Help:IPA for Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Oghuz Turcomanic substratum of Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See the respective coverage of phonology of Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen for more thorough discussion of the sounds of these languages.

IPA Orthography English
tr az tk
b b b b about
c[1][2] k k cute
ç[3] k German ich
d d d d ado
d͡ʒ c c j ajar
ð z then
f f f food
ɸ f like food, but with both lips
ɡ[1] g q g ago
ɟ[1] g g g /ɡj/ sequence in argue
h h h h[4] home
j y,
y ý yet
k[1] k k k coal
l l l l late
ɫ[1] l peel ("dark L")
m m m m much
n n n n not
ŋ [6] ň wing
p p p p pan
q[1] k k in the throat
ɾ r r r AmE pretty or Scottish r
ʁ[1] ğ g French r
s s s sue
ʃ ş ş ş shoe
t t t t table
t͡ʃ ç ç ç change
θ s think
v[7] v v vase
β w like vase, but with both lips
ɰ[5] ğ close to French r, yet it is articulated from the soft palate, not from uvulae
x h[4] Scottish loch
χ x French très
z z z zone
ʒ j j ž leisure
IPA Orthography English
tr az tk
ɑ a a a father
æ ə ä cat
e e e e bed
i i i i creek
o o o o Leo
ø ö ö ö somewhat like RP bird; French eu or German ö
u u u u put
ɯ ı ı y somewhat like roses or Japanese unchi
y ü ü ü somewhat like cue; French u or German ü
IPA Examples
ˈ torbalı /torbɑˈɫɯ/ 'with bag'
Torbalı /ˈtorbɑɫɯ/ (a place name)[8]
ː â, î, û [9], ğ[5] âlem /ɑːlem/ 'world'


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 [c]~[k] (Turkish/Azeri) / [k]~[q] (Turkmen), [ɟ]~[ɡ] (Turkish) / [ɡ]~[ʁ] (Turkmen)[citation needed][contradictory], [l]~[ɫ] only contrast in loan words before <â, û> vs. <a, u>; in native words, [c/k, ɟ/ɡ, l] occur before the front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/, /y/), while [k/q, g/ʁ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
  2. In many eastern Turkish/Azeri dialects, [c] at the end of a word or before a voiceless consonant may become [ç], as in huge.
  3. In Azeri, k at the end of a word or before a voiceless consonant may become [ç], as in huge.
  4. 4.0 4.1 In Turkmen, [h] occurs before front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/ and /y/) while [x] occurs before back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 In Turkish, the letter "ğ" (yumuşak g, "soft g") gives the [j] sound between front vowels and the [ɰ] sound between back vowels.
    Syllable-finally, it lengthens the preceding vowel.
  6. In Turkish and Azeri, /ŋ/ appears as an allophone of /n/ before the consonants /g/, /k/, /ɟ/ and /c/.
  7. [w] is the allophone of the /v/ sound after or between vowels in Turkish and Azeri.
  8. In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable (see Sezer stress), and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
  9. Şapka (Turkish for "hat") [^] is a sign which indicates both the vowel length and indicates if the letter k should read as /c/ and the letter l should read as [l] before the dark vowels /ɑ/ and /u/.
    Yet the şapka is primarily used for indicating palatalization instead of length. For example, the word "katil" means "murder" when pronounced as kɑtil, yet it means "killer" when pronounced as kɑːtil. The letter a is left unmarked even if it is long, because the sound /k/ doesn't become /c/ in this case.
    î is an exception, for it only indicates the vowel length.