltkrieges: Fronterlebnisse deutscher Soldaten (The Face of the World War: Front Experiences of German Soldiers, 1930) and edited a volume of photographs dealing with the first world war, Hier spricht der Feind: Kriegserlebnisse unserer Gegner (The Voice of the Enemy: War Experiences of our Adversaries, 1931). Jünger also edited a collection of essays, Krieg und Krieger (War and Warriors, 1930, 1933) and wrote the foreword for a photo anthology of airplanes and flying called Luftfahrt ist Not! (Flying is imperative! [i.e., a necessity], 1928).[36]

Decorations and awards

  • 1916: Iron Cross (1914) II and I. Class
  • 1917: Prussian House Order of Hohenzollern Knight's Cross with Swords
  • 1918: Wound Badge (1918) in Gold
  • 1918: Pour le Mérite (military class)
  • 1939: Clasp to the Iron Cross Second Class
  • 1956: Literature Prize of the city of Bremen (for Am Sarazenentum); Culture Prize of the city of Goslar
  • 1959: Grand Merit Cross
  • 1960: Honorary Citizen of the Municipality Wilflingen; honorary gift of the Cultural Committee of the Federation of German Industry
  • 1965: Honorary Citizen of Rehburg; Immermann Prize of the city of Düsseldorf
  • 1970: Freiherr- vom-Stein- Gold Medal of the Alfred Toepfer Foundation
  • 1973: Literature Prize of the Academy Amriswil (Organizer: Dino Larese; Laudations: Alfred Andersch, François Bondy, Friedrich Georg Jünger)
  • 1974: Schiller Memorial Prize of Baden-Württemberg
  • 1977: Aigle d'Or the city of Nice, Great Federal Cross of Merit with Star
  • 1979: Médaille de la Paix (Peace Medal) of the city of Verdun
  • 1980: Medal of Merit of the State of Baden-Württemberg
  • 1981: Prix Europa Littérature the Fondation Internationale pour le Rayonnement des Arts et des Lettres; Prix Mondial Cino the Fondation Simone et del Duca (Paris), Gold Medal of the Humboldt Society
  • 1982: Goethe Prize of Frankfurt
  • 1983: Honorary Citizen of the city of Montpellier; Premio Circeo the Associazione Italo – Germanica Amicizia (Association of Italian–German friendship)
  • 1985: Grand Merit Cross with Star and Sash
  • 1986: Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
  • 1987: Premio di Tevere (awarded by Francesco Cossiga in Rome)
  • 1989: honorary doctorate from the University of the Basque Country in Bilbao
  • 1990: Oberschwäbischer Art Prize
  • 1993: Grand Prize of the Jury of the Venice Biennale
  • 1993: Robert Schuman Prize (Alfred Toepfer Foundation)
  • 1995: honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Arts of the Complutense University of Madrid

In 1985, to mark Jünger's 90th birthday, the German state of Baden-Württemberg established Ernst Jünger Prize in Entomology. It is given every three years for outstanding work in the field of entomology.

Ernst Jünger was the last recipient of honorary 'Pour le Mérite' holders from 1957.[clarification needed]

Bibliography

Collected works

Jünger's works were edited in ten volumes in 1960–1965 by Ernst Klett Verlag, Stuttgart,[37] and again in 18 volumes by Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart in 1978–1983, with four supplement volumes added posthumously, 1999–2003.[38] The Sämtliche Werke edition is now partially out of print (out of print as of December 2015: vols. 6, 7, 10, 15–18), and was re-issued in 2015 in paperback (ISBN 978-3-608-96105-8) and epub (ISBN epub: 978-3-608-10923-8) formats. A selection from the full collected works in five volumes was published in 1995 (4th ed. 2012, ISBN 978-3-608-93235-5).

Books

The following is a list of Jünger's original publications in book form (not including journal articles or correspondence).

