Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae), however sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found. Grasslands occur naturally on all continents except Antarctica. Grasslands are found in most ecoregions of the Earth. For example, there are five terrestrial ecoregion classifications (subdivisions) of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome ('ecosystem'), which is one of eight terrestrial ecozones of the Earth's surface.
- 1 Vegetation
- 2 Evolution
- 3 Climate
- 4 Biodiversity and conservation
- 5 Human impact and economic importance
- 6 Types
- 7 Fauna
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregions
- 12 Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregions
As flowering plants and trees, grasses grow in great concentrations in climates where annual rainfall ranges between 500 and 900 mm (20 and 35 in). The root systems of perennial grasses and forbs form complex mats that hold the soil in place.
Graminoids are among the most versatile life forms. They became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, and fossilized dinosaur dung (coprolites) have been found containing phytoliths of a variety of grasses that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo.
The appearance of mountains in the western United States during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, a period of some 25 million years, created a continental climate favorable to the evolution of grasslands. Existing forest biomes declined, and grasslands became much more widespread. Following the Pleistocene ice ages, grasslands expanded in range in the hotter, drier climates, and began to become the dominant land feature worldwide.
Grasslands often occur in areas with annual precipitation between 600 mm (24 in) and 1,500 mm (59 in) and average mean annual temperatures ranges from −5 and 20 °C (Woodward et al. 2004). However, some grasslands occur in colder (−20 °C) and hotter (30 °C) climatic conditions. Grassland can exist in habitats that are frequently disturbed by grazing or fire, as such disturbance prevents the encroachment of woody species. Species richness is particularly high in grasslands of low soil fertility such as serpentine barrens and calcareous grasslands. Infertility may also prevent woody encroachment as low nutrient levels in the soil may inhibit the growth of forest and shrub species. Temperate grasslands occur in temperate climates typified by distinct seasonality (warm summers and cold winters).
Biodiversity and conservation
Grasslands dominated by unsown wild-plant communities ("unimproved grasslands") can be called either natural or 'semi-natural' habitats. The majority of grasslands in temperate climates are 'semi-natural'. Although their plant communities are natural, their maintenance depends upon anthropogenic activities such as low-intensity farming, which maintains these grasslands through grazing and cutting regimes. These grasslands contain many species of wild plants – grasses, sedges, rushes and herbs – 25 or more species per square metre is not unusual. Chalk downlands in England can support over 40 species per square metre. In many parts of the world, few examples have escaped agricultural improvement (fertilising, weed killing, ploughing or re-seeding). For example, original North American prairie grasslands or lowland wildflower meadows in the UK are now rare and their associated wild flora equally threatened. Associated with the wild-plant diversity of the "unimproved" grasslands is usually a rich invertebrate fauna; also there are many species of birds that are grassland "specialists", such as the snipe and the great bustard. Agriculturally improved grasslands, which dominate modern intensive agricultural landscapes, are usually poor in wild plant species due to the original diversity of plants having been destroyed by cultivation, the original wild-plant communities having been replaced by sown monocultures of cultivated varieties of grasses and clovers, such as perennial ryegrass and white clover. In many parts of the world "unimproved" grasslands are one of the most threatened types of habitat, and a target for acquisition by wildlife conservation groups or for special grants to landowners who are encouraged to manage them appropriately.
Human impact and economic importance
Grassland vegetation remains dominant in a particular area usually due to grazing, cutting, or natural or manmade fires, all discouraging colonisation by and survival of tree and shrub seedlings. Some of the world's largest expanses of grassland are found in African savanna, and these are maintained by wild herbivores as well as by nomadic pastoralists and their cattle, sheep or goats.
Grasslands may occur naturally or as the result of human activity. Grasslands created and maintained by human activity are called anthropogenic grasslands. Hunting peoples around the world often set regular fires to maintain and extend grasslands, and prevent fire-intolerant trees and shrubs from taking hold. The tallgrass prairies in the U.S. Midwest may have been extended eastward into Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio by human agency. Much grassland in northwest Europe developed after the Neolithic Period, when people gradually cleared the forest to create areas for raising their livestock.
Tropical and subtropical
These grasslands are classified with tropical and subtropical savannas and shrublands as the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. Notable tropical and subtropical grasslands include the Llanos grasslands of South America.
