Győr

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Győr
City with county rights
Győr Megyei Jogú Város
Püspökvár (4258. számú műemlék) 5.jpg
Mária oszlop (4387. számú műemlék).jpgGyör Karmeliterkirche Fassade 4.JPGIron Log House - Győr.jpg
Tanácsház (4402. számú műemlék).jpgGyőr-Széchenyi tér.jpg
Flag of Győr
Flag
Coat of arms of Győr
Coat of arms
Country  Hungary
County Győr-Moson-Sopron
District Győr
Government
 • Mayor Csaba András Dézsi[1] (Fidesz)
 • Deputy Mayor Dr Tivadar Somogyi (Fidesz-KDNP)
Dr Dávid Fekete (Fidesz-KDNP)
Ákos Radnóti (Fidesz-KDNP)
 • Town Notary Dr Szilárd Lipovits
Petra Tibold
Area[2]
 • City with county rights 174.62 km2 (67.42 sq mi)
Elevation 108 m (354 ft)
Population (1 January 2017)[3][2]
 • City with county rights 129,301
 • Urban(7th)[4] 246,159
Demonym(s) győri
Population by ethnicity[5]
 • Hungarians 84.5%
 • Germans 1.5%
 • Romani 0.8%
 • Others 1.7%
Population by religion[5]
 • Roman Catholic 44.9%
 • Evangelicals 4.3%
 • Calvinists 4.1%
 • Other 1.5%
 • Non-religious 14.2%
Area code(s) (+36) 96
Motorways M1, M19, M85
NUTS 3 code HU221
Distance from Budapest 121 km (75 mi) East
International Airport Győr (QGY)
MP Róbert Balázs Simon (Fidesz)
Ákos Kara (Fidesz)
Website www.gyor.hu

Győr (US /dj[unsupported input], [unsupported input]/ dyur-,_-jur,[6][7] Hungarian: [ˈɟøːr]; German: Raab; names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe. It is the sixth largest city in Hungary, and one of its seven main regional centres.

History

The area along the Danube River has been inhabited by varying cultures since ancient times. The first large settlement dates back to the 5th century BCE; the inhabitants were Celts. They called the town Ara Bona "Good altar", later contracted to Arrabona, a name which was used until the eighth century. Its shortened form is still used as the German (Raab) and Slovak (Ráb) names of the city.

Roman merchants moved to Arrabona during the 1st century BCE. Around 10 CE, the Roman army occupied the northern part of Western Hungary, which they called Pannonia. Although the Roman Empire abandoned the area in the 4th century due to constant attacks by the tribes living to the east, the town remained inhabited.

Around 500 the territory was settled by Slavs, in 547 by the Lombards, and in 568–c. 800 by the Avars, at that time under Frankish and Slavic influence. During this time it was called Rabba and later Raab. Between 880 and 894, it was part of Great Moravia, and then briefly under East Frankish dominance.

Town Hall
Széchenyi Square
Rába at Győr

The Magyars occupied the town around 900 and fortified the abandoned Roman fortress. Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, founded an episcopate there. The town received its Hungarian name Győr. The Hungarians lived in tents, later in cottages, in what is now the southeastern part of the city centre. The town was affected by all the trials and tribulations of the history of Hungary: it was occupied by Mongols during the Mongol invasion (1241–1242) and then was destroyed by the Czech army in 1271.

After the disastrous battle of Mohács, Baron Tamás Nádasdy and Count György Cseszneky occupied the town for King Ferdinand I while John Zápolya also was attempting to annex it. During the Ottoman occupation of present-day central and eastern Hungary[8] (1541 - late 17th century), Győr's commander Kristóf Lamberg thought it would be futile to try to defend the town from the Turkish army. He burned down the town and the Turkish forces found nothing but blackened ruins, hence the Turkish name for Győr, Yanık kale ("burnt castle").