  • 1920: In Stahlgewittern (Storm of Steel)
  • 1922: Der Kampf als inneres Erlebnis
  • 1923: Sturm
  • 1925: Feuer und Blut
  • 1925: Das Wäldchen 125 (Copse 125: A Chronicle from the Trench Warfare of 1918)
  • 1929: Das abenteuerliche Herz. Aufzeichnungen bei Tag und Nacht
  • 1932: Der Arbeiter. Herrschaft und Gestalt
  • 1934: Blätter und Steine
  • 1936: Akfrikanische Spiele (African Diversions)
  • 1938: Das abenteuerliche Herz. Figuren und Capricios (The Adventurous Heart: Figures and Capriccios)
  • 1939: Auf den Marmorklippen (On the Marble Cliffs)
  • 1942: Gärten und Straßen
  • 1943: Myrdun. Briefe aus Norwegen
  • 1945: Der Friede. Ein Wort an die Jugend Europas und an die Jugend der Welt (The Peace)
  • 1947: Atlantische Fahrt
  • 1947: Sprache und Körperbau
  • 1948: Ein Inselfrühling
  • 1949: Heliopolis. Rückblick auf eine Stadt (Heliopolis)
  • 1949: Strahlungen
  • 1951: Am Kieselstrand
  • 1951: Über die Linie
  • 1951: Der Waldgang (The Forest Passage)
  • 1952: Besuch auf Godenholm (Visit to Godenholm)
  • 1953: Der gordische Knoten
  • 1954: Das Sanduhrbuch
  • 1955: Am Sarazenturm
  • 1956: Rivarol
  • 1957: Gläserne Bienen (The Glass Bees)
  • 1958: Jahre der Okkupation
  • 1959: An der Zeitmauer
  • 1960: Der Weltstaat
  • 1963: Typus, Name, Gestalt
  • 1966: Grenzgänge. Essays. Reden. Träume
  • 1967: Subtile Jagden
  • 1969: Sgraffiti
  • 1970: Ad hoc
  • 1970: Annäherungen. Drogen und Rausch
  • 1973: Die Zwille
  • 1974: Zahlen und Götter. Philemon und Baucis. Zwei Essays
  • 1977: Eumeswil
  • 1980: Siebzig verweht I
  • 1981: Siebzig verweht II
  • 1983: Aladins Problem (Aladdin's Problem)
  • 1983: Maxima – Minima, Adnoten zum 'Arbeiter'
  • 1984: Autor und Autorschaft
  • 1985: Eine gefährliche Begegnung (A Dangerous Encounter)
  • 1987: Zwei Mal Halley
  • 1990: Die Schere
  • 1993: Prognosen
  • 1993: Siebzig verweht III
  • 1995: Siebzig verweht IV
  • 1997: Siebzig verweht V

Correspondence

Klett-Cotta edited Jünger's correspondence with Rudolf Schlichter, Carl Schmitt, Gerhard Nebel, Friedrich Hielscher, Gottfried Benn, Stefan Andres and Martin Heidegger in seven separate volumes during 1997–2008.

  • Ernst Jünger, Rudolf Schlichter: Briefe 1935–1955, ed. Dirk Heißerer. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-608-93682-3.
  • Ernst Jünger, Carl Schmitt: Briefe 1930–1983, ed. Helmuth Kiesel. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-608-93452-9.
  • Ernst Jünger, Gerhard Nebel: Briefe 1938–1974, eds. Ulrich Fröschle and Michael Neumann. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-608-93626-2.
  • Ernst Jünger, Friedrich Hielscher: Briefe 1927–1985, eds. Ina Schmidt and Stefan Breuer. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-608-93617-3.
  • Gottfried Benn, Ernst Jünger: Briefwechsel 1949–1956, ed. Holger Hof. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-608-93619-X.
  • Ernst Jünger, Stefan Andres: Briefe 1937–1970, ed. Günther Nicolin. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, 2007, ISBN 978-3-608-93664-3.
  • Ernst Jünger, Martin Heidegger: Briefwechsel 1949–1975. eds. Simone Maier, Günter Figal. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, 2008, ISBN 978-3-608-93641-4.
  • Alfred Baeumler und Ernst Jünger: Mit einem Anhang der überlieferten Korrespondenz und weiterem Material. eds. Ulrich Fröschle und Thomas Kuzias. Thelem Universitätsverlag, Dresden 2008, ISBN 978-3-939888-01-7.
  • Ernst Jünger – Albert Renger-Patzsch. Briefwechsel 1943–1966 und weitere Dokumente. eds. Matthias Schöning, Bernd Stiegler, Ann and Jürgen Wilde. Wilhelm Fink, Paderborn/München 2010, ISBN 978-3-7705-4872-9.
  • Ernst Jünger, Dolf Sternberger: Briefwechsel 1941–1942 und 1973–1980. eds. Detlev Schöttker and Anja S. Hübner. In: Sinn und Form, 4/2011, S. 448–473[39]
  • Luise Rinser und Ernst Jünger Briefwechsel 1939 - 1944, mit einem einleitenden Essay von Benedikt Maria Trappen Aufgang Verlag, Augsburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-945732-10-6

English translations

The bulk of Jünger's publications remains untranslated, but some of his major novels have appeared in English translation.

