Exportation (logic)

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Exportation[1][2][3][4] is a valid rule of replacement in propositional logic. The rule allows conditional statements having conjunctive antecedents to be replaced by statements having conditional consequents and vice versa in logical proofs. It is the rule that:

((P \and Q) \to R) \Leftrightarrow (P \to (Q \to R))

Where "\Leftrightarrow" is a metalogical symbol representing "can be replaced in a proof with."

Formal notation

The exportation rule may be written in sequent notation:

((P \and Q) \to R) \dashv\vdash (P \to (Q \to R))

where \dashv\vdash is a metalogical symbol meaning that (P \to (Q \to R)) is a syntactic equivalent of ((P \and Q) \to R) in some logical system;

or in rule form:

\frac{(P \and Q) \to R}{P \to (Q \to R)}, \frac{P \to (Q \to R)}{(P \and Q) \to R}.

where the rule is that wherever an instance of "(P \and Q) \to R" appears on a line of a proof, it can be replaced with "P \to (Q \to R)" and vice versa;

or as the statement of a truth-functional tautology or theorem of propositional logic:

((P \and Q) \to R)) \leftrightarrow (P \to (Q \to R)))

where P, Q, and R are propositions expressed in some logical system.

Natural language

Truth values

At any time, if P→Q is true, it can be replaced by P→(P∧Q).
One possible case for P→Q is for P to be true and Q to be true; thus P∧Q is also true, and P→(P∧Q) is true.
Another possible case sets P as false and Q as true. Thus, P∧Q is false and P→(P∧Q) is false; false→false is true.
The last case occurs when both P and Q are false. Thus, P∧Q is false and P→(P∧Q) is true.


It rains and the sun shines implies that there is a rainbow.
Thus, if it rains, then the sun shines implies that there is a rainbow.

Relation to functions

Exportation is associated with Currying via the Curry–Howard correspondence.


  1. Hurley, Patrick (1991). A Concise Introduction to Logic 4th edition. Wadsworth Publishing. pp. 364–5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Copi, Irving M.; Cohen, Carl (2005). Introduction to Logic. Prentice Hall. p. 371.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Moore and Parker
  4. http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e11b.htm