During rebuilding, the town was surrounded with a castle and a city wall designed by the leading Italian builders of the era. The town changed in character during these years, with many new buildings built in Renaissance style, but the main square and the grid of streets remained.

In 1594, after the death of Count János Cseszneky, captain of Hungarian footsoldiers, the Ottoman army occupied the castle and the town. In 1598 the Hungarian and Austrian army took control of it again and occupied it.[9] During the Turkish occupation the city was called Yanık Kala (burned place, as a reference to the enormous damages caused by the siege).[10]

In 1683, the Turks returned briefly, only to leave after being defeated in the Battle of Vienna.

During the following centuries, the town became prosperous. In 1743 Győr was elevated to free royal town status by Maria Theresa. The religious orders of Jesuits and Carmelites settled there, building schools, churches, a hospital, and a monastery.

On 14 June 1809, during the War of the Fifth Coalition, this was the site of the Battle of Győr (Battle of Raab), where the army of Eugène de Beauharnais defeated the Hungarian "noble insurrection" (militia) and an Austrian corps under the Archdukes Joseph and Johann. Napoleon's forces occupied the castle and had some of its walls blown up. The leaders of the town soon realized that the old ramparts were not useful any more. Most of the ramparts were destroyed, allowing the town to expand.

In the mid-19th century, Győr's role in trade grew as steamship traffic on the River Danube began. The town lost its importance in trade when the railway line between Budapest and Kanizsa superseded river traffic after 1861. The town leaders compensated for this loss with industrialisation. The town prospered until World War II when several buildings were destroyed. Some large-scale Strategic bombing devastated industrial and residential areas as well as the airport. It was targeted because the Rába factory was a main tank (Turán) and aeroplane (Bf 109) producer. One of these raids destroyed some parts of the maternity hospital.[11]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1870 21,767 —    
1890 28,175 +29.4%
1900 38,094 +35.2%
1910 45,083 +18.3%
1920 51,268 +13.7%
1930 52,456 +2.3%
1941 58,431 +11.4%
1949 58,431 +0.0%
1960 72,060 +23.3%
1970 102,600 +42.4%
1980 124,147 +21.0%
1990 129,331 +4.2%
2001 129,412 +0.1%
2011 129,527 +0.1%
2020 133,946 +3.4%
Significant minority groups
Nationality Population (2011)
 Germany 693
 Croatia 187
 Slovakia 184
 Romania 159
 Poland 70

The 1950s and '60s brought more change: only big blocks of flats were built, and the old historical buildings were not given care or attention. In the 1970s the reconstruction of the city centre began; old buildings were restored and reconstructed. In 1989 Győr won the European award for the protection of monuments.[citation needed]

A 100-year-old Raba factory on the River Danube close to the historical centre is to be replaced by a new community called Városrét. The mixed-use community will have residential and commercial space as well as schools, clinics and parks.

The city's main theatre is the National Theatre of Győr, finished in 1978. It features large ceramic ornaments made by Victor Vasarely.

The city has several historical buildings, for example the castle, and the Lutheran Evangelic church.

Climate

Climate data for Győr (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
5.3
(41.5)
10.7
(51.3)
16.0
(60.8)
21.5
(70.7)
24.3
(75.7)
26.6
(79.9)
26.3
(79.3)
21.5
(70.7)
15.6
(60.1)
8.0
(46.4)
3.9
(39)
15.2
(59.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
1.3
(34.3)
5.5
(41.9)
10.4
(50.7)
15.7
(60.3)
18.6
(65.5)
20.4
(68.7)
19.9
(67.8)
15.5
(59.9)
10.2
(50.4)
4.6
(40.3)
1.1
(34)
10.2
(50.4)
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−1.9
(28.6)
1.6
(34.9)
5.4
(41.7)
10.1
(50.2)
13.1
(55.6)
14.7
(58.5)
14.4
(57.9)
10.8
(51.4)
6.0
(42.8)
1.6
(34.9)
−1.4
(29.5)
5.9
(42.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32
(1.26)
33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
38
(1.5)
55
(2.17)
64
(2.52)
53
(2.09)
65
(2.56)
38
(1.5)
35
(1.38)
53
(2.09)
38
(1.5)
532
(20.97)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 7 6 7 7 8 9 7 7 6 5 8 7 84
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60 97 138 189 247 250 268 259 188 143 73 51 1,963
Source #1: Meteorological Service of Hungary[12]
Source #2: HKO (precipitation, 1961–1990)

