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Freeganism is the practice of reclaiming and eating food that has been discarded. Freegans and freeganism are often seen as part of a wider anti-consumerist ideology, and freegans often employ a range of alternative living strategies based on limited participation in the conventional economy and minimal consumption of resources.

The word "freegan" is a coinage derived from "free" and "vegan".[1] Freeganism started in the mid-1990s, out of the antiglobalization and environmentalist movements. The movement also has elements of Diggers, an anarchist street theater group based in Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco in the 1960s, that gave away rescued food.[1]


"Why Freegan" pamphlet

The manifesto pamphlet "Why Freegan" (written by former Against Me! drummer Warren Oakes in 1999) defines freeganism as "an anti-consumeristic ethic about eating" and goes on to describe practices including dumpster diving, plate scraping, wild foraging, gardening, theft, employee scams, and barter as alternatives to paying for food. Motivations are varied and numerous; some adhere to freeganism as an extension of anarchism or other anti-capitalist tendencies, or simply for environmental reasons, some for religious reasons, etc.

The pamphlet does include a lengthy section on non-alimentary practices, including conserving water, precycling, reusing goods, and using solar energy. Some freegans consider these non-alimentary practices components of freeganism itself; others simply consider them complementary, while some are against them and/or have deeper analyses surrounding capitalism and its effect on the world.

Freegan beliefs

Freeganism is based on the idea of anti-consumerism and that there is little need to purchase new goods because of the waste that society has produced and because they want to help the environment. The writings of sociologist and anthropologist Marcel Mauss inspire many values of freeganism. Mauss studied the relationship between forms of exchange and the social culture.[2] Not only do freegans use their finds for personal use, they also share their items and use them for free distribution. Since they believe the general public greatly misuses resources because of the ideals and activities of mass consumerism, freegans do not want to contribute to the consumerist society.[3]


Food discarded by retailers

Freegan while dumpster diving.

Freegans get free food by pulling it out of the trash (bins), a practice commonly nicknamed "dumpster diving" in North America and "skipping" or "bin diving" in the UK, as well as "bin raiding" or "skipitarianism" (so called because the person's diet mostly involves eating out of a skip). Retail suppliers of food such as supermarkets, grocery stores, and restaurants routinely throw away food in good condition, often because it is approaching its sell-by date (without thereby becoming dangerous), or has damaged packaging.[4] Freegans find food in the garbage of such establishments, which they say allows them to avoid spending money on products that exploit the world's resources, contribute to urban sprawl, treat workers unfairly, or disregard animal rights. By foraging, they believe that they are keeping edible food from adding to landfill clutter, food which can then feed people and animals who might otherwise go hungry.[5]

However, dumpster diving is not limited to rummaging for food. Many "dumpster divers" search for anything that can be recycled or reused, from accessories to power tools in need of small repairs. Some divers also collect aluminum cans, which they can then sell for a small profit. Often, these people have all sorts of equipment such as a long pole that they use to move items in the dumpster around.[6][7] When searching for food, a forager may come across food waste that is not entirely sealed from the unwanted waste in the same rubbish sack. This lower quality food is commonly referred to as "Scree".[8] As bugs, rodents, and other disease-carriers also forage in such places, there are risks associated with sourcing and eating such food.

Freegan resources

Much food is discarded by producers for reasons to do with food standards of retailers and consumers. Examples include fruit and vegetables that are smaller or larger than sizes required by supermarkets, edible offal, and a species of Dover sole with all the qualities of sole but small size.[4] Freegans get their resources from dumpsters, typically at places like grocery stores and pharmacies. An estimated 20 to 40% of United Kingdom fruits and vegetables are rejected even before they reach the stores, mostly because they do not match the supermarkets' strict cosmetic standards.[9]

Legality and sanitation

Eating waste food is seen as a taboo in most developed countries, causing it to be considered socially unacceptable. Non-freegans see eating from a bin as an unsanitary or dirty practice.[3]

Wild foraging and urban gardens

Instead of buying industrially grown foods, wild foragers[10] find and harvest food and medicinal plants growing in their own communities. Some freegans participate in "guerrilla" or "community" gardens, with the stated aim of rebuilding community and reclaiming the capacity to grow one's own food. In order to fertilize those guerrilla gardens, food obtained from dumpster diving[11] is sometimes also reused. In many urban guerrilla gardens, vermiculture is used instead of ordinary composting techniques in order to keep the required infrastructure/room small.[12][13] Guerrilla gardeners claim to seek an alternative to dependence and participation in what they perceive as an exploitative and ecologically destructive system of global, industrialized corporate food production. Many rural freegans choose to learn about native wild plants which are easily sustainable and either bring favored species home to cultivate or identify wild populations from which to forage. Often rural freegans are also "homesteaders" who also raise their own dairy livestock and employ alternative energy sources to provide energy for their homesteads, occasionally living "off the grid" entirely.


