Gospel of John

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Detailed content of John
1. Hymn to the Word
Jesus is the word become flesh [Jn 1:1–18]
2. Book of Signs, Seven Signs
John the Baptist[1:19–28]
Jesus is the Lamb of God[1:29–34]
First disciples of Jesus[1:35–51]
Marriage at Cana: the first sign[2:1–12]
Jesus and the Money Changers [2:13–25]
Nicodemus the Pharisee[3:1–21]
: The need to be born again[3:16]
Jesus surpasses John[3:22–4:4]
Samaritan woman at the well: Jesus as the Water of Life [4:5–42]
Healing the royal official's son: the second sign[4:43–54]
Healing the paralytic at Bethesda[5:1–18]
Authority of the Son[5:19–23]
Resurrection of the Dead[5:24–29]
Witnesses to Jesus[5:30–47]
The feeding of the five thousand [6:1–15]
Walking on water[6:16–21]
Bread of Life Discourse[6:22–59]
: Last Day[6:39–40][6:44][6:54][11:24][12:48]
Jesus deserted by many disciples[6:60–71]
Feast of Tabernacles[7:1–52]
Jesus and the woman taken in adultery[7:53–8:11] (not originally part of John)
Jesus is the Light of the World [8:12–20]
Where I'm going, you can't come[8:21–30]
The truth will make you free[8:31–38]
Your father is the Devil[8:39–47]
Jesus existed before Abraham[8:48–59]
Healing the blind at birth[9]
Good Shepherd[10:1–21]
Jesus rejected by the Jews[10:22–42] [12:37–43]
Raising of Lazarus[11:1–44]
: Let's return to Judea[11:7]
: Jesus wept[11:35]
Plot to kill Jesus [11:45–57]
Mary anoints Jesus[12:1–8]
Plot to kill Lazarus[12:9–11]
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem [12:12–19]
Son of Man[12:20–36]
Last Judgment[12:44–50]
3. Book of Glory, Last Teachings and Death
Foot Washing[13:1–20]
Betrayal of Jesus[13:21–30]
Love one another[13:31–35]
Peter's denial [13:36–38][18:15–18][18:25–27]
Jesus is the only Way to the Father [14:1–14]
Promise of the Paraclete [14:15–31] [15:18–16:33]
Jesus is the true vine [15:1–17]
The World's Hatred [15:18–16:4]
The Work of the Spirit [16:5–15]
Sorrow will turn into joy [16:16–24]
I Have Overcome the World [16:25–33]
High Priestly Prayer [Jn 17]
: That they all may be one[17:21]
Before the High Priests [18:12–14] [18:19–24]
Pilate's court[18:28–19:16]
: What is truth?[18:38]
: Crown of thorns[19:2–3]
: Ecce Homo[19:5]
Empty tomb [20:1–10]
Mary don't hold on to me[20:11–18]
Great Commission[20:19–23]
Doubting Thomas[20:24–29]
Appendix to the Appendix[21]
: Catch of 153 fish[21:1–14]
: Prophecy of Peter's crucifixion[21:15–19]
: Disciple whom Jesus loved[21:20–25]

The Gospel According to John (also referred to as the Gospel of John, the Fourth Gospel, or simply John; Greek: Τὸ κατὰ Ἰωάννην εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Ioannen euangelion) is one of the four canonical gospels in the Christian Bible. In the New Testament it traditionally appears fourth, after the synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. John begins with the witness and affirmation of John the Baptist and concludes with the death, burial, resurrection, and post-resurrection appearances of Jesus.