Main sights

The ancient core of the city is Káptalan Hill at the confluence of three rivers: the Danube, Rába, and Rábca. Püspökvár, the residence of Győr's bishops, can be easily recognized by its incomplete tower. Győr's oldest buildings are the 13th-century dwelling tower and the 15th-century Gothic Dóczy Chapel. The cathedral, originally in Romanesque style, was rebuilt in Gothic and Baroque style.

Other sights include:

  • Town Hall
  • Benedictine church of St. Ignatius of Loyola
  • Carmelite church
  • Museum of Roman Archaeology

The Pannonhalma Archabbey is located some 20 km (12 miles) outside the town.

Renovation

File:Dunakapu Square.jpg
The new Dunakapu Tér

After the year 2000 the city started many big construction and renovation projects.

The bigger changes include:

  • The Nádor-underpass, which relieved the Downtown's traffic infrastructure, and made the renovation of the Baross-Bridge possible.
  • Renovation of the Baross-Bridge.
  • Renovation of the old Soviet barracks and Bus Station by the company Leier.
  • Development of the Széchenyi István University, which is in close connection with AUDI Hungária ZRT.
  • Newly built Parking Houses which take off the high traffic load of the Downtown area. (e.g. József Attila and Dunakapu garage)
  • Renovation of the inner-downtown district. Széchenyi-square, Dunakapu-square, the territory next to the Moson-Danube and Rába.
  • Free City Bus which can used by everyone to get anywhere in the Downtown Area.
  • The Győr Arcade at Városliget.
  • The Kálóczy Square near the Széchenyi István University.
  • The Jedlik Bridge, which enabled traffic & transport between Sziget and Révfalu district.
  • The Rába Quelle thermal spa

Economy

Audi AG subsidiary company Audi Hungaria Zrt. has a large factory in Győr, where the Audi TT sports car, the A3 Cabriolet,[13] A3 Limousine,[14] and many engines (1,913,053 engines in 2007) are built. The factory opened in 1994, at first producing inline-four engines for the Audi marque. Business then grew to assembling the Audi TT Coupé and TT Roadster. Eventually, V6 and V8 engines were also included, and after the acquisition of Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A., Audi then began to build V10 engines. The V10s for Audi vehicles are fully assembled here, but only the cylinder blocks for the Lamborghini V10.[15] Engines are also supplied to other Volkswagen Group marques, but over 90% of Audi vehicle engines are made here.[16] By 2020, the factory has a 12 MW solar roof, producing 9.5 GWh/year.[17]

Politics

The current mayor of Győr is Csaba András Dézsi (Fidesz-KDNP).

The local Municipal Assembly, elected at the 2019 local government elections, is made up of 23 members (1 Mayor, 16 Individual constituencies MEPs and 6 Compensation List MEPs) divided into this political parties and alliances:[18]

Party Seats Current Municipal Assembly
  Fidesz-KDNP 16 M                              
  Opposition coalition[lower-alpha 1] 4                                
  Civilians for Győr 2                                
  Association for Győr 1                                

List of mayors

List of City Mayors from 1990:

Member Party Term of office
Ernő Kolozsváry SZDSZ 1990–1994
József Balogh MSZP 1994–2006
Zsolt Borkai Fidesz 2006–2019
Independent
Csaba András Dézsi Fidesz 2020–

