International Psychoanalytical Association

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Unofficial psychoanalysis symbol
The symbol of the International Psychoanalytical Association is a picture of Oedipus and the Sphinx, with the organisation's name shown in Trajan typeface.

The International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA) is an association including 12,000 psychoanalysts as members and works with 70 constituent organizations. It was founded in 1910 by Sigmund Freud, on an idea proposed by Sándor Ferenczi.


In 1902 Sigmund Freud started to meet every week with colleagues to discuss his work and so Psychological Wednesday Society was born. By 1908 there were 14 regular members and some guests including Max Eitingon, Carl Jung, Karl Abraham, and Ernest Jones, all future Presidents of the IPA.[1] Society became the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society.

In 1907 Jones suggested to Jung that an international meeting should be arranged and Freud welcomed the proposal. Meeting took place in Salzburg, on 27 April 1908 and Jung named it the "First Congress for Freudian Psychology" and it is later reckoned to be the first International Psychoanalytical Congress, even so the IPA had not yet been founded.

IPA was established at the next Congress held at Nuremberg in March 1910.[2] Its first President was Carl Jung and its first Secretary was Otto Rank. Sigmund Freud considered an international organization to be essential to advance his ideas. In 1914 Freud published a paper entitled The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement.

The IPA is the world’s primary accrediting and regulatory body for psychoanalysis. The IPA's aims include creating new psychoanalytic groups, stimulating debate, conducting research, developing training policies and establishing links with other bodies. It organizes a large biennial Congress.

Regional organizations

There is a Regional Organisation for each of the IPA’s 3 regions:

  • Europe -- European Psychoanalytical Federation (or EPF), which also includes Australasia, India, Israel and South Africa;
    • The IPA is incorporated in England, where it is a company limited by guarantee and also a registered charity. Its administrative offices are at Broomhills in North London.
  • Latin America -- Federation of Psychoanalytic Societies of Latin America (or FEPAL);
  • North America -- North American Psychoanalytic Confederation (or NAPSAC), which also includes Japan and Korea.

Each of these three bodies consists of Constituent Organisations and Study Groups that are part of that IPA region. The IPA has a close working relationship with each of these independent organisations and values them highly, but they are not officially or legally part of the IPA.

Constituent organizations

The IPA's members qualify for membership by being a member of a "constituent organisation" (or the sole regional association).

Constituent Organisations

  • Argentine Psychoanalytic Association
  • Argentine Psychoanalytic Society
  • Australian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Belgian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Belgrade Psychoanalytical Society
  • Brasília Psychoanalytic Society
  • Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of Rio de Janeiro
  • Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of São Paulo
  • Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Porto Alegre
  • Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Ribeirão Preto
  • British Psychoanalytic Association
  • British Psychoanalytical Society
  • Buenos Aires Psychoanalytic Association
  • Canadian Psychoanalytic Society
  • Caracas Psychoanalytic Society
  • Chilean Psychoanalytic Association
  • Colombian Psychoanalytic Association
  • Colombian Psychoanalytic Society
  • Cordoba Psychoanalytic Society
  • Czech Psychoanalytical Society
  • Danish Psychoanalytical Society
  • Dutch Psychoanalytical Association
  • Dutch Psychoanalytical Group
  • Dutch Psychoanalytical Society
  • Finnish Psychoanalytical Society
  • French Psychoanalytical Association
  • Freudian Psychoanalytical Society of Colombia
  • German Psychoanalytical Association
  • German Psychoanalytical Society
  • Hellenic Psycho-Analytical Society
  • Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Indian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Institute for Psychoanalytic Training and Research
  • Israel Psychoanalytic Society
  • Italian Psychoanalytical Association
  • Italian Psychoanalytical Society
  • Japan Psychoanalytic Society
  • Los Angeles Institute and Society for Psychoanalytic Studies
  • Madrid Psychoanalytical Association
  • Mato Grosso do Sul Psychoanalytical Society
  • Mendoza Psychoanalytic Society
  • Mexican Assn for Psychoanalytic Practice, Training & Research
  • Mexican Psychoanalytic Association
  • Monterrey Psychoanalytic Association
  • New York Freudian Society
  • Northwestern Psychoanalytic Society
  • Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society
  • Paris Psychoanalytical Society
  • Pelotas Psychoanalytic Society
  • Peru Psychoanalytic Society
  • Polish Psychoanalytical Society
  • Porto Alegre Psychoanalytical Society
  • Portuguese Psychoanalytical Society
  • Psychoanalytic Center of California
  • Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California
  • Psychoanalytic Society of Mexico
  • Psychoanalytical Association of The State of Rio de Janeiro
  • Recife Psychoanalytic Society
  • Rio de Janeiro Psychoanalytic Society
  • Rosario Psychoanalytic Association
  • Spanish Psychoanalytical Society
  • Swedish Psychoanalytical Association
  • Swiss Psychoanalytical Society
  • Uruguayan Psychoanalytical Association
  • Venezuelan Psychoanalytic Association
  • Vienna Psychoanalytic Society

