Hayneville, Alabama

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Hayneville, Alabama
Hayneville Courthouse Square
Hayneville Courthouse Square
Location in Lowndes County and the state of Alabama
Location in Lowndes County and the state of Alabama
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Country United States
State Alabama
County Lowndes
 • Mayor Helenor Bell
 • Total 1.9 sq mi (4.8 km2)
 • Land 1.9 sq mi (4.8 km2)
 • Water 0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation 243 ft (74 m)
Population (2000)
 • Total 1,177
 • Density 619.5/sq mi (245.2/km2)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code 36040
Area code(s) 334
FIPS code 01-33712
GNIS feature ID 0119902

Hayneville is a town in Lowndes County, Alabama, United States. At the 2000 census the population was 1,177. The city is the county seat of Lowndes County. It is also part of the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Located in the fertile Black Belt region, Hayneville's early economy centered on cotton production. The town was later a railway terminus and home to the Hayneville Railway Company, which was organized in 1903. Two years later, the company was reorganized as the Hayneville & Montgomery Railroad Company and provided connections for shipping with the L&N Railroad Company's tracks. The agricultural focus shifted to more diverse crops and livestock in the latter half of the 20th century. Hayneville, like the rest of the Black Belt, has struggled to shift to a more productive economy.[1]

Settlement (1820-1831)

Hayneville was founded in 1820 by settlers from the Edgefield, Abbeville, and Colleton districts of South Carolina on property purchased from the U.S. Land Office at Cahawba. Throughout the 1820s, Hayneville was known as "Big Swamp". The indigenous Muscogee Creek people had been forced to cede their lands under various treaties with the United States.

In 1831, after being chosen as the county seat of Lowndes County, the town was officially named Hayneville in honor of Robert Y. Hayne, governor of South Carolina and a U.S. senator.

Civil Rights Era and "Bloody Lowndes" (1965)

Because of the black majority and lack of black registered voters in the early 1960s, Hayneville and Lowndes were sites for organizing for civil rights activists. After passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965 in August, activists worked to prepare residents with political education and get them registered to vote. They were also continuing to work to integrate stores and public facilities. On August 13, 1965, Jonathan Daniels, an Episcopal seminarian from New Hampshire, worked with a group of 29 civil rights protesters to picket whites-only stores in the small town of Fort Deposit. All of the protesters were arrested by county police and taken to jail in nearby Hayneville, the county seat. Five juvenile protesters were released the next day. The rest of the group was held for six days; they refused to accept bail unless everyone was bailed.

On August 20, the prisoners were released without transport back to Fort Deposit. After release, the group waited by a road nearby the jail. Daniels with three others — a white Catholic priest and two black protesters—walked down the street to get a cold soft drink at Varner's Grocery Store, one of the few local stores that would serve non-whites. They were met at the front by Tom L. Coleman, an engineer for the state highway department and unpaid special county deputy, who wielded a shotgun. The man threatened the group, and finally leveled his gun at seventeen-year-old Ruby Sales. Daniels pushed Sales to the ground and caught the full blast of the gun. He was killed instantly. Father Richard F. Morrisroe grabbed the other protester and ran. Coleman shot Morrisroe, wounding him in the lower back.[2] White resistance to civil rights organizers continued.

This story above has been challenged by witnesses and bystanders there that day. Mr. Coleman had gotten every one out of Varner's except Mr. Daniels and the owner of the store. Daniels was insistent that he would not leave. Mr. Coleman turned his back on Mr. Daniels to check on the crowd outside and when he turned back around Daniels was charging at him. Mr. Coleman then shot Mr. Daniels. Father Morrisroe then tried to incite the crowd to riot and attack Mr. Coleman. Mr. Coleman then shot Morrisroe to prevent him from getting the crowd to attack him. Needless to say after the second shot the crowd dispersed.

In June 1965, Gregory Orr, a student from upstate New York who traveled to Mississippi to take part in civil rights protests, was driving home from the capital of Jackson. He had been arrested there with other protesters and held without charges for 10 days at the state fairgrounds. In Alabama on his journey to New York, he was stopped by white vigilantes, kidnapped and held without charges for eight days in the Hayneville courthouse jail. Back in New York that August, Orr read a report of the murder of Jonathan Daniels in the New York Times.[2] He recognized one of his kidnappers in a photograph—apparently Tom Coleman.[3] Numerous other incidents have been documented in the county of violence against civil rights people.

Civil rights activities in Lowndes continued in the county under the leadership of Stokeley Carmichael, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and local residents, to educate and register blacks to vote after passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. They organized the "Lowndes County Freedom Organization," the first independent black political party in the county since Reconstruction, and continued to register voters. They ran a slate of candidates in 1966 but lost due to election fraud in the majority-black county. In 1970 a black was elected as county sheriff.

Incorporation (1967-1968)

The incorporation of Hayneville as a town began with the vision of 25 qualified electors of the county and residents of the Hayneville community in July 1967. Two subsequent attempts were made for incorporation, the last resulting in favor of incorporation. Only one person filed for a statement of candidacy and was nominated for the office of Mayor and five places on the town council. Therefore, due to the completion of the requirements of incorporation, the court declared on July 15, 1968, by Probate Judge Harold Hammond, that Hayneville was completely incorporated.


Hayneville is located at Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found. (32.182365, -86.580468).[4]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2), of which 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2) is land and 0.54% is water.


Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 355
1970 473
1980 592 25.2%
1990 969 63.7%
2000 1,177 21.5%
2010 932 −20.8%
Est. 2014 874 [5] −6.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[6]
2013 Estimate[7]

As of the census[8] of 2000, there were 1,177 people, 409 households, and 294 families residing in the town. The population density was 635.3 people per square mile (245.6/km²). There were 467 housing units at an average density of 252.1 per square mile (97.5/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 85.47% Black or African American, 13.42% White, 0.17% Asian, and 0.93% from two or more races. 0.34% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 409 households out of which 37.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% were married couples living together, 33.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.1% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.45.

In the town the population was spread out with 32.7% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.7 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $19,554, and the median income for a family was $22,788. Males had a median income of $22,396 versus $20,417 for females. The per capita income for the town was $9,556. About 35.2% of families and 35.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.3% of those under age 18 and 28.1% of those age 65 or over.

Notable person



  1. History of Hayneville, Alabama, Encyclopedia of Alabama, retrieved 2012-01-20<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 Roy Reed, "White Seminarian Slain in Alabama," New York Times, 21 August 1965, available at http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F1081EFC3B5812738DDDA80A94D0405B858AF1D3&scp=2&sq=Jonathan%20Daniels%201965&st=cse
  3. Gregory Orr, "Return to Hayneville", Virginia Quarterly Review, Summer 2008
  4. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved June 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Retrieved June 3, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

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