  • In Stahlgewittern: Basil Creighton, The Storm of Steel. From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop Officer on the Western Front. London: Chatto & Windus (1929); Michael Hofmann, London: Allen Lane (2003).
  • Das Wäldchen 125: Basil Creighton, Copse 125: A Chronicle from the Trench Warfare of 1918. London: Chatto & Windus (1930).
  • Auf den Marmorklippen: Stuart Hood, On the Marble Cliffs. London: John Lehmann (1947).
  • Der Friede: Stuart Hood, The Peace. Hinsdale, IL: Henry Regnery Company (1948).
  • Afrikanische Spiele: Stuart Hood, African Diversions. London: John Lehmann (1954).
  • Gläserne Bienen: The Glass Bees. Louise Bogan and Elizabeth Mayer. New York: Noonday Press (1960; 2000).
  • Annäherungen. Drogen Und Rausch: 'Drugs and Ecstasy' in: Myths and Symbols. Studies in Honor of Mircea Eliade, eds. Joseph M. Kitagawa and Charles H. Long. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press (1969), pp. 327–42.
  • Aladdins Problem: Joachim Neugroschel, Aladdin's Problem. New York: Marsilio (1992).
  • Eumeswil: Joachim Neugroschel, Eumeswil. New York: Marsilio (1993).
  • Eine gefährliche Begegnung: Hilary Barr, A Dangerous Encounter. New York: Marsilio (1993).
  • Über den Schmerz: David C. Durst, On Pain. New York: Telos Press Publishing (2008).
  • Das abenteuerliche Herz. Figuren und Capricios: Thomas Friese, The Adventurous Heart: Figures and Capriccios. Candor, NY: Telos Press Publishing (2012).
  • Der Waldgang: Thomas Friese, The Forest Passage. Candor, NY: Telos Press Publishing (2013).
  • Besuch auf Godenholm: Annabel Moynihan, Visit to Godenholm. Stockholm: Edda Publishing (2015).
  • Sturm: Alexis P. Walker, Sturm. Candor, NY: Telos Press Publishing (2015).
  • Der Arbeiter. Herrschaft und Gestalt: Bogdan Costea and Laurence Paul Hemming, The Worker: Dominion and Form. Evanston: Northwestern University Press (2017).
  • Strahlungen: Thomas Hansen and Abby J. Hansen, A German Officer in Occupied Paris: The War Journals, 1941-1945. New York: Columbia University Press (2018).

