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The ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages.[1]

The major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown.

Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics (scientific transliteration), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemic representation. The edition of 1995 supersedes the edition of 1986.[1]

ISO 9:1995, or GOST 7.79 System A

[2] The standard features three mapping tables: the first covers contemporary Slavic languages, the second older Slavic orthographies (excluding letters from the first), and the third non-Slavic languages (including most letters from the first). Several Cyrillic characters included in ISO 9 are not available as precomposed characters in Unicode, neither are some of the transliterations; combining diacritical marks have to be used in these cases. Unicode, on the other hand, includes some historic characters that are not dealt with in ISO 9.

The following combined table shows characters for various Slavic, Iranian, Romance, Turkic, Uralic, Mongolic, Caucasian, Tungusic, Paleosiberian and other languages of the former USSR which are written in Cyrillic.

ISO 9:1995, GOST 7.79 System A
Cyrillic Latin Unicode Description
А а A a
Ӓ ӓ Ä ä 00C4 00E4 a diaeresis
Ӓ̄ ӓ̄ Ạ̈ ạ̈ 00C4+0323 00E4+0323 a diaeresis and dot below
Ӑ ӑ Ă ă 0102 0103 a breve
А̄ а̄ Ā ā 0100 0101 a macron
Ӕ ӕ Æ æ 00C6 00E6 ae ligature
А́ а́ Á á 00C1 00E1 a acute
А̊ а̊ Å å 00C5 00E5 a ring
Б б B b
В в V v
Г г G g
Ѓ ѓ Ǵ ǵ 01F4 01F5 g acute
Ғ ғ Ġ ġ 0120 0121 g dot
Ҕ ҕ Ğ ğ 011E 011F g breve
Һ һ 1E24 1E25 h dot
Д д D d
Ђ ђ Đ đ 0110 0111 d macron
Е е E e
Ӗ ӗ Ĕ ĕ 0114 0115 e breve
Ё ё Ë ë 00CB 00EB e diaeresis
Є є Ê ê 00CA 00EA e circumflex
Ж ж Ž ž 017D 017E z caron
Җ җ Ž̦ ž̦ 017D+0326 017E+0326 z caron and comma below[3]
Ž̧ ž̧ 017D+0327 017E+0327 z caron and cedilla[3]
Ӝ ӝ Z+0304 z+0304 z macron
Ӂ ӂ Z+0306 z+0306 z breve
З з Z z
Ӟ ӟ Z+0308 z+0308 z diaeresis
Ӡ ӡ Ź ź 0179 017A z acute
Ѕ ѕ 1E90 1E91 z circumflex
И и I i
Ӣ ӣ Ī ī 012A 012B i macron
И́ и́ Í í 00CD 00ED i acute
Ӥ ӥ Î î 00CE 00EE i circumflex
Й й J j
І і Ì ì 00CC 00EC i grave
Ї ї Ï ï 00CF 00EF i diaeresis
І̄ і̄ Ǐ ǐ 01CF (012C) 01D0 (012D) i caron (or breve)
Ј ј ǰ J+030C 01F0 j caron
Ј̵ ј̵ J+0301 j+0301 j acute
К к K k
Ќ ќ 1E30 1E31 k acute
Ӄ ӄ 1E32 1E33 k dot below
Ҝ ҝ K+0302 k+0302 k circumflex
Ҡ ҡ Ǩ ǩ 01E8 01E9 k caron
Ҟ ҟ K+0304 k+0304 k macron
Қ қ K+0326 0326 k comma below[3]
Ķ ķ 0136 0137 k cedilla[3]
К̨ к̨ K+0300 k+0300 k grave
Ԛ ԛ Q q
Л л L l
Љ љ L+0302 l+0302 l circumflex
Л’ Л’ Ĺ ĺ 0139 013A l acute
Ԡ ԡ L+0326 l+0326 l comma below[3]
