Jean Vanier

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Jean Vanier
Jean Vanier in 2012
Vanier in 2012
Born (1928-09-10)September 10, 1928
Geneva, Switzerland
Died May 7, 2019(2019-05-07) (aged 90)
Paris, France
Nationality Canadian
Organization Catholic Church
Known for Founder of L'Arche
Relatives Georges Vanier, father
Pauline Vanier, mother
Thérèse Vanier, sister
Awards Order of Canada, 1972
National Order of Quebec, 1992
Legion of Honour, 2003
Humanitarian Award, 2001
Pacem in Terris Award, 2013
Templeton Prize, 2015

Jean Vanier, CC, GOQ (September 10, 1928 – May 7, 2019) was a Canadian Catholic philosopher, theologian, and humanitarian. In 1964 he founded L'Arche, an international federation of communities spread over 37 countries,[1] for people with developmental disabilities and those who assist them. Subsequently, in 1971, he co-founded Faith and Light with Marie-Hélène Mathieu, which also works for people with developmental disabilities, their families, and friends in over 80 countries. He continued to live as a member of the original L'Arche community in Trosly-Breuil, France, until his death.[2]

Over the years he wrote 30 books on religion, disability, normality, success, and tolerance.[3] Among the honours he received were the Companion of the Order of Canada (1986),[4] Grand Officer of the National Order of Quebec (1992),[5] French Legion of Honour (2003), Community of Christ International Peace Award (2003), the Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award (2013), and the Templeton Prize (2015).

Early years and background

Vanier was the son of Canadian parents, Major-General Georges Vanier, who became the 19th Governor General of Canada (1959–1967), and his wife Pauline Vanier (née Archer). He was born in Geneva while his father was on diplomatic service in Switzerland. The fourth of five siblings, in his youth Vanier received a broad education in English and French first in Canada and then in France and England. During World War II, Vanier and his family fled Paris just before the Nazi occupation. He spent much of the War at an English naval academy. From age 13 he trained for a career as a naval officer at the Dartmouth Naval College (later renamed Britannia Royal Naval College).[6][7]

In early 1945, Vanier was visiting Paris where his father was Canadian Ambassador; he and his mother went to assist survivors of Nazi concentration camps. Seeing the emaciated victims, their faces twisted with fear and anguish, was a profoundly moving encounter for him, which he never forgot. Shortly thereafter, he served in World War II with the Royal Navy and then with the Royal Canadian Navy. In 1947 as a midshipman, Vanier accompanied the Royal Family on their tour of South Africa aboard HMS Vanguard.[8]

In 1949, he joined the Royal Canadian Navy, at the carrier HMCS Magnificent. However, in 1950, feeling a strong inner spiritual calling to do "something else," he resigned his naval commission. Vanier travelled to Paris to study as an undergraduate. He eventually went on to complete a PhD in philosophy from the Institut Catholique de Paris, with a doctoral thesis on Aristotle which was published in 1966 as Happiness as Principle and End of Aristotelian Ethics; this was his first published work. He went on to write several books during his career and taught philosophy at the University of St. Michael's College, University of Toronto.[7] He left academia in 1964, seeking a more spiritual ministry. His research lives on at the Jean Vanier Research Centre located at King's University College in London, Ontario, Canada.[9]

Foundation of L'Arche

In 1964, through Vanier's friendship with a priest named Father Thomas Philippe, he became aware of the plight of thousands of people institutionalised with developmental disabilities. Vanier invited two men, Raphael Simi and Philippe Seux, to leave the institutions where they resided and live with him in Trosly-Breuil, France. Their time together led to the establishment of L'Arche at Trosly-Breuil, a community where people with disabilities live with those who care for them.[10][11] Since that time L'Arche communities have been established in countries around the world. A governing philosophy of the communities is Vanier's belief that people with disabilities are teachers, rather than burdens bestowed upon families.[12]

Until the late 1990s, Vanier carried the responsibility for L'Arche in Trosly-Breuil in France, and for the International Federation of L'Arche. He then stepped down to spend more time counselling, encouraging, and accompanying the people who come to live in L'Arche as assistants to those with disabilities. Vanier established 147 L'Arche communities in 37 countries around the world which have become places of pilgrimage for those involved.[1][2]

Later life

Vanier with John Smeltzer, a member of L'Arche Daybreak, 2009
Faith and Light emblem

In 1968, Vanier gave a Faith and Sharing retreat in Mary Lake, Ontario, the first in his movement of retreats where people from many walks of life are welcome.[13] The retreats continue today as part of the Faith and Sharing Federation.[14] As of 2013, there are 13 communities in North America that organize annual retreats and days of prayer.[15] Faith and Sharing member Bill Clark, SJ, explains: "There is then a two-fold movement in Faith and Sharing: an inward movement towards God hidden in the depths of our own vulnerability, and an outward movement towards our brothers and sisters, especially those who are more poor and in need." [13] The organization's records are housed at the John M. Kelly Library, University of St. Michael's College.[16]