Filmography

Notes

Footnotes

Citations

  1. Heimo Schwilk, Klett-Cotta, Ernst Jünger – Ein Jahrhundertleben, 2014, chapter 3. Heimo Schwilk (ed.), Ernst Jünger: Leben und Werk in Bildern und Texten, Klett-Cotta, 2010, p. 24.
  2. Heimo Schwilk (ed.), Ernst Jünger: Leben und Werk in Bildern und Texten, Klett-Cotta, 2010, p. 27.
  3. Storm of Steel translated by Michael Hoffman, Penguin p99
  4. original casualty report, published 4 October 1916, p. 15,280.
  5. Jünger 2004, p. 119.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Helmuth Kiesel, Ernst Jünger: Die Biographie , Siedler Verlag, 2009.
  7. de:Ernst-Jünger-Preis für Entomologie
  8. Hoffmann 2004, p. vii.
  9. Garland & Garland 1997, p. 437.
  10. Bullock 1992, p. 549.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Hoffmann 2004, p. x.
  12. On pain (translation), Telos press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Michael Hoffman's Introduction to Storm of Steel
  14. Peter Longerich: Jünger, Ernst, Schriftsteller. In: Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml (Hrsg.): Biographisches Lexikon zur Weimarer Republik. C.H. Beck, München 1988, 164f.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Barr, Hilary Barr (24 June 1993). "An Exchange on Ernst Jünger". New York Review of Books. Retrieved 8 July 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Hoffmann 2004, p. viii.
  17. Berndt Engelmann (1986). In Hitler's Germany. p. 239;<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> citing Gerhard Heller, Un Allemand à Paris.
  18. Neaman 1999, p. 122-23.
  19. Schöning, Matthias (2014). Ernst Jünger-Handbuch: Leben – Werk – Wirkung. Stuttgart: Verlag J.B. Meztler. p. 292.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Buruma, Ian. "The Anarch at Twilight". New York Review of Books. Retrieved 8 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Hoffmann 2004, p. xi.
  22. "LSD, My Problem Child · Radiance from Ernst Junger". www.psychedelic-library.org.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Macklin, Graham D. (September 2005). "Co-opting the counter culture: Troy Southgate and the National Revolutionary Faction". Patterns of Prejudice (.pdf). 39 (3): 301–326. doi:10.1080/00313220500198292.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Warrior, Waldgänger, Anarch: An essay on Ernst Jünger's concept of the sovereign individual Archived 9 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine by Abdalbarr Braun, accessed 22 December 2007.
  25. Ernst Jünger - Anarch An exposition of the figure of the Anarch through citations from Juenger's Eumeswil.]
  26. Laska, Bernd A (1997), 'Katechon' und 'Anarch'. Carl Schmitts und Ernst Jüngers Reaktionen auf Max Stirner (in German), Nürnberg: LSR-VerlagCS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. 27.0 27.1 Hoffmann 2004, p. xii.
  28. Hoffmann 2004, p. xiv.
  29. Binder, David (18 February 1998), "Ernst Jünger, Contradictory German Author Who Wrote About War, Is Dead at 102", The New York Times<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Huyssen 1993, p. 5.
  31. Huyssen 1993, p. 8.
  32. Benjamin, Walter. "Theorien des deutschen Faschismus" (in German). Project-Gutenberg-DE. Retrieved 30 March 2017.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> English translation: Benjamin, Walter (1979). Translated by Jerolf Wikoff. "Theories of German Fascism: On the Collection of Essays War and Warrior, Edited by Ernst Jünger". New German Critique (17): 120–128. JSTOR 488013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Laska, Bernd A. "Ernst Jünger - Anarch und Katholik - ein verspäteter Epilog zu meinem Buch "Katechon" und "Anarch"." Ernst Jünger - Anarch und Katholik. February 16, 2006. Accessed December 20, 2016. http://www.lsr-projekt.de/juenger.html.
  34. Tucker, Spencer, and Priscilla Mary. Roberts, eds. World War I: A Student Encyclopedia. (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2006), Pg. 988. https://books.google.com/books?id=TogXVHTlxG4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=World+War+I:+A+Student+Encyclopedia&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjP0ezWwILRAhXKOCYKHYRGDugQ6AEIJTAA#v=onepage&q=World%20War%20I%3A%20A%20Student%20Encyclopedia&f=false
  35. Entry for Junger's grave in Findagrave https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/9761372/ernst-junger
  36. Gil, Isabel Capeloa. 2010. "The Visuality of Catastrophe in Ernst Jünger's Der gefährliche Augenblick and Die veränderte Welt". KulturPoetik. 10 (1): 62–84.
  37. ——— (1961–65), Werke (in German)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (10 vols.)
  38. ——— (1979), Sämtliche Werke (in German)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (18 vols.)
  39. dazu: Detlef Schöttker: „Gefährlich leben!“ Zum Briefwechsel zwischen Ernst Jünger und Dolf Sternberger. In: Sinn und Form, 4/2011, S. 437–447.
  40. "102 år i hjärtat av Europa (1998)". Swedish Film Database. Swedish Film Institute. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

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Further reading

External links

  • Works by Ernst Jünger at Hathi Trust
  • Works by Ernst Jünger at JSTOR
  • Associazione Eumeswil, Florence, IT<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> – study of Ernst Jünger's works.
  • Jünger haus (museum), Wilflingen<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • "At 102 Ernst Jünger", Meaus<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Ernst Jünger's works (Collection of articles), IT: Centro di studi Laruna<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
  • Lua error in Module:Internet_Archive at line 573: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  • Petri Liukkonen. "Ernst Jünger". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Archived from the original on 4 July 2013.