Chapter 21 states that the book derives from the testimony of the "disciple whom Jesus loved" and early church tradition identified him as John the Apostle, one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles. The gospel is closely related in style and content to the three surviving Epistles of John such that commentators treat the four books,[1] along with the Book of Revelation, as a single body of Johannine literature. According to some modern scholars, however, the apostle John was not the author of any of these books.[2]

Barrett[3], first, and later Raymond E. Brown[4] proposed the development of a tradition around the called "John's Community" from which the gospel arose.[5] Likewise, the discovery of the huge number of papyrus fragments with the johannine thematic, has led to more and more scholars are recognizing that the texts of this Community, the called johaninne literature, as one of the most influential mainstream in the early times of the Christianity. [6]

The discourses seem to be concerned with issues of the church-and-synagogue debate at the time when the Gospel was written.[7] It is notable that, in the gospel, the community appears to define itself primarily in contrast to Judaism, rather than as part of a wider Christian community.[8] Though Christianity started as a movement within Judaism, it gradually separated from Judaism because of Christian and Jewish opposition to each other.[9]

Composition and setting

Authorship, date and origin

The Gospel of John is anonymous; Church tradition identified the "beloved disciple" mentioned in John 21:24 as the author and named him (John the evangelist), but this is rejected by the majority of modern scholars.[10][Notes 1] Scholars believe that the text went through two to three "editions" before reaching its current form,[11] [12] and because of this complex and multi-layered history it is meaningless to speak of a single author.[13]

John is usually dated to 90-110 AD.[14][Notes 2] It arose in a Jewish Christian community in the process of breaking from the Jewish synagogue,[15] and John, which regularly describes Jesus' opponents simply as "the Jews", is more consistently hostile to the Jews than any any other body of New Testament writing.[16][Notes 3] In later centuries, John was used to support anti-Semitic polemics, but the author of the gospel regarded himself as a Jew, he championed Jesus and his followers as Jews, and he probably wrote for a largely Jewish community.[17][18]


Rudolf Bultmann, in a seminal work published in 1941, argued that John's sources were a hypothetical "Signs Gospel" listing Christ's miracles, a revelation discourse, and a passion narrative. Bultman's work, combined with that of other scholars (the work of Raymond E. Brown was particularly influential in the English-speaking world), led to a scholarly consensus in the second half of the 20th century that the Gospel of John was independent of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, known as the Synoptic gospels. This agreement broke down in the last decade of the century, and there are now many scholars who believe that John did know the Synoptics, especially Mark, while the hypothesis of a "signs" source has been increasingly undermined.[19]

But theories of either complete independence of or complete dependence on the Synoptics are largely rejected in current scholarship: on the one hand, elements such as distinctive Johannine language, the lengthy discourses, and the prologue on the Logos, are clearly unique to John; on the other, John clearly shares a multitude of episodes with the other three.[20]

The most important sources used by the evangelist were the Jewish scriptures (the Tanakh, more or less identical with the Christian Old Testament), probably in the Greek translation. John quotes from them directly, references important figures from them, and uses narratives from them as the basis for several of the discourses. But the author was also familiar with non-Jewish sources: the Logos of the prologue (the Word that is with God from the beginning of creation) derives from both the Jewish concept of Lady Wisdom and from the Greek philosophers, while John 6 alludes not only to the exodus but also to Greco-Roman mystery cults, while John 4 alludes to Samaritan messianic beliefs. [21]

Historical reliability

Chapters 19 and 21 of John hint that the "the disciple whom Jesus loved" was an eyewitness to Jesus's ministry, but the majority of scholars are cautious of accepting this at face value.[22][23] With the exception of the 'Johannine Thunderbolt" passages (Matthew 11:25-27 and Luke 10:21-22) the teachings of Jesus found in the synoptic gospels are very different from those recorded in John, and since the 19th century some scholars have argued that these discourses in Johannine style are less likely to be historical, and more likely to have been written for theological purposes.[24]

Scholars usually agree that John is not entirely without historical value.[25] It has become generally accepted that certain sayings in John are as old or older than their synoptic counterparts, while his representation of the topography around Jerusalem is often superior to that of the synoptics, his testimony that Jesus was executed before, rather than on, Passover, might well be more accurate, and his presentation of Jesus in the garden and the prior meeting held by the Jewish authorities are possibly more historically plausible than their synoptic parallels.[25]

Textual history and position in the New Testament

The Rylands Papyrus is perhaps the earliest New Testament fragment; dated from its handwriting to about 125.