Mid-latitude grasslands, including the prairie and Pacific grasslands of North America, the Pampas of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, calcareous downland, and the steppes of Europe. They are classified with temperate savannas and shrublands as the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. Temperate grasslands are the home to many large herbivores, such as bison, gazelles, zebras, rhinoceroses, and wild horses. Carnivores like lions, wolves and cheetahs and leopards are also found in temperate grasslands. Other animals of this region include: deer, prairie dogs, mice, jack rabbits, skunks, coyotes, snakes, fox, owls, badgers, blackbirds (both Old and New World varieties), grasshoppers, meadowlarks, sparrows, quails, hawks and hyenas.
Grasslands that are flooded seasonally or year-round, like the Everglades of Florida, the Pantanal of Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay or the Esteros del Ibera in Argentina.They are classified with flooded savannas as the flooded grasslands and savannas biome and occur mostly in the tropics and subtropics.
Watermeadows are grasslands that are deliberately flooded for short periods.
High-altitude grasslands located on high mountain ranges around the world, like the Páramo of the Andes Mountains. They are part of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome and also constitute tundra.
Similar to montane grasslands, polar Arctic tundra can have grasses, but high soil moisture means that few tundras are grass-dominated today. However, during the Pleistocene ice ages, a polar grassland known as steppe-tundra occupied large areas of the Northern Hemisphere. These are in the tundra biome.
Desert and xeric
Also called desert grasslands, this is composed of sparse grassland ecoregions located in the deserts and xeric shrublands biome.
Mites, insect larvae, nematodes and earthworms inhabit deep soil, which can reach 6 metres (20 ft) underground in undisturbed grasslands on the richest soils of the world. These invertebrates, along with symbiotic fungi, extend the root systems, break apart hard soil, enrich it with urea and other natural fertilizers, trap minerals and water and promote growth. Some types of fungi make the plants more resistant to insect and microbial attacks.
While grasslands in general support diverse wildlife, given the lack of hiding places for predators, the African savanna regions support a much greater diversity in wildlife than do temperate grasslands.
There is evidence for grassland being much the product of animal behaviour and movement; some examples include migratory herds of antelope trampling vegetation and African bush elephants eating acacia saplings before the plant has a chance to grow into a mature tree.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grasslands.|
- University of California Museum of Paleontology Grasslands website. Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved on 2011-12-01.
- NASA Earth Observatory webpage. Earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2011-12-01.
- Piperno, D. R.; Sues, HD (2005). "Dinosaurs Dined on Grass". Science. 310 (5751): 1126–8. doi:10.1126/science.1121020. PMID 16293745.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- EO Experiments: Grassland Biome. Earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved on 2011-12-01.
- University of California – Santa Barbara Temperate Grasslands website. Kids.nceas.ucsb.edu. Retrieved on 2011-12-01.
- How can grazing heal land?. ManagingWholes.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-01.
- Courtwright, Julie. Prairie Fire: A Great Plains History (University Press of Kansas, 2011) 274 pp.
Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregions
|Al Hajar Al Gharbi montane woodlands||Oman|
|Amsterdam and Saint-Paul Islands temperate grasslands||Amsterdam Island, Saint-Paul Island|
|Tristan da Cunha-Gough Islands shrub and grasslands||Tristan da Cunha, Gough Island|
|Canterbury-Otago tussock grasslands||New Zealand|
|Eastern Australia mulga shrublands||Australia|
|Southeast Australia temperate savanna||Australia|
|Patagonian grasslands||Argentina, Chile|
|Patagonian steppe||Argentina, Chile|
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands ecoregions
|Arnhem Land tropical savanna||Australia|
|Brigalow tropical savanna||Australia|
|Cape York tropical savanna||Australia|
|Carpentaria tropical savanna||Australia|
|Einasleigh upland savanna||Australia|
|Kimberly tropical savanna||Australia|
|Mitchell grass downs||Australia|
|Trans Fly savanna and grasslands||Indonesia, Papua New Guinea|
|Victoria Plains tropical savanna||Australia|
|Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands||Bhutan, India, Nepal|
|Western Gulf coastal grasslands||Mexico, United States|
|Campos Rupestres montane savanna||Brazil|
|Cerrado||Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay|
|Clipperton Island shrub and grasslands||Clipperton Island is an overseas territory of France|
|Córdoba montane savanna||Argentina|
|Guyanan savanna||Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela|
|Gran Chaco||Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay|
|Los Llanos||Venezuela, Colombia|
|Uruguayan savanna||Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay|
|Hawaiian tropical high shrublands||Hawaiʻi|
|Hawaiian tropical low shrublands||Hawaiʻi|
|Northwestern Hawaii scrub||Hawaiʻi|