Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
An Oshkosh-produced M1083 A1P2 5-ton MTV in A-kit configuration
Type Family of 4x4 and 6x6 tactical trucks with 2.5-ton, 5-ton, 9-ton and 10-ton payload (U.S. tons)[1]
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1996–present
Used by U.S. Army and others (see Operators)
Production history
Designer Steyr of Austria (original); Stewart & Stevenson for FMTV requirement. IP of the FMTV is owned by U.S. government
Designed 1988 (for FMTV requirement by Stewart & Stevenson)
  • Stewart & Stevenson (original)
  • Armor Holdings (acquired Stewart & Stevenson)
  • BAE Systems (acquired Armor Holdings)
  • Oshkosh Corporation (current; won rebuy competition)[2]
Produced 1982–present
Number built BAE Systems and legacy companies – 74,000 trucks and trailers Oshkosh Defense – >23,400 trucks and >11,400 trailers (orders as of November 2015)[3]
Variants (full details in main text)
  • M1078 (LMTV Standard Cargo)
  • M1079 (LMTV Van)
  • M1080 (LMTV Chassis (3.9 m))
  • M1081 (LMTV Cargo-airdrop LVAD)
  • M1082 (LMTV Trailer)
  • M1083 (MTV Standard Cargo)
  • M1084 (MTV Cargo with Crane)
  • M1085 (MTV Long Wheelbase Cargo)
  • M1086 (MTV Long Wheelbase Cargo with Crane)
  • M1087 (MTV Expansible Van)
  • M1088 (MTV Tractor Truck)
  • M1089 (MTV Wrecker)
  • M1090 (MTV Dump)
  • M1091 (MTV 1,500 gallon Fuel Tanker)
  • M1092 (MTV Chassis (4.1 m))
  • M1093 (MTV Cargo-airdrop LVAD)
  • M1094 (MTV Dump-airdrop LVAD)
  • M1095 (MTV Trailer)
  • M1096 (MTV Long Wheelbase (4.5 m) Chassis)
  • M1084 (Truck, Cargo, Resupply Vehicle (HIMARS))
  • M1140 (HIMARS, launcher chassis)
  • M1147 (Trailer, FMTV Load Handling System)
  • M1148 (Load Handling System, eight metric tonnes)
  • M1157 (10-ton dump)
  • XM1160 (10-ton MEADS air defence chassis (5.5 m wheelbase))
  • Mongoose Mobile Launcher Chassis (MLC) (cancelled)
M1078A1P2 2.5-ton LMTV cargo[1]
Weight 22,904 lbs (curb w/fuel); 5000 lbs (payload)
Length 6.739 m
Width 2.438 m
Height 2.83 m
Crew 2

Armor a-kit/b-kit; U.S. Army Long Term Armor Strategy (LTAS) compliant
Engine Caterpillar (CAT) C7, 7.2-liter, 6-cylinder inline water-cooled diesel developing 275 hp (EPA 2007)
Payload capacity rated at 2.5 U.S. tons
Transmission Allison 3700 SP 7-speed automatic with integral single speed transfer case
Suspension Parabolic tapered leaf springs and telescopic shock-absorbers
Fuel capacity 212 litres
483 km
Speed 94 km/h
Power-assisted, front axle
M1083A1P2 5-ton MTV cargo[1]
Weight 24,870 lbs (curb w/fuel); 10,000 lbs (payload)
Length 7.272 m
Width 2.438 m
Height 2.83 m
Crew 2

Armor a-kit/b-kit; U.S. Army Long Term Armor Strategy (LTAS) compliant
Engine Caterpillar (CAT) C7, 7.2-liter, 6-cylinder inline water-cooled diesel developing 330 hp (EPA 2007)
Payload capacity Rated at 5 U.S. tons
Transmission Allison 3700 SP 7-speed automatic with integral single speed transfer case
Suspension Parabolic tapered leaf springs (inverted on rear bogies), telescopic shock-absorbers and an anti-roll bar on rear bogie
Fuel capacity 212 litres
483 km
Speed 94 km/h
Power-assisted, front axle

The Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) is a series of vehicles, based on a common chassis, that vary by payload and mission requirements. The FMTV is derived from the Austrian militarySteyr 12 M 18 truck, but substantially modified to meet U.S. Army requirements, these including a minimum 50 per cent U.S. content.[4][5][6]

There were originally 17 FMTV variants, four 2.5 U.S. ton payload variants designated Light Medium Tactical Vehicle (LMTV) and 13 variants with a 5 U.S. ton payload, these designated Medium Tactical Vehicle (MTV).[7]

