George Gaylord Simpson

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George Gaylord Simpson
File:George Gaylord Simpson.jpg
Simpson in 1965
Born (1902-06-16)June 16, 1902
Chicago, Illinois
Died October 6, 1984(1984-10-06) (aged 82)
Fresno, California
Nationality American
Fields Paleontology
Institutions Columbia University
Alma mater University of Colorado
Yale University, B.A., Ph.D.[1]
Doctoral advisor Richard Swann Lull[1]
Known for Modern synthesis; quantum evolution
Notable awards Mary Clark Thompson Medal (1943)
Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal (1944)
Penrose Medal (1952)
Darwin-Wallace Medal (1958)
Darwin Medal (1962)
Linnean Medal (1962)
National Medal of Science (1965)
Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal (1965)
Paleontological Society Medal (1973)
Fellow of the Royal Society[1]

George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 – October 6, 1984) was an American paleontologist. Simpson was perhaps the most influential paleontologist of the twentieth century, and a major participant in the modern evolutionary synthesis, contributing Tempo and mode in evolution (1944), The meaning of evolution (1949) and The major features of evolution (1953). He was an expert on extinct mammals and their intercontinental migrations.[2] He anticipated such concepts as punctuated equilibrium (in Tempo and mode) and dispelled the myth that the evolution of the horse was a linear process culminating in the modern Equus caballus. He coined the word hypodigm in 1940, and published extensively on the taxonomy of fossil and extant mammals.[3] Simpson was influentially, and incorrectly, opposed to Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift.[4]

He was Professor of Zoology at Columbia University, and Curator of the Department of Geology and Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History from 1945 to 1959. He was Curator of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University from 1959 to 1970, and a Professor of Geosciences at the University of Arizona until his retirement in 1982.


In 1943 Simpson was awarded the Mary Clark Thompson Medal from the National Academy of Sciences.[5] For his work, Tempo and mode in evolution, he was awarded the Academy's Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal in 1944.[6] He was awarded the Linnean Society of London's prestigious Darwin-Wallace Medal in 1958. Simpson also received the Royal Society's Darwin Medal 'In recognition of his distinguished contributions to general evolutionary theory, based on a profound study of palaeontology, particularly of vertebrates,' in 1962.

At the University of Arizona, Tucson, the Gould-Simpson Building was named for Arizona geologist Lawrence M. Gould and Simpson.[7] Simpson was noted for his work in the field of paleogeography and continental evolution relationships.


In the 1960s, Simpson "rubbished the then-nascent science of exobiology, which concerned itself with life on places other than Earth, as a science without a subject".[8]

He was raised as a Christian but later became an agnostic.[9]


  • Attending marvels (1931)
  • Tempo and mode in evolution (1944)
  • The meaning of evolution (1949)
  • Horses (1951)
  • Evolution and geography (1953)
  • The major features of evolution (1953)
  • Life: an introduction to biology (1957)
  • Quantitative Zoology (1960)
  • Principles of animal taxonomy (1961)
  • This view of life (1964)
  • The geography of evolution (1965)
  • Penguins (1976)
  • Concession to the improbable (1978) (an autobiography)
  • Fossils And The History Of Life (1983)
  • Splendid isolation (1980)
  • The Dechronization of Sam Magruder (posthumously published novella, 1996)

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Whittington, H. B. (1986). "George Gaylord Simpson. 16 June 1902-6 October 1984". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 32: 526–526. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1986.0017. JSTOR 770122. PMID 11621258.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Simpson G.G. 1940. Mammals and land bridges. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 30: 137–163. See Charles H. Smith's website for full text: [1]
  3. Simpson, G. G. (1940). "Types in modern taxonomy". American Journal of Science. 238 (6): 413–426. doi:10.2475/ajs.238.6.413.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> p. 418.
  4. Simpson G.G. 1953. Evolution and geography: an essay on historical biogeography with special reference to mammals. Oregon State System of Higher Education: Eugene, Oregon.
  5. "Mary Clark Thompson Medal". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved February 15, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved February 15, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Gould-Simpson Building, Univ. of Arizona
  8. Anon (2006). "Astrobiology at ten". Nature. 440 (7084): 582–200. Bibcode:2006Natur.440Q.582.. doi:10.1038/440582a.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Léo F. Laporte, ed. (1987). Simple Curiosity: Letters from George Gaylord Simpson to His Family, 1921-1970. University of California Press. p. 16. ISBN 9780520057920. By his early teens, Simpson had given up being a Christian, although he had not formally declared himself an atheist. At college he began the gradual development of what might best be called positivistic agnosticism: a belief that the world could be known and explained by ordinary empirical observation without recourse to supernatural forces. Ultimate causation, he considered unknowable. |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

  • Aronson, J. (2002). "'Molecules and monkeys': George Gaylord Simpson and the challenge of molecular evolution". History & Philosophy of the Life Sciences. 24 (3–4): 441. doi:10.1080/03919710210001714503.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Laporte, L. O. F. (1994). "Simpson on species". Journal of the History of Biology. 27 (1): 141–159. doi:10.1007/BF01058629. PMID 11639257.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Olson, E. C. (1991). "George Gaylord Simpson: June 16, 1902-October 6, 1984". Biographical memoirs. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.). 60: 331–353. PMID 11616139.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Laporte, Léo F. (1991). "George Gaylord Simpson as mentor and apologist for paleoanthropology". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 84 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330840102. PMID 2018099.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Laporte, L. F. (1983). "Simpson's Tempo and Mode in Evolution revisited". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 127 (6): 365–417. PMID 11611330.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Gershenowitz, H. (1978). "George Gaylord Simpson and Lamarck". Indian journal of history of science. 13 (1): 56–61. PMID 11615952.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links