A Freebox in Berlin, Germany 2005, serving as a distribution center for free donated materials

Sharing is also a common freegan practice. Food Not Bombs recovers food that would otherwise go to waste to serve warm meals on the street to anyone who wants them. The group promotes an ethic of sharing and community, while working to show what they consider to be the injustice of a society in which they claim fighting wars is considered a higher priority than feeding the hungry.

Really, Really Free Markets are free social events in which freegans can share goods instead of discarding them, share skills, give presents and eat food. A free store is a temporary market where people exchange goods and services outside of a money-based economy.

Freegans also advocate sharing travel resources. Internet-based ridesharing reduces but does not eliminate use of cars and all the related resources needed to maintain and operate them.

Community bicycle programs and collectives facilitate community sharing of bicycles, restore found and broken bikes, and teach people how to do their own bike repairs. In the process they build a culture of skill and resource sharing, reuse wasted bikes and bike parts, and create greater access to green transport.

In general, co-ops function to provide their local community with additional resources; they are also typically vegan-friendly and local-produce-friendly.


In addition to the belief that people should not have to go without food when plenty of unused food is thrown away every day, freeganism also encompasses the idea that people should not be homeless when unused buildings are available. Freegans consider housing to be a right as opposed to a good.[14] As a result of this philosophy, many freegans are involved in squatting. Squatting is the act of someone occupying a building that they do not have any legal claim or ownership over.[15] "Squatters take a stand against councils and landlords, who would rather keep properties boarded up if they cannot make a sufficient profit from them".[16] Freegans see this practice as senseless and a counter-productive use of resources. The criminality of squatting makes it hard to accurately track the number of people involved in this activity.[15] Striving for equality and reform, squatting is a political action that has been incorporated in numerous movements.[citation needed] Squatters view the act as a necessity because of the lack of housing available.[citation needed] They believe that there should not be buildings remaining empty when there are people who are in crucial need of a home but lack the resources to legally obtain one.[citation needed] Ultimately, squatting is a way of housing the homeless.[citation needed] However, the buildings that squatters reside in are sometimes used for other purposes as well, such as being changed into community centers that house programs for children, community organizations, and environmental education.[14]

Working less

Working less is another component of freeganism. Freegans oppose the notion of working for the sole purpose of accumulating material items. The need to work is reduced by only purchasing the basic necessities for things such as housing, clothing, and food. Not working resists the idea that joy can only be found through the purchase of material items. Working is seen as sacrificing valuable time to "take orders from someone else, stress, boredom, monotony, and in many cases risks to physical and psychological well-being".[14] This time could be spent volunteering in service activities, bonding with family, or participating in a number of other endeavors. The concept of voluntary joblessness has been described as means of completing tasks out of love for others while not expecting anything in return for one’s services.[16] Working is viewed as a component of a system that has abused the world both socially and ecologically. It is realized that not working at all is not an option for everyone, but that there are ways to limit the need to work as much.[14]


Another aspect of the freegan lifestyle addresses the basic human necessity for food. Many dumpster divers, because of freeganism, practice veganism, which calls for the avoidance of flesh foods, dairy, and eggs, and further extends to avoid the consumption or use of furs, leather, wool, down, silk, and cosmetics and chemical products tested on animals.[17]

Not all people who identify as freegan are vegan. There are some, because of a confusion with dumpster diver, who consume animal products only if those animal products would otherwise be wasted. "Vegans are people who avoid products from animal sources or products tested on animals in an effort to avoid harming animals. Freegans take this a step further".[18]

Relationship to environmentalism

Although freeganism is a movement that has sprung from anti-consumerism and anti-capitalism, the movement also has much in common with environmentalism. One of the main aims of freeganism is to reduce waste and limit the amount of destruction that results from the production of goods.[19] Some of the practices established in freeganism serve the function of addressing many of these same concerns. For example, squatting makes use of empty buildings for the homeless, and dumpster diving practices recovering food that is being wasted. Adam Weissman, eco-activist and creator of, states that "Freeganism is a reaction to waste, but also to injustices like sweatshops and the destruction of rainforests that go into producing goods in the first place".[19]

Environmentalism has been described as a "binding philosophy, the start of environmentalism was a religious reformation; an epiphany; an awakening to desecrated surroundings".[20]