Rylands Library Papyrus P52, a Greek papyrus fragment with John 18:31–33 on one side and 18:37–38 on the other, and commonly dated to the first half of the 2nd century, is the oldest New Testament manuscript known.[26] A substantially complete text of John exists from the beginning of the 3rd century at the latest, so that the textual evidence for this gospel is commonly accepted as both earlier and more reliable than that for any other. John stands fourth in the standard ordering of the gospels, after Matthew, Mark and Luke, but in the earliest surviving gospel collection, Papyrus 45 of the 3rd century, they are in the order Matthew, John, Luke and Mark, while in syrcur it is placed third in the order Matthew, Mark, John and Luke.

Structure and content

Jesus giving the Farewell Discourse (John 14–17) to his eleven remaining disciples, from the Maesta by Duccio, 1308–1311.

John can be divided into four sections: prologue (chapter 1); the narrative of Jesus' ministry, sometimes called the "book of signs" (chapters 2-11)); the passion and resurrection narrative, or "book of glory" (chapters 12-20); and epilogue (chapter 21). The structure is highly schematic: there are seven "signs" culminating in the raising of Lazarus (foreshadowing the raising of Jesus), and seven "I am" sayings and discourses, culminating in Thomas' proclamation of Jesus as "my lord and my God" - the same title claimed by the Roman emperor Domitian. [27]

  1. Prologue (John 1): Jesus is placed in his cosmic setting as the eternal Logos who reveals God and gives salvation to believers; John the Baptist, Andrew and Nathanael bear witness to him as Lamb of God, Son of God, and Messiah.[28]
  2. Jesus' ministry (the "book of signs" - John 2-12): The narrative of Jesus' public ministry consists of seven miracles or "signs," interspersed with long dialogues and discourses and "I am" sayings, culminating with the raising of Lazarus from the dead. In John it is this, and not the cleansing of the temple incident, that prompts the authorities to have Jesus executed.
  3. Passion and resurrection (the "book of glory" - John 13-20): The passion narrative opens with an account of the Last Supper that differs significantly from that found in the synoptics, with Jesus washing the disciples' feet instead of ushering in a new covenant of his body and blood.[29] This is followed by Jesus' farewell discourses, an account of his arrest, trial, death and burial, his resurrection appearances, and his final commission for his followers. The section ends with a conclusion on the purpose of the gospel, "that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name".[28]
  4. Epilogue (John 21): Chapter 21 tells of Jesus' post-resurrection appearance to his disciples by the lake, the miraculous catch of fish, the restoration of Peter, and the fate of the "beloved disciple".[30] A large majority of scholars believes this chapter to be an addition to the gospel.[31]



The Gospel of John presents a "high Christology", depicting Jesus as divine, and yet subordinate to the one God.[32] This gospel gives more focus to the relationship of the Son to the Father than the other gospels. It also focuses on the relation of the Redeemer to believers, the announcement of the Holy Spirit as the Comforter (Greek Paraclete), and the prominence of love as an element in Christian character.

Jesus' divine role

In the synoptics, Jesus speaks often about the Kingdom of God; his own divine role is obscured (see Messianic secret). In John, Jesus talks openly about his divine role. He says, for example, that he is the way, the truth, and the life.[14:6] He echoes Yahweh's own statements with several "I am" declarations that also identify him with symbols of major significance.[33] He says, "I am":

  • "the bread of life"[6:35]
  • "the light of the world"[8:12]
  • "the gate of the sheep"[10:7]
  • "the good shepherd"[10:11]
  • "the resurrection and the life"[11:25]
  • "the way, the truth, and the life"[14:6] and
  • "the true vine"[15:1]

John Shelby Spong has argued that the "I Am" statements are in reference to YHWH, and interprets John 12:44 ("He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me") as meaning that Jesus expressly denied being God.[34]