Provisional Societies

  • Guadalajara Psychoanalytic Association (Provisional Society)
  • Moscow Psychoanalytic Society (Provisional Society)
  • Psychoanalytic Society for Research and Training (Provisional Society)
  • Romanian Society for Psychoanalysis (Provisional Society)
  • Vienna Psychoanalytic Association

Regional associations

  • American Psychoanalytic Association ("APsaA") is a body which has in membership societies which cover around 75% of psychoanalysts in the United States of America (the remainder are members of "independent" societies which are in direct relationship with the IPA).

IPA Study Groups

"Study Groups" are bodies of analysts which have not yet developed sufficiently to be a freestanding society, but that is their aim.

  • Campinas Psychoanalytical Study Group
  • Center for Psychoanalytic Education and Research
  • Croatian Psychoanalytic Study Group
  • Fortaleza Psychoanalytic Group
  • Goiania Psychoanalytic Nucleus
  • Korean Psychoanalytic Study Group
  • Latvia and Estonia Psychoanalytic Study Group
  • Lebanese Association for the Development of Psychoanalysis
  • Minas Gerais Psychoanalytical Study Group
  • Portuguese Nucleus of Psychoanalysis
  • Psychoanalytical Association of Asuncion SG
  • South African Psychoanalytic Association
  • Study Group of Turkey: Psike Istanbul
  • Turkish Psychoanalytical Group
  • Vermont Psychoanalytic Study Group
  • Vilnius Society of Psychoanalysts

Allied Centres

"Allied Centres" are groups of people with an interest in psychoanalysis, in places where there are not already societies or study groups.

  • Korean Psychoanalytic Allied Centre
  • Psychoanalysis Studying Centre in China
  • Taiwan Centre for The Development of Psychoanalysis
  • The Centre for Psychoanalytic Studies of Panama

International Congresses

The first 23 Congresses of IPA did not have a specific theme.