Ļ ļ 013B 013C l cedilla[3]
М м M m
Н н N n
Њ њ N+0302 n+0302 n circumflex
Ң ң N+0326 n+0326 n comma below[3]
Ņ ņ 0145 0146 n cedilla[3]
Ӊ ӊ 1E46 1E47 n dot below
Ҥ ҥ 1E44 1E45 n dot
Ԋ ԋ Ǹ ǹ 01F8 01F9 n grave
Ԣ ԣ Ń ń 0143 0144 n acute
Ӈ ӈ Ň ň 0147 0148 n caron
Н̄ н̄ N+0304 n+0304 n macron
О о O o
Ӧ ӧ Ö ö 00D6 00F6 o diaeresis
Ө ө Ô ô 00D4 00F4 o circumflex
Ӫ ӫ Ő ő 0150 0151 o double acute
Ӧ̄ о̄̈ Ọ̈ ọ̈ 00D6+0323 00F6+0323 o diaeresis and dot below
Ҩ ҩ Ò ò 00D2 00F2 o grave
О́ о́ Ó ó 00D3 00F3 o acute
О̄ о̄ Ō ō 014C 014D o macron
Œ œ Œ œ 0152 0153 oe ligature
П п P p
Ҧ ҧ 1E54 1E55 p acute
Ԥ ԥ P+0300 p+0300 p grave
Р р R r
С с S s
Ҫ ҫ Ș ș 0218 0219 s comma below[3]
Ş ş 015E 015F s cedilla[3]
С̀ с̀ S+0300 s+0300 s grave
Т т T t
Ћ ћ Ć ć 0106 0107 c acute
Ԏ ԏ T+0300 t+0300 t grave
Т̌ т̌ Ť ť 0164 0165 t caron
Ҭ ҭ Ț ț 021A 021B t comma below[3]
Ţ ţ 0162 0163 t cedilla[3]
У у U u
Ӱ ӱ Ü ü 00DC 00FC u diaeresis
Ӯ ӯ Ū ū 016A 016B u macron
Ў ў Ŭ ŭ 016C 016D u breve
Ӳ ӳ Ű ű 0170 0171 u double acute
У́ у́ Ú ú 00DA 00FA u acute
Ӱ̄ ӱ̄ Ụ̈ ụ̈ 00DC+0323 00FC+0323 u diaeresis and dot below
Ү ү Ù ù 00D9 00F9 u grave
Ұ ұ U+0307 u+0307 u dot
Ӱ̄ ӱ̄ Ụ̄ ụ̄ 016A+0323 016B+0323 u macron and dot below
Ԝ ԝ W w
Ф ф F f
Х х H h
Ҳ ҳ H+0326 h+0326 h comma below[3]
1E28 1E29 h cedilla[3]
Ц ц C c
Ҵ ҵ C+0304 c+0304 c macron
Џ џ D+0302 d+0302 d circumflex
Ч ч Č č 010C 010D c caron
Ҷ ҷ C+0326 c+0326 c comma below[3]
Ç ç 00C7 00E7 c cedilla[3]
Ӌ ӌ C+0323 c+0323 c dot below
Ӵ ӵ C+0308 c+0308 c diaeresis
Ҹ ҹ Ĉ ĉ 0108 0109 c circumflex
Ч̀ ч̀ C+0300 c+0300 c grave
Ҽ ҽ C+0306 c+0306 c breve
Ҿ ҿ C̨̆ c̨̆ C+0328+0306 c+0328+0306 c ogonek[3] and breve
Ш ш Š š 0160 0161 s caron
Щ щ Ŝ ŝ 015C 015D s circumflex
Ъ ъ ʺ 02BA modifier letter double prime[4]
Ы ы Y y
Ӹ ӹ Ÿ ÿ 0178 00FF y diaeresis
Ы̄ ы̄ Ȳ ȳ 0232 0233 y macron
Ь ь ʹ 02B9 modifier letter prime[4]
Э э È è 00C8 00E8 e grave
Ә ә A+030B a+030B a double acute
Ӛ ӛ À à 00C0 00E0 a grave
Ю ю Û û 00DB 00FB u circumflex
Ю̄ ю̄ Û̄ û̄ 00DB+0304 00FB+0304 u circumflex with macron
Я я Â â 00C2 00E2 a circumflex
Ґ ґ G+0300 g+0300 g grave
Ѣ ѣ Ě ě 011A 011B e caron
Ѫ ѫ Ǎ ǎ 01CD 01CE a caron
Ѳ ѳ F+0300 f+0300 f grave
Ѵ ѵ 1EF2 1EF3 y grave
Ӏ 2021 double dagger
ʼ ` `
ˮ ¨ 00A8 diaeresis


Here is an example transliteration. The text in Cyrillic is the chorus of the hymn of the Russian Federation:

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Братских народов союз вековой,
Предками данная мудрость народная!
Славься, страна! Мы гордимся тобой!
Slavʹsâ, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Bratskih narodov soûz vekovoj,
Predkami dannaâ mudrostʹ narodnaâ!
Slavʹsâ, strana! My gordimsâ toboj!

