|Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris|
Guineafowl (//; sometimes called "original fowl" or guineahen) are birds of the family Numididae in the order Galliformes. They are endemic to the continent of Africa and rank among the oldest of the gallinaceous birds. They are phylogenetically intermediate between peafowl and the Odontophoridae. One Eocene fossil lineage, Telecrex, is represented by the black guineafowl, which is an extant species native to the primary forests of Central Africa. Telecrex that inhabited Mongolia may have given rise to the oldest of the true Tetraophasianids like Ithaginis and Crossoptilon which evolved into high-altitude montane adapted species with the rise of the Tibetan Plateau. While modern guineafowl species are endemic to Africa, the helmeted guineafowl has been introduced widely elsewhere.
Taxonomy and systematics
- Genus Agelastes
- Genus Numida
- Helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris
- Genus Guttera
- Genus Acryllium
- Vulturine guineafowl, Acryllium vulturinum
The insect and seed-eating, ground-nesting birds of this family resemble partridges, but with featherless heads, though both members of the genus Guttera have a distinctive black crest, and the vulturine guineafowl has a downy brown patch on the nape. Most species of guineafowl have a dark grey or blackish plumage with dense white spots, but both members of the genus Agelastes lack the spots (as do some Wild variants of the helmeted guineafowl). While several species are relatively well known, the plumed guineafowl and the two members of the genus Agelastes remain relatively poorly known. These large birds measure from 40–71 cm (16–28 inches) in length, and weigh 700–1600 grams or 1.5-3.5 pounds.
Behaviour and ecology
The species for which the information is known are normally monogamous, mating for life or serially monogamous; however, occasional exceptions have been recorded for the helmeted and Kenyan crested guineafowl, which have been reported to be facultatively polygamous in captivity . All guineafowl are social, and typically live in small groups or large flocks. though they are monogamous, species of the least-derived genera Guttera, Agelastes and Acryllium tend toward social polyandry, a trait shared with other primitive galliformes like roul roul, and Congo peafowl.
Guineafowl travel behind herd animals and beneath monkey troops where they forage within manure and on items that have fallen to the understory from the canopy. Guineafowl play a pivotal roll in the control of ticks, flies, locusts, scorpions and other invertebrates. They pluck maggots from carcasses and manure.
Wild guineafowl are without exception strong fliers. Their breast muscles are dark enabling them to sustain themselves in flight for considerable distances if hard-pressed. Grass and bush fires are a constant threat to these galliformes and flight is the most effective escape.
Some species of guineafowl like the vulturine may go without drinking water for extended periods, sourcing their moisture from their food. Guineafowls are very sensitive to weather, that is Cold weather when they are still keets.
Distribution and habitat
Guineafowl species are found across sub-Saharan Africa, some almost in the entire range, others more localized, such as the plumed guineafowl in west-central Africa and the vulturine guineafowl in north-east Africa . They live in semi-open habitats such as savanna or semideserts, while some, such as the black guineafowl, mainly inhabit forests. They perch high on treetops when reared in the extensive way.
Guineafowl as food
Guineafowl is commonly eaten in parts of Africa (notably Ghana especially the northern part of the country, Nigeria and Botswana), India and the United States (notably in the state of Georgia). It is consumed at Christmas in some parts of Central and Northern Europe (notably in Belgium and the UK). It is also eaten in Italy.
Guineafowl meat is drier and leaner than chicken meat and has a gamey flavour. It has marginally more protein than chicken or turkey, roughly half the fat of chicken and slightly fewer calories per gram. Guineafowl eggs are substantially richer than chicken eggs.
Head of a vulturine guineafowl
- Lever, Christopher (2005). Naturalised Birds of the World. London, United Kingdom: T & A D Poyser. pp. 24–26. ISBN 978-0-7136-7006-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- (Madge and McGowan, p. 345–352)
- World Poultry Vol. 25 No. 10, 2009
- Guinea Fowl Production. Dr. Ross Gordon Cooper, Dr. Shahram Golzar Adabi. 2012. ISBN 9781471699948
- USDA handbook #8 and circular #549, leclercq 1985
- Madge and McGowan, Pheasants, Partridges and Grouse. ISBN 0-7136-3966-0
- Martínez, I. (1994). "Family Numididae (Guineafowl)", p. 554–570 in; del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-15-6
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