Since the first FMTVs were fielded in January 1996 the family has been expanded and the overall design enhanced considerably. The FMTV was originally manufactured by Stewart and Stevenson (1996-2006), then by Armor Holdings (2006-2007), then by what is now BAE Systems Platforms & Services until 2011. It is currently manufactured by Oshkosh Corporation.[4]

Development and production history

FMTV's origins trace back to a U.S. Army TRAining and DOctrine Command (TRADOC) requirements document issued in 1983 for a Medium Tactical Truck (MTT), the intended replacement for the in-service 2.5-ton truck. In July 1984 a program to look at a future 5-ton truck procurement to replace in-service 2.5- and 5-ton trucks began. Cost analysis demonstrated that the procurement should be for both 2.5- and 5-ton trucks, and in October 1984 FMTV formally began as a program. The Request For Proposals (RFP) for FMTV was released in 1988. At this time it was expected that around 120,000 trucks would be ordered over three five-year contracts.[4][8]

In October 1988, the U.S. Army awarded contracts to Stewart & Stevenson, the Tactical Truck Corporation (a 50/50 joint venture between General Motors Military Vehicles and the BMY Wheeled Vehicle Division of the HARSCO Corporation), and Teledyne Continental Motors for 15 prototype vehicles each, these to be completed by January 1989. In October 1991 a five-year FMTV contract was awarded to Stewart & Stevenson. The initial contract order total was expected to be 20,000 vehicles, but this was reduced to 10,843 vehicles valued at USD1.2 billion. Some options were added and raised the total to 11,197 vehicles over what would be extended to 7 contract years. The first FMTVs were fielded in January 1996.[4][8]

In October 1998 Stewart & Stevenson was awarded the second FMTV contract, this for 8,000 trucks and 1,500 companion trailers and with a value of $1.4 billion. Total quantities including options were 11,491 trucks and 2,292 trailers, delivered between September 1999 and October 2004. Trucks were the improved A1 model, with improvements including an uprated engine (1998 EPA compliant) and transmission, and the introduction of ABS. The first A1 models were fielded in July 2000.[4][8]

Stewart & Stevenson and Oshkosh Truck Corporation were awarded contracts in April 2001 for the Evaluation Phase (Phase 1) of the FMTV A1 Competitive Rebuy (FMTV A1 CR) program for the next FMTV production contract. Following trials and evaluation, in April 2003 the contract was awarded to Stewart & Stevenson. Production of the FMTV A1 CR (designated FMTV A1R) began in Q3 2004. Improvements to A1R models were numerous and included a new EPA 2004 compliant Caterpillar C7 engine. A total of 21,149 FMTVs and companion trailers were built under the FMTV A1R contract award.[4]

In May 2006, Stewart & Stevenson was acquired by Armor Holdings Inc.,[9] and in August 2007, Armor Holdings was acquired by BAE Systems.[10]

The U.S. Army had intended that the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) with just two variants would eventually replace virtually all of its tactical wheeled vehicle fleet including the FMTV. FTTS never materialized, however along with inputs from other efforts it continues to be used to define requirements for future U.S. Army trucks.[4] With FTTS already faltering, BAE Systems was awarded a bridging contract in June 2008 for up to 10,000 FMTVs or trailers, the contract including an option (which was exercised) for 10,000 additional vehicles.[11]

In May 2009 BAE Systems, Navistar Defense and Oshkosh Defense each announced they had submitted proposals for the FMTV A1P2 competitive rebuy program to the U.S. Army's Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) Life Cycle Management Command. In August 2009, the U.S. Army announced that Oshkosh Defense had been awarded the FMTV A1P2 rebuy production contract. The award was protested by both BAE Systems and Navistar.[12]

The FMTV A1P2 rebuy was awarded as a five-year 'build-to-print' requirements-type award that at award allowed the U.S. government to order from 0 up to 12,415 trucks and 10,926 trailers through to calendar year 2014. Some FMTV variants are excluded from the rebuy competition, those excluded include specialist FMTV variants such as HIMARS, Patriot, MEADS and LVAD, plus all the armored cabs developed by BAE Systems.

According to the U.S. Army (in February 2012) all FMTV work with BAE Systems (minus a small number of armor B-kits) had concluded, BAE Systems and legacy companies having delivered around 74,000 FMTV trucks and trailers to the U.S. Army.