GOST 7.79 System B

[2] GOST 7.79 contains two transliteration tables.

System A
one Cyrillic character to one Latin character, some with diacritics – identical to ISO 9:1995
System B
one Cyrillic character to one or many Latin characters without diacritics
GOST 7.79 System B
Cyrillic Roman Note
А а A а
Б б B b
В в V v
Г г G g
Ѓ/Ґ ѓ/ґ G` g` ѓ in Macedonian, ґ in Ukrainian
Д д D d
Е е E e
Ё ё Yo yo in Russian and Belarusian
Є є Ye ye in Ukrainian
Ж ж Zh zh
З з Z z
S ѕ Z` z` in Macedonian
И и I, Y` i, y` not in Belarusian, y` for Ukrainian
Й/J й/ј J j ј in Macedonian
I і I, I` i, i` i` only before vowels for Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
Ї ї Yi yi in Ukrainian
К к K k
Ќ ќ K` k` in Macedonian
Л л L l
Љ љ L` l` in Macedonian
М м M m
Н н N n
Њ њ N` n` in Macedonian
О о O о
П п P p
Р р R r
С с S s
Т т T t
У у U u
Ў ў U` u` in Belarusian
Ф ф F f
Х х X x
Ц ц Cz, C cz, с c before i, e, y, j
Ч ч Ch ch
Џ џ Dh dh in Macedonian
Ш ш Sh sh
Щ щ Shh, Sht shh, sht shh for Russian and Ukrainian, sht for Bulgarian
Ъ ъ A` a`, `` two grave accents for Russian, a` for Bulgarian
Ы ы Y` y` in Russian and Belarusian
Ь ь ` grave accent
Э э E` e` in Russian and Belarusian
Ю ю Yu yu not in Macedonian
Я я Ya уа not in Macedonian
' apostrophe
Ѣ ѣ Ye уе in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
Ѳ ѳ Fh fh in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
Ѵ ѵ Yh yh in Old Russian and Old Bulgarian
Ѫ ѫ O` о` in Old Bulgarian

This standard (System B) appears to have been used in 2014 for the transliteration of street names on street signs in Moscow; its unusual appearance and non-intuitive sound values gave rise to criticism in the media.[5]

National adoptions

The verbatim translated text of ISO 9 is adopted as an inter-state standard in the countries listed below (the national designation is shown in parentheses). Other transcription schemes are also used in practice, though.


ISO Recommendation No. 9, published 1954 and revised 1968, is an older version of the standard, with different transliteration for different Slavic languages, reflecting their phonemic differences. It is closer to the original international system of slavist scientific transliteration.

The languages covered are Bulgarian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Serbian and Macedonian. ISO 9:1995 is shown for comparison.

ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1995
Cyrillic 1954 1968 1995 Note
А а A a A a A a
Б б B b B b B b
В в V v V v V v
Г г G g G g, H h G g h for Belarusian and Ukrainian, g else (see table below)
Ґ ґ Ġ ġ G g G̀ g̀ in Ukrainian
Д д D d D d D d
Ѓ ѓ Ǵ ǵ Ǵ ǵ Ǵ ǵ in Macedonian
Ђ ђ Đ đ Đ đ Đ đ in Serbian
Е е E e E e E e
Ё ё Ë ë Ë ë Ë ë in Russian and Belarusian
Є є Je je Je je Ê ê in Ukrainian
Ж ж Ž ž Ž ž (Zh zh) Ž ž see table below
З з Z z Z z Z z
Ѕ ѕ Dz dz Dz dz Ẑ ẑ in Macedonian
И и I i, Y y I i, Y y I i not in Belarusian, y for Ukrainian, i else (see table below)
I і I i I i, Ī ī Ì ì not in Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian, archaic in Russian (see table below)
Ї ї Ji ji Ï ï Ï ï in Ukrainian
Й й J j J j (Ĭ ĭ) J j not in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
Ј ј J j J j J̌ ǰ in Serbian and Macedonian
К к K k K k K k
Л л L l L l L l
Љ љ Lj lj Lj lj L̂ l̂ in Serbian and Macedonian
М м M m M m M m
Н н N n N n N n
Њ њ Nj nj Nj nj N̂ n̂ in Serbian and Macedonian
О о O o O o O o
П п P p P p P p
Р р R r R r R r
С с S s S s S s
Т т T t T t T t
Ќ ќ Ḱ ḱ Ḱ ḱ Ḱ ḱ in Macedonian
Ћ ћ Ć ć Ć ć Ć ć in Serbian
У у U u U u U u
Ў ў Ŭ ŭ Ŭ ŭ Ŭ ŭ in Belarusian
Ф ф F f F f F f
Х х H h Ch ch, H h (Kh kh) H h h for Serbian and Macedonian, ch else (see table below)
Ц ц C c C c (Ts ts) C c see table below
Ч ч Č č Č č (Ch ch) Č č see table below
Џ џ Dž dž Dž dž D̂ d̂ in Serbian and Macedonian
Ш ш Š š Š š (Sh sh) Š š see table below
Щ щ Šč šč, Št št Šč šč, Št št (Shch shch) Ŝ ŝ not in Belarusian, Serbian and Macedonian, št for Bulgarian, šč else (see table below)
Ъ ъ Ă ă, " Ă ă, ʺ ʺ not in Serbian and Macedonian, archaic in Belarusian and Ukrainian, ă for Bulgarian, ʺ else (see table below)
Ы ы Y y Y y Y y Russian and Belarusian
Ь ь ʹ ʹ ʹ not in Serbian and Macedonian
Ѣ ѣ Ě ě Ě ě Ě ě not in Serbian and Macedonian, archaic else
Э э Ė ė Ė ė È è in Russian and Belarusian
Ю ю Ju ju Ju ju (Yu yu) Û û not in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
Я я Ja ja Ja ja (Ya ya) Â â not in Serbian and Macedonian (see table below)
", ’ in Belarusian and Ukrainian, archaic in Russian, ’ in Macedonian
Ѫ ѫ Ȧ ȧ Ȧ ȧ, ʺ̣ Ǎ ǎ archaic in Bulgarian (see table below)
Ѳ ѳ Ḟ ḟ Ḟ ḟ F̀ f̀ archaic in Russian
Ѵ ѵ Ẏ ẏ Ẏ ẏ Ỳ ỳ archaic in Russian
ъ and ѫ are not transliterated at the end of a word (where it occurred in the pre-1945 orthography).
Russian and Belarusian
ъ is not transliterated at the end of a word (where it occurred in the pre-1918 orthography).


ISO/R 9:1968 permits some deviations from the main standard. In the table below, they are listed in the columns sub-standard 1 and sub-standard 2.

  • The first sub-standard defines some language-dependent transliterations for Russian (ru), Ukrainian (uk), Belarusian (be) and Bulgarian (bg).
  • The second sub-standard permits, in countries where tradition favours it, a set of alternative transliterations, but only as a group.
Cyrillic ISO/R 9:1968
variant 1 main variant 2
г h (uk, be) g
ж ž zh
и y (uk) i
і i (uk, be) ī
й j ĭ
х ch (uk, be, ru) h kh
ц c ts
ч č ch
ш š sh
щ št (bg) šč shch
ъ ă (bg) ʺ
ю ju yu
я ja ya
ѫ ȧ (bg) ʺ̣

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 "ISO 9:1995: Information and documentation -- Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters -- Slavic and non-Slavic languages". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 13 Apr 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 ГОСТ 7.79-2000: Система стандартов по информации, библиотечному и издательскому делу. Правила транслитерации кирилловского письма латинским алфавитом (in Russian). Retrieved 13 Apr 2012. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> - authentic Russian version of ISO 9
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 The “informative” Annex A of ISO 9:1995 uses ISO 5426 0x52 hook to left which can be mapped to Unicode’s comma below U+0326 (while the ISO 5426 also has 0x50 cedilla which can be mapped to Unicode’s cedilla U+0327), it also uses ISO 5426 0x53 hook to right which can be mapped to Unicode’s ogonek U+0328. See for example’s ISO 5426 mapping to Unicode or Joan M. Aliprand’s Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1.
  4. 4.0 4.1 ISO 5426 mapping to Unicode; Joan M. Aliprand: Finalized Mapping between Characters of ISO 5426 and ISO/IEC 10646-1; The Unicode Standard: Spacing Modifier Letters.
  5. Москва готовится к оккупации, иначе происходящее не объяснить ("Moscow is preparing for occupation - otherwise one can't explain what goes on")
  6. "Система стандартов по информации, библиотечному и издательскому делу (СИБИД), действующих в Республике Беларусь", item 55 (Sistema standartov po informacii, bibliotečnomu i izdatel'skomu delu (SIBID), dejstvuûŝih v Respublike Belarus')

External links