Number Year City President Theme
1 1908 Austria-Hungary Salzburg
2 1910 German Empire Nuremberg C. G. Jung
3 1911 German Empire Weimar C. G. Jung
4 1913 German Empire Munich C. G. Jung
5 1918 Hungary Budapest Karl Abraham
6 1920 Netherlands The Hague Sándor Ferenczi
7 1922 Germany Berlin Ernest Jones
8 1924 Austria Salzburg Ernest Jones
9 1925 Germany Bad Homburg K Abraham / M Eitingon
10 1927 Austria Innsbruck Max Eitingon
11 1929 United Kingdom Oxford Max Eitingon
12 1932 Germany Wiesbaden Max Eitingon
13 1934 Switzerland Lucerne Ernest Jones
14 1936 Czechoslovakia Marienbad Ernest Jones
15 1938 France Paris Ernest Jones
16 1949 Switzerland Zürich Ernest Jones
17 1951 Netherlands Amsterdam Leo Bartemeier
18 1953 United Kingdom London Heinz Hartmann
19 1955 Switzerland Geneva Heinz Hartmann
20 1957 France Paris Heinz Hartmann
21 1959 Denmark Copenhagen William H. Gillespie
22 1961 United Kingdom Edinburgh William H. Gillespie
23 1963 Sweden Stockholm Maxwell Gitelson
24 1965 Netherlands Amsterdam Gillespie/Greenacre Psychoanalytic Treatment of the Obsessional Neurosis
25 1967 Denmark Copenhagen P.J. van der Leeuw On Acting Out and its Role in the Psychoanalytic Process
26 1969 Italy Rome P.J. van der Leeuw New Developments in Psychoanalysis
27 1971 Austria Vienna Leo Rangell The Psychoanalytical Concept of Aggression
28 1973 France Paris Leo Rangell Transference and Hysteria Today
29 1975 United Kingdom London Serge Lebovici Changes in Psychoanalytic Practice and Experience
30 1977 Israel Jerusalem Serge Lebovici Affects and the Psychoanalytic Situation
31 1979 United States New York Edward D. Joseph Clinical Issues in Psychoanalysis
32 1981 Finland Helsinki Edward D. Joseph Early Psychic Development as Reflected in the Psychoanalytic Process
33 1983 Spain Madrid Adam Limentani The Psychoanalyst at Work
34 1985 Germany Hamburg Adam Limentani Identification and its Vicissitudes
35 1987 Canada Montreal Robert S. Wallerstein Analysis Terminable and Interminable – 50 Years Later
36 1989 Italy Rome Robert S. Wallerstein Common Ground in Psychoanalysis
37 1991 Argentina Buenos Aires Joseph Sandler Psychic Change
38 1993 Netherlands Amsterdam Joseph Sandler The Psychoanalyst’s Mind – From Listening to Interpretation
39 1995 United States San Francisco R. Horacio Etchegoyen Psychic Reality – Its Impact on the Analyst and Patient Today
40 1997 Spain Barcelona R. Horacio Etchegoyen Psychoanalysis and Sexuality
41 1999 Chile Santiago Otto F. Kernberg Affect in Theory and Practice
42 2001 France Nice Otto F. Kernberg Psychoanalysis – Method and Application
43 2004 United States New Orleans Daniel Widlöcher Working at the Frontiers
44 2005 Brazil Rio de Janeiro Daniel Widlöcher Trauma: New Developments in Psychoanalysis
45 2007 Germany Berlin Cláudio Laks Eizirik Remembering, Repeating and Working Through in Psychoanalysis & Culture Today
46 2009 United States Chicago Cláudio Laks Eizirik Psychoanalytic Practice - Convergences and Divergences
47 2011 Mexico Mexico City Charles Hanly Exploring Core Concepts: Sexuality, Dreams and the Unconscious
48 2013 Czech Republic Prague Charles Hanly Facing the Pain: Clinical Experience and the Development of Psychoanalytic Knowledge
49 2015 United States Boston Stefano Bolognini Changing World: the shape and use of psychoanalytic tools today


Erich Fromm questioned this organization and finds that the psychoanalytic association "organized according to standards rather dictatorial".[3]

Elisabeth Roudinesco notes that ipa professionalizing psychoanalysis has become "a machine to manufacture significant". It also notes that in France, "Lacanian colleagues looked IPA as bureaucrats who had betrayed psychoanalysis in favor of an adaptive psychology in the service of triumphant capitalism".[4] She speaks of the "IPA Legitimist Freudianism, we mistakenly called "orthodox" ".[5]


Elisabeth Roudinesco criticism on multiple points in particular considers that "homophobia" of this association is the "disgrace of psychoanalysis".[6]

See also


  1. Group portrait: Freud and associates in a photograph taken ca. 1922, Berlin. Sitting (from left to right) : Sigmund Freud, Sándor Ferenczi, Hanns Sachs. Standing (from left to right) : Otto Rank, Karl Abraham, Max Eitingon, Ernest Jones.
  2. How did the IPA begin?
  3. "La mission de Sigmund Freud : une analyse de sa personnalité et de son influence'", Erich Fromm, traduction from english by Paul Alexandre. Bruxelles : Complexe, 1975 and in Grandeurs et limites de la pensée freudienne, édition Laffont, 1980
  4. Elisabeth Roudinesco, "Pourquoi la psychanalyse ?" chapter four , « critiques des institutions psychanalytiques ». Fayard, Paris, 1999
  5. E.Roudinesco "Genealogy", p.60
  6. E. Roudinesco « la famille en désordre », in Eric Fassin, « L’inversion de la question homosexuelle » Revue française de psychanalyse, 2003/1 (Vol. 67).

External links