U.S. budgetary projections of March 2012 suggested that due to funding constraints the FMTV program would be terminated in FY14. Under the FMTV contract orders could be placed until December 2013, with first deliveries to commence within one year of that, with final deliveries one year later. Contract extensions have been made, the latest allowing orders to be placed until September 2016. The most recently announced FMTV order by Oshkosh was in July 2015, this requesting 698 FMTVs worth $184 million, with deliveries to start in 2016.[13]

Since deliveries started in 2010, Oshkosh has received orders for over 24,300 FMTV trucks and 11,400 FMTV trailers.[13]

Early 2014 the U.S. Army's Program Executive Officer for Combat Support and Combat Service Support (CS CSS) suggested that the Army would be seeking a new medium truck family in the mid-2020s.[14]

FMTVs are currently being reset at the Red River Army Depot on return from deployed operations, and current projections are for a Recap (Recapitalization) program to commence in 2020/2021.

Technical description and variants

The 2.5 ton (4x4) FMTV is designated as the Light Medium Tactical Vehicle (LMTV), while the 5 ton (6x6) is designated the Medium Tactical Vehicle (MTV).[8]

The FMTV is based on the Austrian Steyr 12 M 18 (4x4) truck, but substantially modified to meet U.S. Army requirements that included a minimum 50% US content. The original 15 FMTV prototypes were assembled in Austria and while based on the 12 M 18 chassis-cab, were fitted with a number of US-supplied/specification components including a Caterpillar diesel engine, Allison automatic transmission and Meritor drive axles.[4][8]

In a move away from U.S. Army tradition, a Cab Over Engine (COE) design was selected for the FMTV as while the US Army did not specify this configuration, given the Cold War situation prevailing at the time it had indicated that overall length for shipboard transport was a consideration.

On a model-for-model basis the FMTV is around 1 m shorter than its bonneted predecessors, while retaining a C-130 Hercules transport capability. Subject to load dimensions, all original FMTV variants are C-130 transportable at GVWR and all models capable of being transported underslung by helicopter are fitted with a sliding outrigger system. Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System (LAPES), later revised to Low Velocity Air Drop (LVAD) variants of A0 production LMTV (M1081 cargo) and MTV (M1093 cargo and M1094 dump) variants were produced.

The chassis and cab of the FMTV feature extensive corrosion protection it was the first truck to pass the U.S. Army's 22-year accelerated corrosion test.[4][15]

The design of FMTV has never remained static and to further increase reliability, user friendliness and so on, detailed refinements/upgrades have continued throughout FMTVs production run.[8]

FMTV is built around a conventional bolted/huck-bolted cold-formed C-section chassis with bolted-in tubular cross-members. The high-grade 758 Mpa steel used is sourced from Sweden. LMTV variants can be fitted with a DP-10J winch with a 4,990 kg line pull. MTV variants use a DP-515 winch with a 7,031 kg line pull.[15]

Current production FMTV A1P2s are powered by a 2007 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions compliant 7.2-liter six-cylinder Caterpillar C7 diesel engine developing 275 hp and 1166 Nm torque in LMTV variants and 330 hp and 1166 Nm torque in MTV variants.[1][4] FMTV A1Rs have a 2004 EPA emissions compliant version of the same engine with the same power output. FMTV A1 variants have an earlier 1998 EPA emissions compliant version of this engine, the 3126 ATAAC which developed 275 hp at 2400 rpm and 1107 Nm torque at 1600 rpm in LMTV variants and 330 hp and 1153 Nm torque in MTV variants. A 6.6-liter derivative of this engine, the 3116 ATAAC, was fitted to FMTV A0 models where it developed 225 hp and 863 Nm torque in LMTV variants, and 290 hp at 2600 rpm and 1000 Nm torque in MTV variants.[15]

The Allison 3070 SP seven-speed transmission[1] fitted to A1P2 and A1R FMTVs has also evolved with the FMTV, its A1 designation being MD 3070 PT, its A0 designation being MD-D7. This has an integral single-speed transfer case. All-wheel drive is full-time, with a 30/70 per cent front/rear torque split for on-road driving, and a 50/50 per cent split for off-road driving.