Notable people

Transport

File:Győr A Baross híd.JPG
Győr train station under the Baross Bridge in 2008

The city is a national hub for rail and road traffic. The transport-geographical position of Győr is excellent. The most important railway connections are the Vienna-Budapest railway line, but the Győr-Sopron railway line owned by the Győr-Sopron-Ebenfurt railway company, as well as the Győr-Celldömölk railway line and the Győr-Veszprém railway run by MÁV. In Győr, several main transport routes meet each other (M1, M19, 1, 14, 81, 82, 83, 85), and the motorway is accessible from several parts of the city. Győr-Pér Airport can be reached from the city on Highway 81, 15 kilometers towards Székesfehérvár. At the 1734 km section of the Danube lies the port of Győr-Gönyű with its fully equipped 25 hectare serving terminal.

Sports

Győr is the home of the Győri ETO Sport Club, which has many sport divisions. The most popular sport in the city is handball, with the Győri ETO KC being the city's main team. ETO won the Champions League in 2013, 2014, 2017, 2018 and in 2019 and also reached the final in 2009, 2012 and in 2016. In addition, Győr reached the final of the EHF Cup Winners' Cup in 2006 and the final of the EHF Cup in 1999, 2002, 2004 and 2005.

WKW ETO FC Győr is a football team, currently (as of 2020/2021) in the Hungarian Second Division.[19]

Twin towns – sister cities

Győr is twinned with:[20]

References

  1. Attila, Rovó; Marianna, Biró (2020-01-26). "Index.hu – A fideszes Dézsi Csaba András megnyerte Győrben az időközi polgármester-választást" (in magyar). © 1999-2020 Index.hu Zrt. Retrieved 2020-01-26.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Gazetteer of Hungary, 1 January 2017" (PDF) (in English and magyar). Hungarian Central Statistical Office. 2017-10-05. p. 52. Retrieved 2018-01-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. KSH, Győr, 2017
  4. Eurostat, 2016
  5. 5.0 5.1 KSH - Győr, 2011
  6. "Gyor". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 8 September 2019.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Gyor". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 8 September 2019.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Royal Hungary (historical region, Hungary) -". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2011-09-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Sugar, Peter F.; Hanák, Péter; Frank, Tibor, eds. (1990). A History of Hungary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 97.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Győr ostroma. | Borovszky Samu: Magyarország vármegyéi és városai | Kézikönyvtár". www.arcanum.hu (in magyar). Retrieved 2018-09-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Endre, Kozma. "Az 1944. április 13-i győri terrorbombázás - Régi Győr". regigyor.hu (in magyar). Retrieved 2018-09-26.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Győr éghajlati jellemzői" (in magyar). Meteorological Service of Hungary. Retrieved 7 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Start of production and world premiere for the Audi A3 Cabriolet in Hungary". Volkswagen AG. 30 November 2007. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "World Industrial Reporter – Audi Hungaria Celebrates Start of Production of A3 Limousine". © 2013 Thomas Publishing Company. 2013-06-13. Retrieved 2013-07-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Lamborghini Cars full specifications - First spyshots of the Lamborghini L140 model". LamboCars.com. Archived from the original on 2005-04-18. Retrieved 30 August 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Audi ups Hungarian output". BBJ.hu. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Largest Rooftop Solar System in Europe Goes Online ... on Audi Factory". CleanTechnica. 10 October 2020.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Városi közgyűlés tagjai 2019-2024 - Győr (Győr-Moson-Sopron megye)". valasztas.hu. Retrieved 2019-10-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "WKW ETO FC GYŐR - MLSZ adatbank". adatbank.mlsz.hu. Retrieved 2020-11-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Győr testvérvárosi kapcsolatai". gyor.hu (in magyar). Győr. Retrieved 2021-03-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Notes

  1. Coalition of DK-Momentum-MSZP-Jobbik-LMP.

External links

Template:Győr District

Template:Cities with county rights (Hungary)

Template:Hungary's most flowery settlements