Jefferson County, Florida

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Jefferson County, Florida
Jefferson County Courthouse in Monticello
Seal of Jefferson County, Florida
Map of Florida highlighting Jefferson County
Location in the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location in the U.S.
Founded 20 January 1827
Named for Thomas Jefferson
Seat Monticello
Largest city Monticello
 • Total 637 sq mi (1,650 km2)
 • Land 598 sq mi (1,549 km2)
 • Water 38 sq mi (98 km2), 6.0%
 • (2010) 14,761
 • Density 25/sq mi (10/km²)
Congressional district 2nd
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4

Jefferson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,761.[1] Its county seat is Monticello.[2]

Jefferson County is part of the Tallahassee, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Jefferson County was created in 1827. It was named for Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States of America, who had died the year before the county's establishment.[3]

Forts of Jefferson County

  • Fort Roger Jones (1839), Aucilla (Ocilla Ferry), north of US 90.[4]
  • Fort Noel (1839–1842), south of Lamont on the Aucilla River, six miles (10 km) northwest of Fort Pleasant in Taylor County. Also known as Fort Number Three (M).
  • Camp Carter (1838), near Waukeenah.
  • Fort Welaunee (1838), a settlers' fort on the Welaunee Plantation near Wacissa. Fort Gamble (1839–1843) was later established here.
  • Fort Aucilla (1843), two miles (3 km) south-east of Fort Gamble, southwest of Lamont, between the Aucilla and Wacissa Rivers. Also spelled Ocilla.
  • Fort Wacissa (1838), a settlers' fort located south of Wacissa on the Wacissa River, west of Cabbage Grove.


Entering Jefferson County on US 19 from Thomas County, Georgia

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 637 square miles (1,650 km2), of which 598 square miles (1,550 km2) is land and 38 square miles (98 km2) (6.0%) is water.[5]

Jefferson County is the only county in Florida which borders both the state of Georgia and the Gulf of Mexico

Adjacent counties

National protected area

Water Bodies


Historical population
Census Pop.
1840 5,713
1850 7,718 35.1%
1860 9,876 28.0%
1870 13,398 35.7%
1880 16,065 19.9%
1890 15,757 −1.9%
1900 16,195 2.8%
1910 17,210 6.3%
1920 14,502 −15.7%
1930 13,408 −7.5%
1940 12,032 −10.3%
1950 10,413 −13.5%
1960 9,543 −8.4%
1970 8,778 −8.0%
1980 10,703 21.9%
1990 11,296 5.5%
2000 12,902 14.2%
2010 14,761 14.4%
Est. 2014 14,050 [6] −4.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790-1960[8] 1900-1990[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010-2013[1]

As of the census[11] of 2010, there were 14,761 people, 5,646 households, and 3,798 families residing in the county. The population density was 25 people per square mile (8/km²). There were 5,251 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile (3/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 60.4% White, 36.2% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.50% from other races, and 1.30% from two or more races. 3.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 5,646 households out of which 26.9% had individuals under the age of 18 living with them, 47.30% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.70% were non-families. 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the county the population was spread out with 18.6% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 32.30% from 45 to 64, and 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.1 years. For every 100 females there were 109.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.00 males age 18 and over.

The following income information is from the 2000 census. The median income for a household in the county was $32,998, and the median income for a family was $40,407. Males had a median income of $26,271 versus $25,748 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,006. About 13.30% of families and 17.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.70% of those under age 18 and 17.00% of those age 65 or over.

Government and politics

Jefferson County is one of only a handful of counties in the Florida Panhandle that politically favors the Democratic Party.

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic Other
2012 48.7% 50.4% 0.9%
2008 47.6% 51.2% 1.2%
2004 44.1% 55.3% 0.6%
2000 43.9% 53.9% 2.2%


Jefferson County High School

The Jefferson County School District is the only one in Florida operating under a declared financial emergency due to budget deficits.[12] On April 23, 2009, the Florida Department of Education took over financial oversight of the district. [13] In June 2011, the District exited financial emergency one (1) year sooner than expected due to hard work and sacrifice of the part of District faculty and staff. The District has now operated for two years with a fund balance well over the mandated 3%. The District is proud to be financially sound. Academically, the District is showing huge gains in reading and writing. In 2013 there is a new sense of excitement on the part of students, faculty and the community as all are working hard to provide a high quality education delivered with fidelity in a safe, secure environment. Career Academies have been introduced on the campus of Jefferson County Middle High School offering students options in career areas connected to the local economy. The Jefferson County Tigers won the State Championship in Football in 2012.


Jefferson County's library is the R.J. Bailar Public Library, which works with the Wilderness Coast Public Libraries.



The sole existing railroad line is a CSX line once owned by the Seaboard Air Line Railroad that was used by Amtrak's Sunset Limited until 2005, when the service was truncated to New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina. No Amtrak trains stopped anywhere in Jefferson County.

Major highways

  • I-10.svg Interstate 10 is the main west-to-east interstate highway in the county, and serves as the unofficial dividing line between northern and southern Jefferson County. It contains three interchanges within the county; the first being SR 59 in Lloyd (Exit 217), the second at US 19 in Drifton (Exit 225), and the third south of Aucilla at CR 257 (Exit 233). Beyond this point I-10 runs through Madison County.
  • US 19.svg US 19 is the westernmost north-south US highway in the county. It enters from southwestern Madison County as the Georgia-Florida Parkway in a concurrency with US 27, then breaks away from US 27 in Capps to run straight north through Monticello where it encounters a traffic circle with US 90 around the historic Monticello Courthouse. North of the city it runs through the State of Georgia.
  • US 27.svg US 27 is another north-south US highway in the county. It enters from Madison County in a concurrency with US 19, but unlike US 19 breaks away at Capps and runs west toward Tallahassee
  • Florida 59.svg SR 59
  • US 90.svg US 90 was the main west-to-east highway in the county, until it was surpassed by I-10. It enters the county from Leon County twice, the second time from a causeway over the southern end of Lake Miccosukee, and eventually enters Monticello in a traffic circle with US 19. East of the city, it curves southeast through rural Jefferson County, then passes north of Aucilla before crossing the Madison County Line at a bridge over the Aucilla River.
  • US 98.svg US 98 is the southernmost east-west route running through the Conservation Areas of the Gulf of Mexico from Wakulla to Taylor Counties. The sole major intersection is with SR 59.
  • US 221.svg US 221 is the easternmost US highway in the county, running south and north through the northeastern portion of Jefferson County, including Ashville before crossing the Georgia State Line.
  • CR 259


Old Lloyd Railroad Depot, now the area's post office


Unincorporated communities

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 14, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Publications of the Florida Historical Society. Florida Historical Society. 1908. p. 32.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. IRC Library:Fort Roger Jones
  5. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 14, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Tallahassee Democrat: State to take over Jefferson County School District's weak finances
  13. Tallahassee Democrat: Parents and teachers react to Jefferson County Schools' dire finances

External links

Government links

Constitutional Offices

Jefferson County Schools

Judicial Branch

Special Districts

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