All FMTV models are fitted with Meritor beam axles, the ratings and specifications of which have also evolved as the FMTV has developed. Suspension is by a combination of parabolic tapered leaf springs (inverted on the MTV rear bogie), shock-absorbers, and an anti-roll bar for the rear axle/bogie;[15]

Two cargo trailers are part of the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV). The M1082 single-axle trailer is used with the LMTV cargo truck and the M1095 twin-axle trailer is use with the MTV cargo truck. Both trailers have payloads that match that of the towing truck, and they share many components (including axles) with the towing truck.[1][8]


(sequenced by U.S. Army M number)

  • M1078 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - LMTV Standard Cargo[7]
  • M1079 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - LMTV Van[7]
  • M1080 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - LMTV Chassis (3.9 m)[7]
  • M1081 A0 - LMTV Cargo-airdrop LVAD
  • M1082 A1/A1R/A1P2 - LMTV Trailer[7]
  • M1083 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - MTV Standard Cargo[7]
  • M1084 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - MTV Cargo with Crane[7]
  • M1085 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - MTV Long Wheelbase Cargo [7]
  • M1086 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - MTV Long Wheelbase Cargo with Crane[7]
  • M1087 A1R/A1P2 - MTV Expansible Van[7]
  • M1088 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - MTV Tractor Truck[7]
  • M1089 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - MTV Wrecker )Oshkosh-produced M1089 have different recovery equipment)[7]
  • M1090 A0/A1 - MTV Dump
  • M1091 - MTV 1,500 gallon Fuel Tanker (Type Classified but did not enter production)[15]
  • M1092 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - MTV Chassis (4.1 m)[7]
  • M1093 A0 - MTV Cargo-airdrop LVAD
  • M1094 A0 - MTV Dump-airdrop LVAD
  • M1095 A1/A1R/A1P2 - MTV Trailer[7]
  • M1096 A0/A1/A1R/A1P2 - MTV Long Wheelbase (4.5 m) Chassis[7]
  • M1084 A1/A1R Truck, Cargo, Resupply Vehicle (HIMARS)
  • M1140 A1/A1R High Mobility Artillery Rocket System, launcher chassis
  • M1147 A1R Trailer, FMTV Load Handling System[7]
  • M1148 A1R/A1P2 Load Handling System, eight metric tonnes [7]
  • M1157 A1R/A1P2 10-ton Dump[7]
  • XM1160 10-ton MEADS air defence chassis (5.5 m wheelbase )
  • Mongoose Mobile Launcher Chassis (MLC) (cancelled).

Armored cabs and fully armored derivatives

Current and recent operational scenarios now call for logistic trucks of the FMTV type to at least have the option of cab armoring. When it entered production, armoring was not considered an option for the FMTV. The first protection solution for the FMTV was not in answer to such scenarios, but was developed by Stewart & Stevenson and O'Gara-Hess & Eisenhardt Armoring Company (OHE). Called the Crew Protected Cab, it was specifically for the HIMARS variant and offered flash and Foreign Object Debris (FOD) protection during launch. Designs followed for an Enhanced Crew Protected Cab, and later an Armor Protected Cab, each adding more ballistic capability against direct fire, artillery burst and mines.[8][16]

To meet emerging threats on deployed operations, in March 2004 DRS Technical Services was awarded a $16.3 million contract to provide 272 armor protection kits for the FMTV. A total of 1,862 kits are understood to have been produced in total. These kits were based around ballistic-protection panels installed on standard FMTV cabs.[17]

In answer to demands for greater crew protection, BAE Systems developed the Low Signature Armored Cab (LSAC) for all variants of the FMTV. The LSAC replaced the standard FMTV cab (with which it shares internals) in a remove and replace operation.[18]

To meet the US Army's current Long Term Armor Strategy (LTAS) for armored cabs, BAE Systems developed the LTAS cab for the FMTV. BAE Systems states that it produced over 9,000 LTAS cabs for the FMTV A1P2 variant. All Oshkosh FMTV vehicles include the company's own LTAS-compliant armor solution.[1]

LTAS is based around the A and B kit principles, this allowing for vehicles to be armored as required, and with the add-on applique package adaptable to prevailing threats and upgradeable as new armoring technologies emerge. The A-Kit, which includes a new cab, modifies the FMTV to allow the addition of armour; the B-Kit being the bulk of the armor itself.[19]