In the Prologue, John identifies Jesus as the Logos (Word). A term from Greek philosophy, it meant the principle of cosmic reason. In this sense, it was similar to the Hebrew concept of Wisdom, God's companion and intimate helper in creation. The Jewish philosopher Philo merged these two themes when he described the Logos as God's creator of and mediator with the material world. The evangelist adapted Philo's description of the Logos, applying it to Jesus, the incarnation of the Logos.[35]

The opening verse of John is translated as "the Word was with God and the Word was God" in all "orthodox" English Bibles.[36] There are alternative views. The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures of Jehovah's Witnesses has, "the Word was with God, and the Word was a god." The Scholar's Version of the gospel, developed by the Jesus Seminar, loosely translates the phrase as "The Logos was what God was," offered as a better representation of the original meaning of the evangelist.[37]

John the Baptist

John's account of the Baptist is different from that of the synoptic gospels. John is not called "the Baptist."[38] John's ministry overlaps with that of Jesus, his baptism of Jesus is not explicitly mentioned, but his witness to Jesus is unambiguous.[38] The evangelist almost certainly knew the story of John's baptism of Jesus and he makes a vital theological use of it.[39] He subordinates John to Jesus, perhaps in response to members of the Baptist's sect who denied Jesus' superiority.[40]

In John, Jesus and his disciples go to Judea early in Jesus' ministry when John has not yet been imprisoned and executed by Herod. He leads a ministry of baptism larger than John's own. The Jesus Seminar rated this account as black, containing no historically accurate information.[37] Historically, John likely had a larger presence in the public mind than Jesus.[41]

Gnostic elements

Though not commonly understood as Gnostic, many scholars, perhaps most notably Rudolf Bultmann, have forcefully argued that the Gospel of John has elements in common with Gnosticism.[40] Christian Gnosticism did not fully develop until the mid-2nd century, and so 2nd-century Proto-Orthodox Christians concentrated much effort in examining and refuting it.[42] To say John’s Gospel contained elements of Gnosticism is to assume that Gnosticism had developed to a level that required the author to respond to it.[43] Bultmann, for example, argued that the opening theme of the Gospel of John, the pre-existing Logos, was actually a Gnostic theme. Other scholars, e.g. Raymond E. Brown have argued that the pre-existing Logos theme arises from the more ancient Jewish writings in the eighth chapter of the Book of Proverbs, and was fully developed as a theme in Hellenistic Judaism by Philo Judaeus.

Comparisons to Gnosticism are based not in what the author says, but in the language he uses to say it, notably, use of the concepts of Logos and Light.[44] Other scholars, e.g. Raymond E. Brown, have argued that the ancient Jewish Qumran community also used the concept of Light versus Darkness. The arguments of Bultmann and his school were seriously compromised by the mid-20th century discoveries of the Nag Hammadi library of genuine Gnostic writings (which are dissimilar to the Gospel of John) as well as the Qumran library of Jewish writings (which are often similar to the Gospel of John).[citation needed]

Gnostics read John but interpreted it differently from the way non-Gnostics did.[45] Gnosticism taught that salvation came from gnosis, secret knowledge, and Gnostics did not see Jesus as a savior but a revealer of knowledge.[46] Barnabas Lindars asserts that the gospel teaches that salvation can only be achieved through revealed wisdom, specifically belief in (literally belief into) Jesus.[47]

Raymond Brown contends that "The Johannine picture of a savior who came from an alien world above, who said that neither he nor those who accepted him were of this world,[17:14] and who promised to return to take them to a heavenly dwelling[14:2–3] could be fitted into the gnostic world picture (even if God's love for the world in 3:16 could not)."[48] It has been suggested that similarities between John's Gospel and Gnosticism may spring from common roots in Jewish Apocalyptic literature.[49]

Comparison with other writings

John and the synoptics

The Book of John is significantly different from the Synoptic Gospels:

