In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun. For instance, the Scottish Gaelic word roimhe (/rɔʲə/) is an inflected preposition meaning "before him"; it would not be grammatical to say *ro e.
Terminology and analysis
There are many different names for inflected prepositions, including conjugated preposition, pronominal preposition, prepositional pronoun, and suffixed pronoun. (But note that the term prepositional pronoun also has a different sense, for which see Prepositional pronoun.)
Historically, inflected prepositions can develop from the contraction of a preposition with a personal pronoun; however, they are commonly reanalysed as inflected words by native speakers and by traditional grammar.
Language change over time can obscure the similarity between the conjugated preposition and the preposition-pronoun combination. For example, in Scottish Gaelic "with" is le /lɛ/ and "him" is e /ɛ/, but "with him" is leis /leʃ/.
All Insular Celtic languages have inflected prepositions; these languages include Scottish Gaelic, Irish, Manx, Welsh, Cornish and Breton.
In Cornish, for example, the inflected forms of the preposition gans (with) are genev (with me), genes (with you, singular), ganso (with him), gensi (with her), genen (with us), genowgh (with you, plural), and gansans or gansa (with them).
Inflected prepositions are found in many Semitic languages, including Hebrew, Arabic, and Amharic.
For example, the Arabic preposition ˀalā (on) inflects as ˀalayya (on me), ˀalayka (on you[sg. m.]), ˀalayhi (on him) etc.
Languages that do not have full paradigms of inflected prepositions may nonetheless allow contraction of prepositions and pronouns to a more limited extent.
In formal registers of Polish, a handful of common prepositions allow amalgamated forms with third-person pronouns: na niego ("on him/it") → nań. However, these contracted forms are very archaic and rarely heard in daily speech.
In many Iberian Romance languages, such as Spanish and Portuguese, the preposition con or com ("with") has special forms incorporating certain pronouns (depending on the language). For example, in Spanish and Asturian conmigo means "with me". Historically, this developed from the Latin use of cum ("with") after a pronoun, as in mecum ("with me").
Inflected prepositions occur in the Ruhr dialect of German.
- Breton language: Grammar
- Arabic grammar
- Hebrew grammar
- Irish morphology
- Portuguese personal pronouns
- Scottish Gaelic grammar
- Welsh morphology
- Hungarian noun phrases#Postpositions with personal suffixes
- ↑ Stalmaszczyk, Piotr (2007). "Prepositional Possessive Constructions in Celtic Languages and Celtic Englishes". The Celtic Languages in Contact: Papers from the Workshop within the Framework of the XIII International Conference of Celtic Studies, Bonn, 26–27 July 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Glinert, Lewis. Modern Hebrew: An Essential Grammar (2nd ed.). Routledge UK. pp. 41–44. ISBN 0-415-10190-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Swan, Oscar E. (2002). A Grammar of Contemporary Polish. Bloomington, IN: Slavica. ISBN 0-89357-296-9.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Bariş Kabak and René Schiering (2006). "The Phonology and Morphology of Function Word Contractions in German". The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics. 9: 53. doi:10.1007/s10828-005-4533-8.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Examples of Irish prepositional pronouns
- Explanation of Scottish prepositional pronouns
- Prepositions with suffixes in Biblical Hebrew
- Prepositions with pronominal suffixes in Biblical Hebrew