In 1971, Vanier co-founded Faith and Light with Marie-Hélène Mathieu. This is an international movement of forums for people with developmental disabilities, their family and friends. Today there are over 1,500 Faith and Light communities in 81 countries around the world.[17]

Vanier continued to live in the original L'Arche community of Trosly-Breuil, France, until his death in 2019. He continued to travel widely, visiting other L'Arche communities, encouraging projects for new communities and giving lectures and retreats.[18][19] He was the 1998 Massey lecturer, focusing on the theme of "Becoming Human".[20] During one of his lectures he touched on his distaste for barriers around people with intellectual disabilities, a motivating philosophy behind L'Arche: "We must do what we can to diminish walls, to meet each other. Why do we put people with disabilities behind walls?"[12]

Awards and honours

He received numerous awards for his work, including the Companion of the Order of Canada, the Legion of Honour (France, 2003)[21] and many awards from faith groups, among them the Paul VI International Prize, the Community of Christ International Peace Award, the Rabbi Gunther Plaut Humanitarian Award, and the Gaudium et Spes Award, named after the Second Vatican Council's Gaudium et spes document.[22]

In 1993, he received the Loyola Medal from Concordia University.[23]

In November 2004, a CBC poll ranked him as number 12 in a list of Greatest Canadians.[22]

In 2010, the asteroid 8604 was officially named Vanier in his honour.[24][25]

In 2013, he received the United States-based Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award, established by the Diocese of Davenport, Iowa.[26]

In March 2015, Vanier was awarded the Templeton Prize in recognition of his advocacy for people with disabilities and his contributions to a broader exploration of helping the weak and vulnerable.[27][2]

On September 27, 2016, Jean Vanier received The Peace Abbey Foundation (USA) Int'l Courage of Conscience Award in Trosly-Breuil, France, for his lifelong commitment to building a world of inclusion for individuals with disabilities.

Schools named after Vanier

Schools have been named in his honour in Whitehorse, Yukon; London, Ontario; Scarborough, Ontario; Collingwood, Ontario; Richmond Hill, Ontario; Welland, Ontario; Sherwood Park, Alberta and, most recently, Milton, Ontario.[28]

Published works



  1. 1.0 1.1 ""L'Arche - Worldwide"". Retrieved 2017-06-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Templeton Prize" (PDF).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Jean Vanier: Philosopher who dislikes the 'religion' of success wins £1.2m Templeton Prize for promoting spiritual awareness". The Independent. 11 March 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-02.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Order of Canada: Jean Vanier, C.C., G.O.Q., D.Ph". The Governor General of Canada website. Retrieved 2015-06-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Grand Officer, National Order of Quebec". Retrieved 27 April 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Freeman, Mac (February 3, 2008). Jean Vanier (online ed.). Historica Canada. Retrieved March 11, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Brief Chronology". Jean Vanier - Becoming Human]. Retrieved January 14, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Templeton Prize bio of Varnier" (PDF). Retrieved June 20, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Pensamientos de Jean Vanier: JEAN VANIER y El Arca". Pensamientos de Jean Vanier. Retrieved 2017-06-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Notre histoire | L'Arche en France". (in français). Retrieved 2017-06-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 Scrivener, Leslie. "Canada's disciple to the disabled". "He is wary of institutions. The theme in last night's lecture was his fear of the walls that separate people. "We must do what we can to diminish walls, to meet each other. Why do we put people with disabilities behind walls? |access-date= requires |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. 13.0 13.1 "The Grace of Faith and Sharing" (PDF). Faith and Sharing Federation. July 1988. Retrieved July 23, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Faith and Sharing Federation". Faith and Sharing Federation. Retrieved July 23, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "L'Arche, Faith and Sharing, Faith and Light" (PDF). Faith and Sharing Federation. Retrieved July 23, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Faith and Sharing Federation fonds". John M. Kelly Library Archival and Manuscript Collections. University of St. Michael's College. Archived from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2014. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Overview, Faith and Light". Retrieved 2017-06-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Entering into Silent Prayer, Jean Vanier & Laurence Freeman - YouTube". YouTube. Retrieved 2017-06-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Saint Vincent College (2009-01-29), On Retreat with Jean Vanier, retrieved 2017-06-20<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Nagy, Elizabeth. "The 1998 CBC Massey Lectures, "Becoming Human"". CBC. Retrieved July 28, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Awards to Canadians". Canada Gazette. Archived from the original on April 30, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2012. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Top 100 Greatest Canadians". Archived from the original on 2010-07-22. Retrieved February 2, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Jean Vanier". Concordia University. Retrieved August 17, 2017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. The citation and more information are found by entering this number or name in the JPL Small-Body Database.
  25. "Asteroid (8604) Vanier | RASC". Retrieved 2017-06-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Deirdre Baker (2013-06-17). "Award presentation to be in France". Quad-City Times. Retrieved 2013-08-06. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "Current Winner". Templeton Prize. John Templeton Foundation. March 11, 2014. Retrieved March 11, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "Board Announces Name for New Catholic Secondary School in Milton". Halton Catholic District School Board. March 6, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Expanded edition released July, 2018; Living Gently in a Violent World (InterVarsity Press, 2018).

External links