The Caiman Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicle is based on the MTV A1R platform. The U.S. Marines placed an initial order with the then Armor Holdings for 1,170 Caiman in July 2007. In total 2,868 Caiman were ordered, with deliveries completed during November 2008. BAE Systems unveiled the Caiman MultiTerrain Vehicle (MTV) at AUSA in Winter 2010. The Caiman MTV is a modified version of the base Caiman that features a revised driveline, new chassis and upgraded fully independent suspension. BAE Systems received contracts to upgrade 2071 (1700 + 371) Camian to Caiman MTV standard, these upgrades completed Q1/Q2 2014. Post-Afghanistan no Caiman MRAPs have been retained by U.S. armed forces, although some have been transferred to U.S. law enforcement agencies. Others have been offered as Excess Defense Articles (EDA) to Iraq, Jordan, Nigeria and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).[4]

BAE Systems unveiled the Caiman Light (CLT) in 2008, the Caiman Light a five-man 4x4 version of the Caiman. To meet the Iraqi Light Armored Vehicle Requirement (ILAV) BAE Systems offered a fully armored LMTV on which the LSAC cab was extended rearwards into a troop carrying body. Neither of these proposals entered production.[4]

Prototype and developmental FMTVs

  • Oshkosh Corporation unveiled the FMTV Enhanced Protection & Mobility Demonstrator (EPMD) during 2012. The FMTV EPMD is fitted with Oshkosh's TAK-4 independent suspension system and a custom-fitted Oshkosh Underbody Improvement Kit (UIK)[20]
  • Working with Multidrive an LMTV was integrated with a powered companion trailer to produce a C-130 Hercules transportable vehicle with a 15,000 kg payload
  • The FMTV Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle (HHV) was selected as the test platform for the development of a hybrid hydraulic propulsion system
  • The FMTV was selected as the platform to demonstrate that a 155 mm M777 howitzer and prime mover could, for the first time, be deployed in the same C-130 aircraft
  • Stewart & Stevenson produced five hybrid electric FMTVs, each tailored for a specific application
  • Stewart & Stevenson developed an 11 ton FMTV A1 demonstrator to demonstrate the growth potential of the FMTV family and C4ISR integration potential, via technology insertions, while retaining maximum commonality with the current FMTV fleet. A second vehicle with a tilt-type loadbad was also developed as part of the aborted Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) requirement. A 13 ton demonstrator then followed
  • Stewart & Stevenson developed a 13 ton Medium Tactical Truck Demonstrator (MTTD) that incorporated many of the technologies and capabilities that the Army then envisioned for its future trucks
  • A number of 8x8 FMTVs have also been developed, these including examples for Australia's Land 121 (awarded to Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles (RMMV)), a 13 ton demonstrator with a load handling system, and a pair of chassis as part of the Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS) undertaking


(Production FMTVs are presented in U.S. Army M number sequence)


(users of the FMTV-based Caiman MRAP are not included)

See also

References and additional reading (bibliography)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "FMTV Literature". Oshkosh Defense. Retrieved 2015-11-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "FMTVs". Oshkosh Defense. Retrieved 2015-11-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) (Nov)". IHS Jane's. Retrieved 2015-10-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 "Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV)". IHS Jane's. Retrieved 2015-10-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "The US Army FMTV Military Truck Family History". Retrieved 2015-10-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "About the FMTV". Joakim Kasper Oestergaard Balle III. 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2015-10-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 "FMTV". Oshkosh Defense. Retrieved 2015-11-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Connors, Shaun (April 2007). "FMTV PT1". Military Machines International. Chesham, England: Model Activity Press: 16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Armor to Buy Stewart & Stevenson for $1.1 Billion (Update5)". 2006-02-27. Retrieved 2015-10-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "BAE to Acquire Armor Holdings for $4.53B". 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2015-10-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "USA-Looks-to-Bridge-FMTV-Truck-Orders-Until-2009-2010". 2010-05-11. Retrieved 2015-10-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "fmtv-contract-award-and-protest-raises-industrial-policy-issues". 2009-12-21. Retrieved 2015-10-30.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 "oshkosh-defense-build-698-additional-fmtvs-u-s-army". Oshkosh. 2015-07-02. Retrieved 2015-11-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "FMTV returns as army needs heavier payload support". IHS jane's. 2015-02-02. Retrieved 2015-11-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 Connors, Shaun (May 2007). "FMTV PT2". Military Machines International. Chesham, England: Model Activity Press: 18.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 "The US M142 HIMARS MLRS Development". Retrieved 2015-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "FMTV RADIAN Armor Crew Kits (RACKs)". Retrieved 2015-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "FMTV Low Signature Armored Cab (LSAC)". Retrieved 2015-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Long-Term Armor Strategy (LTAS)". Retrieved 2015-11-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. 20.0 20.1 "FMTV EPMD". Oshkosh Defense. Retrieved 2015-11-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links