Food waste

In United States fast food restaurants, 9.55% of the total amount of food that is used turns into food waste and in full service restaurants 3.11% turns into waste. On average, 49,296,540 lbs of food is lost in all full service restaurants and 85,063,390 lbs in all fast food restaurants per day. Pre-consumer kitchen waste is anything from incorrectly prepared or spoiled food to overproduction that contributes about 4–10% of food that becomes waste before it is even served to consumers. Freegans focus on finding this pre-consumer waste when dumpster diving.[21]



A local group of anarchist, all-volunteer global movement Food Not Bombs has been collecting food from grocery stores, local markets, and souqs since 2013 in İstanbul[22] on a weekly basis. Its activist scope includes gathering edible "food waste", cooking (or preparing) food collectively, and open distribution. The collective also holds various seminars and demonstrations in order to promote anti-militarism, anti-specisism/veganism, and the topics related to DIY ethic. Another freegan group from Ankara called "Çerçöp Çorbacılar" has been actively carrying out practices of Freeganism.[23]

Hong Kong

Friends of the Earth did a survey in 2012 and found that the four largest supermarket chains in Hong Kong (ParknShop, Wellcome, CR Vanguard, and JUSCO) discarded a total of 87 tonnes of food each day, about a third (29 tonnes) that were still edible.[24] One of the chains, ParknShop, was accused of pouring water and bleach over the discarded edible food to spoil it.[25] A year later, their follow-up study found that ParknShop and Wellcome donated food through their respective programs, and criticized CR Vanguard and JUSCO for their inaction.[26]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Kurutz, Steven (June 21, 2007). "Not Buying It". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-06-21. A few of those present had stumbled onto the scene by chance (including a janitor from a nearby homeless center, who made off with a working IPod and a tube of body cream), but most were there by design, in response to a posting on the Web site The site, which provides information and listings for the small but growing subculture of anticonsumerists who call themselves freegans—the term derives from vegans, the vegetarians who forsake all animal products, as many freegans also do—is the closest thing their movement has to an official voice.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Marcel Mauss (French sociologist and anthropologist) - Encyclopedia Britannica". 1950-02-10. Retrieved 2014-03-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Shantz". Retrieved 2014-03-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 2010 BBC1 television programme in which four top chefs collect discarded, free, food and make a banquet for 60 celebrity guests; with the help of food waste campaigner Tristram Stuart, they find huge amounts of perfectly good food discarded for reasons not affecting their eating quality, such as cosmetic and packaging defects. The meal was successful, and Richard Corrigan was voted the "rubbish chef of the year". The programme talks of the "scandalous food waste crisis".
  5. Carlson, Tucker (February 3, 2006). "'Freegans' choose to eat garbage". MSNBC. Retrieved 2007-06-21. These people don't eat out of dumpsters because they're poor and desperate. They do it to prove a political point. You wouldn't expect someone to choose a lifestyle that involved eating out of dumpsters. Kind of seems like something you do as a desperate last resort. But there's an entire society of people who willingly get their meals out of the garbage. They're called freegans, and they say they have a reason for doing it.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Brace, Alison (March 2, 2007). "Freeloading". Times Educational Supplement. pp. 28–29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Willhite, Nikki (2009). "Dumpster Diving". All Things Frugal. Retrieved Mar 2, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Products, China. "Freeganism". Red TWP Dumpster. Retrieved 9 May 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "WASTE". ristram Stuart. Retrieved 2014-07-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Institute for the Study of Edible Wild Plants and Other Foragables. Wild Foraging Definition
  11. Instructables dumpster diving combined with guerrilla gardening
  12. Journeytoforever small-scale (city) composting information (trough vermiculture)
  13. Vermiculture combination with city farms in the developing world for the poor
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 "What is a freegan?".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 15.0 15.1 Corr, Anders (1999). No Trespassing: Squatting, Rent Strikes, and Land Struggles Worldwide. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Waste Not, Want Not". 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Josyn, Ed (2006). "About Veganism". Retrieved 25 Mar 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "What is a Freegan?". Retrieved 11 March 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Freegans: The Bin Scavengers". London. 2006-02-20. Retrieved 31 March 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Scheffer, Victor (1991). The Shaping of Environmentalism in America. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Restaurants". 2006-12-19. Retrieved 2014-03-11.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Foo, Kenneth (2012-05-28). "What a waste". The Standard. Retrieved 2014-07-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Lo, Wei (2012-08-15). "Anger over mass food waste".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Kao, Ernest (2013-07-30). "Aeon Stores slammed for inaction on food waste".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

External links