  • Jesus is identified with the divine Word ("Logos") and the Word is called theos ("god" in Greek).[50]
  • The Gospel of John gives no account of the Nativity of Jesus, unlike Matthew and Luke, and his mother, while frequently mentioned, is never identified by name. John does assert that Jesus was known as the "son of Joseph" in 6:42.
  • In contrast to Matthew and Luke (but not Mark), John's Jesus comes from Nazareth rather than the messianic town of Bethlehem. For John, Jesus' town of origin is irrelevant, for he comes from beyond this world, from God the Father.[51]
  • The Pharisees, portrayed as more uniformly legalistic and opposed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels, are instead portrayed as sharply divided; they debate frequently in the Gospel of John's accounts. Some, such as Nicodemus, even go so far as to be at least partially sympathetic to Jesus. This is believed to be a more accurate historical depiction of the Pharisees, who made debate one of the tenets of their system of belief.[52]
  • John makes no mention of Jesus' baptism,[53] but quotes John the Baptist's description of the descent of the Holy Spirit as a dove, as happens at Jesus' baptism in the other gospels.
  • John the Baptist publicly proclaims Jesus to be the Lamb of God. The Baptist recognizes Jesus secretly in Matthew, and not at all in Mark or Luke. The Gospel of John also has John the Baptist deny that he is Elijah, whereas Mark and Matthew identify him with Elijah.
  • The Cleansing of the Temple appears near the beginning of Jesus' ministry. In the synoptics this occurs soon before Jesus is crucified.
  • John contains four visits by Jesus to Jerusalem, three associated with the Passover feast. This chronology suggests Jesus' public ministry lasted two or three years. The synoptic gospels describe only one trip to Jerusalem in time for the Passover observance.
  • Jesus washes the disciples' feet instead of the synoptics' ritual with bread and wine (the Eucharist)
  • No other women are mentioned going to the tomb with Mary Magdalene.
  • John does not contain any parables.[54] Rather it contains metaphoric stories or allegories, such as The Shepherd and The Vine, in which each individual element corresponds to a specific group or thing.
  • Major synoptic speeches of Jesus are absent, including the Sermon on the Mount and the Olivet discourse.[55]
  • While the synoptics look forward to a future Kingdom of God (using the term parousia, meaning "coming"), John presents a more "realized eschatology".[56][clarification needed]
  • The Kingdom of God is mentioned only twice in John.[57] In contrast, the other gospels repeatedly use the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven as important concepts.
  • The exorcisms of demons are never mentioned as in the synoptics.[53][57]
  • John never lists all of the Twelve Disciples and names at least one disciple (Nathanael) whose name is not found in the synoptics; Nathanael appears to parallel the apostle Bartholomew found in the synoptics, as both are paired with Philip in the respective gospels. While James and John are prominent disciples in the synoptics, John mentions them only in the epilogue, where they are referred to not by name but as the "sons of Zebedee."
  • Thomas the Apostle is given a personality beyond a mere name, as "Doubting Thomas".
Item Description (From "Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus")[58]
Material John has a unique selection of material. It lacks scenes from the synoptics such as Jesus' baptism, the calling of the Twelve, exorcisms, parables, the Transfiguration, and the Last Supper. Conversely, it includes scenes not found in the synoptics, including Jesus turning water into wine (the marriage feast at Cana), the resurrection of Lazarus, Jesus washing the feet of his disciples, and multiple visits to Jerusalem.
Theology In Mark, Jesus urges his disciples to keep his divinity secret, but in John it is flaunted, even referring to himself as "I AM" - the title God gives himself in Exodus at his self-revelation to Moses. In the synoptics the chief theme is the "kingdom of God", while John's theme is Jesus as the source of eternal life.
Chronology In the synoptics the ministry of Jesus takes up a single year, but in John it takes up three (there are references to three Passovers). Events are not in the same order: the date of the crucifixion is one example, the time of Jesus' anointing in Bethany is another, and in the synoptics Jesus cleanses the temple at the end of his ministry, while in John this happens at the beginning.
Discrepancies There are several discrepancies between the synoptics and John, some amounting to contradictions. For example, according to the synoptics the arrest of Jesus was a reaction to the cleansing of the temple, while according to John it was triggered by the raising of Lazarus. Some incidents in John seem to be anachronistic: the
Literary style In the synoptics Jesus speaks pithy sayings; in John, he gives lengthy speeches in language identical with that of the narrator (the gospel's author). The vocabulary is also different, and filled with theological import: in John, Jesus does not work "miracles" (dunamis in Greek), but "signs" (semeion) which unveil his divine identity.

The Johannine literature


Bede translating the Gospel of John on his deathbed, by James Doyle Penrose, 1902

The Gospel of John has influenced Impressionist painters, Renaissance artists and classical art, literature and other depictions of Jesus, with influences in Greek, Jewish and European history.

It has been depicted in live narrations and dramatized in productions, skits, plays, and passion plays, productions, as well as on film. The most recent film portrayal is that of 2003's The Gospel of John, directed by Philip Saville and narrated by Christopher Plummer, and starring Henry Ian Cusick as Jesus.

Parts of the Gospel have been set to music, most notably in Steve Warner's power anthem "Come and See," written for the 20th anniversary of the Alliance for Catholic Education and including lyrical fragments taken from the first book. As well, some composers made settings of the Passion as portrayed in the Gospel of John, the most notable being the one composed by Johann Sebastian Bach, although some verses are borrowed from Matthew.[59]

See also


  1. For the circumstances which led to the formation of the tradition, and the reasons why the majority of modern scholars reject it, see Lindars, Edwards and Court, "The Johannine Literature" (2000), pages 41-42. For arguments in support of the tradition, see Craig Blomberg, "Jesus and the Gospels" (2009), pages 197-198.
  2. For the reasons behind this, see Lincoln, "The Gospel According to Saint John" (2005), p.18.
  3. For details see D.G.E Dunn, The Question of Anti-Semitism in the New Testament in his edited volume "Jews and Christians" (1992), p.183.



  1. Lindars 1990 p. 63.
  2. "Although ancient traditions attributed to the Apostle John the Fourth Gospel, the Book of Revelation, and the three Epistles of John, some modern scholars believe that he wrote none of them." Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible (Palo Alto: Mayfield, 1985) p. 355
  3. Barrett, C.K. "Gospel according to St John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes on the Greek Text" Template:1978, 2nd edition, ISBN 0-664-22180-7, p.133. The use of first person plural in John, specially in the letters, is the base of these theories. Barrets quotes on that sense Robinson, who in 1965 asserted "the gospel is composed in Judea and under the pressure of controversy with "the jews" of that area. But in its present form it is an appeal to those outside the Church, to win to the faith that Greek speaking Diaspora Judaism to which the author now finds himself belonging", Barret, (1978), p. 137
  4. Gospel According to John, (I-XII), Doubleday & Company, New York 1966, ISBN 0300140525, 9780300140521, p 43.
  5. Ehrman, Bart D.. Jesus, Interrupted, HarperCollins, 2009. ISBN 0-06-117393-2
  6. Otero Santos, A. (Spanish) "Los Evangelios Apócrifos, BAC, Madrid, 1985, ISBN 84-220-0069-5, p. 97
  7. Lindars 1990 p. 53.
  8. Bruce Chilton and Jacob Neusner, Judaism in the New Testament: Practices and Beliefs (New York: Routledge, 1995), 5. "by their own word what they (the writers of the New Testament) set forth in the New Testament must qualify as a Judaism. ... [T]o distinguish between the religious world of the New Testament and an alien Judaism denies the authors of the New Testament books their most fiercely held claim and renders incomprehensible much of what they said."
  9. Lindars 1990, p. 59.
  10. Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000, p. 41-42.
  11. Edwards 2015, p. ix.
  12. Ehrman 2004, p. 164-165.
  13. Lindars, Edwards & Court 2000, p. 20.
  14. Lincoln 2005, p. 18.
  15. Burkett 2002, p. 215-216.
  16. Dunn 1992, p. 182-183,195.
  17. Senior 1991, p. 155-156.
  18. Dunn 1999, p. 209.
  19. Lincoln 2005, p. 29-30.
  20. Porter 2015, p. 69-70.
  21. Reinhartz 2011, p. 155.
  22. Witherington 2004, p. 84.
  23. Anderson, Just & Thatcher 2007, p. 80.
  24. Sanders 1993, p. 57,70-71.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Theissen & Merz 1998, p. 36-37.
  26. Metzger 1992, p. 55-56.
  27. Witherington 2015, p. 83.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Edwards 2015, p. 171.
  29. Harris 1985.
  30. Edwards 2007, p. 171.
  31. Baukham 2007, p. 271.
  32. Hurtado 2005, p. 53.
  33. Harris pp. 302–10.
  34. John Shelby Spong. Jesus for the Non-Religious
  35. Harris 1985 pp. 302–10. "John."
  36. New International Version (and Today's New International Version), New American Standard Bible, Amplified Bible, New Living Translation, King James Version, Young's Literal Translation, Darby Translation, and Wycliffe New Testament, to name a few.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Funk 1998 pp. 365–440. "John."
  38. 38.0 38.1 Cross 2005. "John, Gospel of."
  39. Barrett, C. K. The Gospel According to St. John: An Introduction with Commentary and Notes on the Greek Text. Westminster John Knox Press, 1978. p. 16
  40. 40.0 40.1 Harris 1985.
  41. Funk 1998 p. 268. "John the Baptist."
  42. Roger E. Olson, The Story of Christian Theology, p. 36; InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, IL, 1999
  43. Robert Kysar (2005). Voyages with John: charting the Fourth Gospel. Baylor University Press. pp. 82 ff. ISBN 978-1-932792-43-0. Retrieved 10 October 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. Gilles Quispel; R. van den Broek; Maarten Jozef Vermaseren (1981). Studies in Gnosticism and Hellenistic religions: presented to Gilles Quispel on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Brill Archive. pp. 467 ff. ISBN 978-90-04-06376-1. Retrieved 10 October 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. Glenn W. Most; Glenn W Most (2005). Doubting Thomas. Harvard University Press. pp. 121 ff. ISBN 978-0-674-01914-0. Retrieved 10 October 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Oskar Skarsaune (2002). In the shadow of the temple: Jewish influences on early Christianity. InterVarsity Press. pp. 247 ff. ISBN 978-0-8308-2670-4. Retrieved 10 October 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. Lindars 1990 p. 62.
  48. Brown 1997 p. 375.
  49. Kovacs, Judith L. (1995). "Now Shall the Ruler of This World Be Driven Out: Jesus' Death as Cosmic Battle in John 12:20–36". Journal of Biblical Literature. 114 (2): 227–247. doi:10.2307/3266937. JSTOR 3266937.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. Ehrman, Bart D.. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 978-0-06-073817-4
  51. Fredriksen 2008, p. unpaginated.
  52. Neusner, Jacob. Invitation to the Talmud: a Teaching Book (1998): 8
  53. 53.0 53.1 Funk 1993 pp. 1–30. "Introduction."
  54. "Catholic Encyclopedia: Parables". Retrieved 1 February 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. Pagels, Elaine. Beyond belief: the secret gospel of Thomas. New York: Random House. 2003. ISBN 0-375-50156-8
  56. "Biblical Literature." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The Fourth Gospel
  57. 57.0 57.1 Thompson, Marianne Maye (23 November 2006). "The Gospel according to John". In Stephen C. Barton (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Gospels. Cambridge University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-521-80766-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. Burge 2014, p. 236-237.
  59. Ambrose, Z. Philip. "BWV 245". Texts of the Complete Vocal Works of J. S. Bach. Retrieved 10 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>


External links

Online translations of the Gospel of John:

Related articles:

Gospel of John
Preceded by
Gospel of
New Testament
Books of the Bible
Succeeded by
of the Apostles

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